ISO 2014

ISO 2014 is an international standard that was issued in April 1976, and superseded by ISO 8601 in June 1988.[1][2] ISO 2014 was the standard that originally introduced the all-numeric date notation [YYYY]-[MM]-[DD] with the digits in order starting with the most significant digit first (similar to big-endian). It was technically identical to ISO Recommendation R 2014 from 1971.


  1. ^ "ISO 2014:1976 - Writing of calendar dates in all-numeric form".
  2. ^ Technical Committee ISO/TC 154, Processes, data elements and documents in commerce, industry and administration. (2004-12-01). "ISO 8601:2004(E)". ISO. Retrieved 2006-11-15. Annex A … From that concept representations of all other date and time values were logically derived; thus, ISO 2014, ISO 3307 and ISO 4031 have been superseded.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
Calendar date

A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated. For example, "24 March 2019" is ten days after "14 March 2019" in the Gregorian calendar. The date of a particular event depends on the observed time zone. For example, the air attack on Pearl Harbor that began at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian time on December 7, 1941, took place at 3:18 a.m. December 8 in Japan (Japan Standard Time).

A particular day may be represented by a different date in another calendar as in the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar, which have been used simultaneously in different places. In most calendar systems, the date consists of three parts: the day of month, month, and the year. There may also be additional parts, such as the day of week. Years are usually counted from a particular starting point, usually called the epoch, with era referring to the particular period of time (Note the different use of the terms in geology).

The most widely used epoch is a conventional birthdate of Jesus (which was established by Dionysius Exiguus in the sixth century). A date without the year part may also be referred to as a date or calendar date (such as "20 March" rather than "20 March 2019"). As such, it defines the day of an annual event, such as a birthday or Christmas on 24/25 December.

Many computer systems internally store points in time in Unix time format or some other system time format.

The date (Unix) command—internally using the C date and time functions—can be used to convert that internal representation of a point in time

to most of the date representations shown here.

The current date in the Gregorian calendar is 20 March 2019. If this is not really the current date, then to update it.

Epoch (computing)

In computing, an epoch is a date and time from which a computer measures system time. Most computer systems determine time as a number representing the seconds removed from particular arbitrary date and time. For instance, Unix and POSIX measure time as the number of seconds that have passed since 1 January 1970 00:00:00 UT, a point in time known as the Unix epoch.

Computing epochs are nearly always specified as midnight Universal Time on some particular date.

GCI Universal Gemological Laboratories

Universal Gemological Laboratories (GCI) is a modern gemological laboratory and a college for educational services. GCI founded in 1998. The laboratory’s main headquarters is right in the heart of the Israel Diamond Exchange in Ramat Gan, the largest in the world offering the greatest selection of diamonds in the world. Since its formation, the institute diversified into every aspect of the industry, while spreading its operations across the globe. Today, the GCI has regional labs and educational centers equipped with local and Israeli staff in Russia and since June 2006 in India—a disposition of four branches in Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad and Kolkata acknowledging the leading role played by India in the gems and jewelry industry. GCI is the only western lab that is official permitted by the Russian government to operate in Russia.

As a licensed member of the Association of Gemological Laboratories of Japan (AGL), diamond color masters tone set No. 069 for the gemological laboratory TGL Israel is officially registered and recognized by JJA/AGL Master Stones (color) administrative committee. The AGL was established in 1981 for the purpose of standardization of diamond grading based on the method used at the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and on the nomenclature of color in diamonds as used by the association of Gemological Laboratories in Japan (AGL). This assures that each certificate issued conforms to the highest Japanese standards. GCI is working under the strict standard institution of ISO – International Organization for Standardization.


ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27 IT Security techniques is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27 develops International Standards, Technical Reports, and Technical Specifications within the field of information and IT security. Standardization activity by this subcommittee includes general methods, management system requirements, techniques and guidelines to address both information security and privacy. Drafts of International Standards by ISO/IEC JTC 1 or any of its subcommittees are sent out to participating national standardization bodies for ballot, comments and contributions. Publication as an ISO/IEC International Standard requires approval by a minimum of 75% of the national bodies casting a vote. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27 is the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) located in Germany.


ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 28 Office equipment is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates international standards, technical reports, and technical specifications within the field of office equipment and products, and systems composed of combinations of office equipment. The group’s main focus lies within the area of printers and copiers. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 28 is the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) located in Japan.


ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38 Cloud Computing and Distributed Platforms is a standardization subcommittee, which is part of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38 was formed at the October 2009 ISO/IEC JTC 1 Plenary Meeting in Tel Aviv via approval of Resolution 36. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38 is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), located in the United States. The first meeting of the subcommittee took place in Beijing, China in May 2010. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38 approved its scope, established three working groups and developed terms of reference for each at this inaugural meeting.

Established to address three related areas of technology - Web Services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), and Cloud Computing - ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38 was initially titled Distributed Application Platforms and Services (DAPS). Meeting in Plenary 2 times per year during its first 6 years, with interim electronic and face-to-face meetings of its Working Groups, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38 completed work in Web Services and SOA and increased its focus on Cloud Computing. To reflect this evolution in focus, the JTC 1 2014 Plenary Meeting in Abu Dhabi approved a revised scope and new title for ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38, Cloud Computing and Distributed Platforms.


ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 40 IT Service Management and IT Governance is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 40 develops and facilitates the development of international standards, technical reports, and technical specifications within the fields of IT service management and IT governance, with a focus in IT activity such as audit, digital forensics, governance, risk management, outsourcing, service operations and service maintenance. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 40 is Standards Australia (SA), located in Australia.

ISO 3307

ISO 3307 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The standard was issued in 1975, then was superseded by ISO 8601 in 1988.

ISO 4031

ISO 4031 is an international standard first issued in 1978 by the International Organization for Standardization. It defined the representation of local time differentials, commonly referred to as time zones. It has since been superseded by a newer standard, ISO 8601. This newer standard sets out the current formats for local time differentials and so ISO 4031 is no longer in use.

ISO 8601

ISO 8601 Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times is an international standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data. It was issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was first published in 1988. The purpose of this standard is to provide an unambiguous and well-defined method of representing dates and times, so as to avoid misinterpretation of numeric representations of dates and times, particularly when data are transferred between countries with different conventions for writing numeric dates and times.

In general, ISO 8601 applies to representations and formats of dates in the Gregorian (and potentially proleptic Gregorian) calendar, of times based on the 24-hour timekeeping system (with optional UTC offset), of time intervals, and combinations thereof. The standard does not assign any specific meaning to elements of the date/time to be represented; the meaning will depend on the context of its use. In addition, dates and times to be represented cannot include words with no specified numerical meaning in the standard (e.g., names of years in the Chinese calendar) or that do not use characters (e.g., images, sounds).In representations for interchange, dates and times are arranged so the largest temporal term (the year) is placed to the left and each successively smaller term is placed to the right of the previous term. Representations must be written in a combination of Arabic numerals and certain characters (such as "-", ":", "T", "W", and "Z") that are given specific meanings within the standard; the implication is that some commonplace ways of writing parts of dates, such as "January" or "Thursday", are not allowed in interchange representations.

Jitendra Kumar Singh

Jitendra Kumar Singh is an Indian oncologist, the ex director of Mahavir Cancer Institute & Research Centre and the president of Cancer Care India, the apex body for cancer support organizations in India. He was honored by the Government of India, in 2012, with the fourth highest Indian civilian award of Padma Shri.

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 1-4999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

ISO standards by standard number

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