ISO 2145

International standard ISO 2145 defines a typographic convention for the "numbering of divisions and subdivisions in written documents". It applies to any kind of document, including manuscripts, books, journal articles, and standards.


The ISO 2145 numbering scheme is defined by the following rules:

  • Only Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, …) are used.
  • The main divisions are numbered continuously starting from 1.
  • Each main division (first level) can be divided further into subdivisions (second level), which are equally continuously numbered. This can be continued for further levels of subdivision.
  • A full stop is placed between numbers that designate subdivisions of different levels. No full stop is placed after the number that designates the final subdivision.
  • A number 0 (zero) can be assigned to the first division of each level if it forms an introduction, preface, foreword, or the like.


A table of contents might look like:

0 Foreword
1 Introduction
2 Methodology
2.1 Counting techniques
2.1.1 Manual procedures  Counting apples Counting oranges
2.1.2 Automatic methods
2.2 Quality control
3 Results
4 Related work
4.1 Bean counting
4.2 Sheep counting
5 Conclusions


Division and subdivision numbers are cited in written text as in:

  • … in chapter 4 …
  • … as lemma 3.4.27 shows …
  • … the 3rd paragraph in …

In spoken language, the full stops are omitted:

  • "… in chapter four …"
  • "… as lemma three four twenty-seven shows …"
  • "… the third paragraph in two four one seven …"

Support in word processing software

  • All standard LaTeX document classes generate chapter, section, subsection, figure, table, etc. numbers exactly as defined by ISO 2145.
  • As of 2003, all Microsoft Word versions are by default set up to add a full stop after the final section number. This does not conform to ISO 2145; however, users can change settings to conform to the ISO standard.


Dot-decimal notation

Dot-decimal notation is a presentation format for numerical data. It consists of a string of decimal numbers, each pair separated by a full stop (dot).

A common use of dot-decimal notation is in information technology where it is a method of writing numbers in octet-grouped base-10 (decimal) numbers separated by dots (full stops). In computer networking, Internet Protocol Version 4 addresses (IPv4 addresses) are commonly written using the quad-dotted notation of four decimal integers, ranging from 0 to 255 each.

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 1-4999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

List of style guides

A style guide or style manual is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization or field. The implementation of a style guide provides uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. A set of standards for a specific organization is often known as "house style". Style guides are common for general and specialized use, for the general reading and writing audience, and for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business, and industry.


A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true. The term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations.The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, and the required minimum study period may thus vary significantly in duration.

The word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is also used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work.

ISO standards by standard number

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