ISO 2709

ISO 2709 is an ISO standard for bibliographic descriptions, titled Information and documentation—Format for information exchange.[1]

It is maintained by the Technical Committee for Information and Documentation (TC 9846).


A format for the exchange of bibliographic Information, it was developed in the 1960s under the direction of Henriette Avram of the Library of Congress to encode the information printed on library cards. It was first created as ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.2, one of the first standards for information technology, and called Information Interchange Format. The 1981 version of the standard was titled Documentation—Format for bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape.[2] The latest edition of that standard is ANSI/NISO Z39.2-1994 (R2016)[3] (ISSN 1041-5653). The ISO standard supersedes Z39.2. As of December 2008 the current standard is ISO 2709:2008.[1]

Basic structure

An ISO 2709 record has three sections:

  • Record label—the first 24 characters of the record. This is the only portion of the record that is fixed in length. The record label includes the record length and the base address of the data contained in the record. It also has data elements that indicate how many characters are used for indicators and subfield identifiers. (See Variable fields, below)
  • Directory[4]—the directory provides the entry positions to the fields in the record, along with the field tags. A directory entry has four parts and cannot exceed twelve characters in length:
    • Field tag (3 characters)
    • Length of the field (4 characters)
    • Starting character position of the field (5 characters)
    • (Optional) Implementation-defined part
  • Datafields (Variable fields)—a string containing all field and subfield data in the record
  • Record separator—a single character (IS3 of ISO 646)

Note that although tags are often displayed as labels on bibliographic fields and each bibliographic field has an associated tag, the tags are stored in the directory not in the bibliographic field.


There are three kinds of fields in the ISO 2709 record:

  • Record identifier field—identifying the record and assigned by the organization that creates the record. The record identifier field has tag 001.
  • Reserved fields—Reserved fields supply data which may be required for the processing of the record. Reserved fields always have a tag in the range 002–009 and 00A–00Z.
  • Bibliographic Fields—these are in the range 010–999 and 0AA–ZZZ. The bibliographic fields contain data and a field separator (IS2 of ISO 646). They can also have these optional sub-parts:
    • Indicator (0–9 characters, as coded in the Leader)—Indicators generally provide further information about the contents of the field, the relationship between the field and other fields in the record, or about action required in certain data manipulation processes (including display labels).
    • Identifier (0–9 characters)—This identifies data within the bibliographic field. Where used, identifiers are composed of a delimiter (1 char, IS1 of ISO 646) and an identifying code (1–9 chars, as defined in the leader), plus a variable length string containing the data.


MARC21 is an instance of ISO 2709 that has the following characteristics:

  • tags are in the range 002–999 only
  • there is a two-character indicator on each field, and each character is a separately defined data element
  • the identifier within data fields (called "subfield code" in MARC21) is a single ASCII character preceded by IS1 of ISO 646.

See also

  • MARC—a standard for coding library cataloging data using ISO 2709.


  1. ^ a b "ISO 2709:2008 - Information and documentation -- Format for information exchange". Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  2. ^ "ISO 2709:1981 - Documentation -- Format for bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape". Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  3. ^ "ANSI/NISO Z39.2-1994 (R2016) Information Interchange Format". Retrieved 2019-02-02.
  4. ^ MARC Bibliographic Directory

External links

Document management system

A document management system (DMS) is a system (based on computer programs in the case of the management of digital documents) used to track, manage and store documents and reduce paper. Most are capable of keeping a record of the various versions created and modified by different users (history tracking). The term has some overlap with the concepts of content management systems. It is often viewed as a component of enterprise content management (ECM) systems and related to digital asset management, document imaging, workflow systems and records management systems.


IIF may refer to:

IIf and ?:, the inline-if computing function

Indirect immunofluorescence, one of several types of immunofluorescence

Information Interchange Format (IIF), a record serialization format specified in ISO 2709, also published as ANSI Z39.2.

Institute of International Finance (IIF), an association of international financial institutions

International Indonesia Forum (IIF), an organisation which holds annual interdisciplinary seminars in Indonesia.

International Institute of Forecasters (IIF), a nonprofit organization devoted to advancing the science of forecasting, and publisher of International Journal of Forecasting and Foresight: The International Journal of Applied Forecasting.

Intuit Interchange Format, a file format used by Intuit's Quickbooks software

ISO/IEC 2022

ISO/IEC 2022 Information technology—Character code structure and extension techniques, is an ISO standard (equivalent to the ECMA standard ECMA-35) specifying

a technique for including multiple character sets in a single character encoding system, and

a technique for representing these character sets in both 7 and 8 bit systems using the same encoding.Many of the character sets included as ISO/IEC 2022 encodings are 'double byte' encodings where two bytes correspond to a single character. This makes ISO-2022 a variable width encoding. But a specific implementation does not have to implement all of the standard; the conformance level and the supported character sets are defined by the implementation.

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 1-4999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

MARC standards

MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging) standards are a set of digital formats for the description of items catalogued by libraries, such as books. Working with the Library of Congress, American computer scientist Henriette Avram developed MARC in the 1960s to create records that could be read by computers and shared among libraries. By 1971, MARC formats had become the US national standard for dissemination of bibliographic data. Two years later, they became the international standard.

There are several versions of MARC in use around the world, the most predominant being MARC 21, created in 1999 as a result of the harmonization of U.S. and Canadian MARC formats, and UNIMARC, widely used in Europe. The MARC 21 family of standards now includes formats for authority records, holdings records, classification schedules, and community information, in addition to the format for bibliographic records.


NewGenLib is an integrated library management system developed by Verus Solutions Pvt Ltd. Domain expertise is provided by Kesavan Institute of Information and Knowledge Management in Hyderabad, India. NewGenLib version 1.0 was released in March 2005. On 9 January 2008, NewGenLib was declared free and open-source under GNU GPL. The latest version of NewGenLib is 3.1.1 released on 16 April 2015. Many libraries across the globe (mainly from the developing countries) are using NewGenLib as their Primary integrated library management system as seen form the NewGenlib discussion forum.

PMB (software)

PMB is a fully featured open source integrated library system. It is continuously developed and maintained by the French company PMB Services.

ISO standards by standard number

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