ISO 233

The international standard ISO 233 establishes a system for Arabic and Syriac transliteration (Romanization). It has been supplemented by ISO 233-2 in 1993.

1984 edition

The table below shows the consonants for the Arabic language.

Arabic Latin Unicode Notes
Hex Dec
ء ˌ 02CC 716 hamza without carrier - low vertical line
ٔ◌ ˈ 02C8 712 hamza above carrier - vertical line (high)
ٕ◌ hamza below carrier (= alif)
ا ʾ 02BE 702 modifier letter right half ring
ب B b
ت T t
ث 1E6E 1E6F 7790 7791
ج Ǧ ǧ 01E6 01E7 486 487
ح 1E24 1E25 7716 7717
خ H+0331 1E96 H+817 7830
د D d
ذ 1E0E 1E0F 7694 7695
ر R r
ز Z z
س S s
ش Š š 0160 0161 352 353
ص 1E62 1E63 7778 7779
ض 1E0C 1E0D 7692 7693
ط 1E6C 1E6D 7788 7789
ظ 1E92 1E93 7826 7827
ع ʿ 02BF 703 modifier letter left half ring
غ Ġ ġ 0120 0121 288 289
ف F f
ق Q q
ك K k
ل L l
م M m
ن N n
ه H h
ة T+0308 1E97 T+776 7831 combining diaeresis
و W w
ي Y y
ى 1EF2 1EF3 7922 7923

ISO 233-2:1993

ISO 233-2:1993 is an ISO [1] schema for the simplified transliteration of Arabic characters adopteeinto Roman IPO is under to

This transliteration system was adopted as an amendment to ISO 233:1984. It is used mainly in library context, and was introduced because ISO 233 was not meeting the indexing purposes, which are essential for the consistency of library catalogs.

According to ISO 233-2(1993), Arabic words are vocalized prior to romanization.

ISO 233-2 is used in French libraries[1] and in North African libraries, and is recommended by librarians for establishing key titles when cataloguing serials.

ISO 233-3:1999

ISO 233-3:1999 is dedicated to "Persian language – Simplified transliteration".

ISO/R 233:1961

ISO/R 233 is an earlier standard that has been withdrawn.[2]

See also

External links


  1. ^ a b Translittération des caractères arabes en caractères latins - Partie 2: Langue arabe - Translittération simplifiée (2010)
  2. ^ ISO/R 233:1961

Adaisseh (Arabic: العديسة‎ / BGN: Aadaïssé / ISO 233: Al `Udaysah; also Adessé; Odeissé and other spellings) is a village in South Lebanon. It is located close to the Blue Line border with Israel, near the Israeli kibbutz Misgav Am.


Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, and Arabic Alif ا. It also appears as South Arabian 𐩱, and Ge'ez ʾÄlef አ.

These letters are believed to have derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph depicting an ox's head. The Phoenician variant gave rise to the Greek Alpha (Α), being re-interpreted to express not the glottal consonant but the accompanying vowel, and hence the Latin A and Cyrillic А.

In phonetics, aleph originally represented the onset of a vowel at the glottis. In Semitic languages, this functions as a weak consonant allowing roots with only two true consonants to be conjugated in the manner of a standard three consonant Semitic root. In most Hebrew dialects as well as Syriac, the glottal onset represented by Aleph is an absence of a true consonant although a glottal stop ([ʔ]), which is a true consonant, typically occurs as an allophone. In Arabic, the Alif has the glottal stop pronunciation when occurring initially. In text with diacritical marks, the pronunciation as a glottal stop is usually indicated by a special marking, hamza in Arabic and mappiq in Tiberian Hebrew. (Although once thought to be the original pronunciation of Aleph in all cases where it behaves as a consonant, a consistent glottal stop appears to have been absent in ancient Semitic languages such as Akkadian and Ugaritic besides being absent in Syriac and Hebrew.) Occasionally, the Aleph was also used to indicate an initial unstressed vowel before certain consonant clusters, without functioning as a consonant itself, the prosthetic (or prothetic) aleph. In later Semitic languages, Aleph could sometimes function as a mater lectionis indicating the presence of a vowel elsewhere (usually long). The period at which use as a mater lectionis began is the subject of some controversy, though it had become well established by the late stage of Old Aramaic (ca. 200 BCE). Aleph is often transliterated as U+02BE ʾ , based on the Greek spiritus lenis ʼ, for example, in the transliteration of the letter name itself, ʾāleph.


Alkarama (Arabic: الكرامة لحقوق الإنسان‎ / ISO 233: al-karāmah li-ḥuqūq al-’insān / Dignity) is an independent Swiss-based human rights non-governmental organization established in 2004 to assist all those in the Arab World subjected to, or at risk for, extrajudicial killings, disappearances, torture, and arbitrary detention.

Acting as a bridge between individual victims in the Arab World and international human rights mechanisms, Alkarama works towards an Arab World where all individuals live free, with dignity, and protected by the rule of law.


Ayin (also ayn or ain; transliterated ⟨ʿ⟩) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician ʿayin , Hebrew ʿayin ע, Aramaic ʿē , Syriac ʿē ܥ, and Arabic ʿayn ع‎ (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).The letter represents or is used to represent a voiced pharyngeal fricative (/ʕ/) or a similarly articulated consonant. In some Semitic languages and dialects, the phonetic value of the letter has changed, or the phoneme has been lost altogether (thus, in Modern Hebrew it is reduced to a glottal stop or is omitted entirely).

The Phoenician letter is the origin of the Greek, Latin and Cyrillic letter O.

Council of the Arab League

The Council of the Arab League (Arabic: مجلس جامعة الدول العربية‎ / ISO 233: Majlis Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya) (also the Arab League Council) is the principal institution of the Arab League and was created by article 3 of the Charter of the Arab League.

DIN 31635

DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) standard for the transliteration of the Arabic alphabet adopted in 1982. It is based on the rules of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG) as modified by the International Orientalist Congress 1935 in Rome. The most important differences from English-based systems were doing away with j, because it stood for /dʒ/ in the English-speaking world and for /j/ in the German-speaking world and the entire absence of digraphs like th, dh, kh, gh, sh. Its acceptance relies less on its official status than on its elegance (one sign for each Arabic letter) and the Geschichte der arabischen Literatur manuscript catalogue of Carl Brockelmann and the dictionary of Hans Wehr. Today it is used in most German-language publications of Arabic and Islamic studies.

ISO 259

ISO 259 is a series of international standards for the romanization of Hebrew characters into Latin characters, dating to 1984, with updated ISO 259-2 (a simplification, disregarding several vowel signs, 1994) and ISO 259-3 (Phonemic Conversion, 1999).

List of ISO romanizations

List of ISO standards for transliterations and transcriptions (or romanizations):

ISO 9 — Cyrillic

ISO 233 — Arabic

ISO 259 — Hebrew

ISO 843 — Greek

ISO 3602 — Japanese (1989, last reviewed 2013)

ISO 7098 — Chinese

ISO 9984 — Georgian

ISO 9985 — Armenian

ISO 11940 — Thai

ISO 11940-2 — Thai (simplified)

ISO 11941 — Korean (different systems for North and South Korea – withdrawn in 2013)

ISO 15919 — Indic scripts

List of characters and names mentioned in the Quran

List of characters and names, mentioned in the Quran. Standard form: Islamic name / Bibilical name (title or relationship). This list makes use of ISO 233 for the Romanization of Arabic words.


The Mahdi (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـهْـدِي‎, ISO 233: al-mahdī, literally "the guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations) before the Day of Judgment (yawm al-qiyamah, literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.There is no direct reference to the Mahdi in the Quran, only in the hadith (the reports and traditions of Muhammad's teachings collected after his death). In most traditions, the Mahdi will arrive with 'Isa (Jesus) to defeat Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (literally "the false Messiah", or Antichrist). Although the concept of a Mahdi is not an essential doctrine in Sunni Islam, it is popular among both Sunni and Shia Muslims. Both agree that he will rule over the Muslims and establish justice; however, they differ extensively on his attributes and status.

Throughout history, various individuals have claimed to be the Mahdi. These have included Muhammad Jaunpuri, founder of the Mahdavia sect; the Báb (Siyyid Ali Muhammad), founder of Bábism; Muhammad Ahmad, who established the Mahdist State in Sudan in the late 19th century; Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya religion; Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi.

Shi'ites have alternate views on which descendant of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad is the Mahdi. Twelvers, who form the majority of Shi'ites today, believe that Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan al-Askari is the current occulted Imam and Mahdi. Tayyibi Isma'ili Shi'ites, including the Dawoodi Bohrah, however believe that At-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim is the current occulted Imam and Mahdi.


Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision.

Romanization of Arabic

The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists. These formal systems, which often make use of diacritics and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based Arabic chat alphabet.

Different systems and strategies have been developed to address the inherent problems of rendering various Arabic varieties in the Latin script. Examples of such problems are the symbols for Arabic phonemes that do not exist in English or other European languages; the means of representing the Arabic definite article, which is always spelled the same way in written Arabic but has numerous pronunciations in the spoken language depending on context; and the representation of short vowels (usually i u or e o, accounting for variations such as Muslim/Moslem or Mohammed/Muhammad/Mohamed).

SASM/GNC romanization

The former State Administration of Surveying and Mapping, Geographical Names Committee and former Script Reform Committee of the People's Republic of China have adopted several romanizations for Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Uyghur, officially known as pinyin, Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages and Orthography of Chinese Personal Name in Hanyu Pinyin Letters. These systems may be referred to as SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions or SASM/GNC romanizations.

These romanization systems have been used for foreign translations of Chinese personal names and toponyms since 1978.All schemes except pinyin have a strict form and a broad form, where the broad form is used in general. In the case of pinyin, tone marks are omitted in practice.

Semitic romanization

Romanization schemes for Proto-Semitic and various Semitic languages (Semitic abjads):

Romanization of Arabic

ISO 233

DIN 31635

Romanization of Hebrew

ISO 259


ẗ is a modified letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from the letter T with a diaeresis on it. It is used in the ISO 233 transliteration of Arabic to represent tāʼ marbūṭa (ﺓ, ﺔ), and also in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet to represent a tenuis interdental stop [t̪͆].

Only the minuscule form exists in Unicode as a distinct character. The majuscule must be formed with a combination of T and a combining diacritic (T̈), and because of this may not display correctly when using some fonts or systems.


Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd , Hebrew Yōd י, Aramaic Yodh , Syriac Yōḏ ܝ, and Arabic Yāʾ ي (first in abjadi order, but last in modern order). Its sound value is /j/ in all languages for which it is used; in many languages, it also serves as a long vowel, representing /iː/.

The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Iota (Ι), Latin I, J, Cyrillic І, Coptic iauda (Ⲓ) and Gothic eis .


Ġ (minuscule: ġ) is a letter of the Latin script, formed from G with the addition of a dot above the letter.

ISO standards by standard number

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