ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization by the International Organization for Standardization. It was published in 2001 and uses diacritics to map the much larger set of consonants and vowels in Brahmic scripts to the Latin script.
ISO 15919 is an international standard on the romanization of many Brahmic scripts, which was agreed upon in 2001 by a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries. However, the Hunterian transliteration system is the "national system of romanization in India" and a United Nations expert group noted about ISO 15919 that "there is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products."
Another standard, United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names (UNRSGN), was developed by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) and covers many Brahmic scripts.
The ALA-LC romanization was approved by the Library of Congress and the American Library Association and is a US standard. The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is not a standard (as no specification exists for it) but a convention developed in Europe for the transliteration of Sanskrit rather than the transcription of Brahmic scripts.
As a notable difference, both international standards, ISO 15919 and UNRSGN transliterate anusvara as ṁ, while ALA-LC and IAST use ṃ for it. However, ISO 15919 provides guidance towards disambiguating between various anusvara situations (such as labial versus dental nasalizations), which is described in the table below.
|ए / े||ē||e||e||To distinguish between long and short 'e' in Dravidian languages, 'e' now represents ऎ / ॆ (short). Note that the use of ē is considered optional in ISO 15919, and using e for ए (long) is acceptable for languages that do not distinguish long and short e.|
|ओ / ो||ō||o||o||To distinguish between long and short 'o' in Dravidian languages, 'o' now represents ऒ / ॊ (short). Note that the use of ō is considered optional in ISO 15919, and using o for ओ (long) is acceptable for languages that do not distinguish long and short o.|
|ऋ / ृ||r̥||ṛ||ṛ||In ISO 15919, ṛ is used to represent ड़.|
|ॠ / ॄ||r̥̄||ṝ||ṝ||For consistency with r̥|
|ऌ / ॢ||l̥||l̤||ḷ||In ISO 15919, ḷ is used to represent ळ.|
|ॡ / ॣ||l̥̄||l̤̄||ḹ||For consistency with l̥|
|◌ं||ṁ||ṁ||ṃ||ISO 15919 has two options about anusvāra. (1) In the simplified nasalization option, an anusvāra is always transliterated as ṁ. (2) In the strict nasalization option, anusvāra before a class consonant is transliterated as the class nasal—ṅ before k, kh, g, gh, ṅ; ñ before c, ch, j, jh, ñ; ṇ before ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ; n before t, th, d, dh, n; m before p, ph, b, bh, m. ṃ is sometimes used to specifically represent Gurmukhi Tippi ੰ.|
|ṅ ñ ṇ n m|
|◌ँ||m̐||m̐||Vowel nasalization is transliterated as a tilde above the transliterated vowel (over the second vowel in the case of a digraph such as aĩ, aũ), except in Sanskrit.|
Only certain fonts support all Latin Unicode characters for the transliteration of Indic scripts according to this standard. For example, Tahoma supports almost all the characters needed. Arial and Times New Roman font packages that come with Microsoft Office 2007 and later also support most Latin Extended Additional characters like ḑ, ḥ, ḷ, ḻ, ṁ, ṅ, ṇ, ṛ, ṣ and ṭ.
Many systems provide a way to select Unicode characters visually. ISO/IEC 14755 refers to this as a screen-selection entry method.
Microsoft Windows has provided a Unicode version of the Character Map program (find it by hitting ⊞ Win+R then type
charmap then hit ↵ Enter) since version NT 4.0 – appearing in the consumer edition since XP. This is limited to characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). Characters are searchable by Unicode character name, and the table can be limited to a particular code block. More advanced third-party tools of the same type are also available (a notable freeware example is BabelMap).
macOS provides a "character palette" with much the same functionality, along with searching by related characters, glyph tables in a font, etc. It can be enabled in the input menu in the menu bar under System Preferences → International → Input Menu (or System Preferences → Language and Text → Input Sources) or can be viewed under Edit → Emoji & Symbols in many programs.
... ISO 15919 ... There is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products ... The Hunterian system is the actually used national system of romanization in India ...
... In India the Hunterian system is used, whereby every sound in the local language is uniformly represented by a certain letter in the Roman alphabet ...
... The Hunterian system of transliteration, which has international acceptance, has been used ...
Cha is the seventh consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, cha is derived from the Brahmi letter , which is probably derived from the Aramaic letter ("Q") after having gone through the Gupta letter .Devanagari
Devanagari ( DAY-və-NAH-gər-ee; देवनागरी, IAST: Devanāgarī, Hindi pronunciation: [deːʋəˈnaːɡəri]), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी), is a left-to-right abugida (alphasyllabary), based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to the 4th century CE, and was in regular use by the 7th century CE. The Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is one of the most adopted writing systems in the world, being used for over 120 languages. The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters.The orthography of this script reflects the pronunciation of the language. Unlike the Latin alphabet, the script has no concept of letter case. It is written from left to right, has a strong preference for symmetrical rounded shapes within squared outlines, and is recognisable by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters. In a cursory look, the Devanagari script appears different from other Indic scripts such as Bengali, Odia, or Gurmukhi, but a closer examination reveals they are very similar except for angles and structural emphasis.Among the languages using it – as either their only script or one of their scripts – are Hindi, Sanskrit, Pali, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Braj Bhasha, Chhattisgarhi, Haryanvi, Magahi, Nagpuri, Rajasthani, Bhili, Dogri, Marathi, Nepali, Maithili, Kashmiri, Konkani, Sindhi, Bodo, Nepalbhasa, Mundari and Santali. The Devanagari script is closely related to the Nandinagari script commonly found in numerous ancient manuscripts of South India, and it is distantly related to a number of southeast Asian scripts.Devanagari ka
Ka (क) (कवर्ण kavarna) is the first consonant of the Devanagari abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter 𑀓 (), after having gone through the Gupta letter . Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter ક, and the Modi letter �.Devanagari kha
Kha (ख) (खवर्ण khavarn) is the second consonant of the Devanagari abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter 𑀔 (), after having gone through the Gupta letter . Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter ખ, and the Modi letter �.Devanagari transliteration
There are several methods of transliteration from Devanāgarī to the Roman script (a process known as romanization) which share similarities, although no single system of transliteration has emerged as the standard. This process has been termed Romanagari, a portmanteau of the words Roman and Devanagari. (Devanagari is the name of the script in which Hindi is written). The term may also be used for other languages that use Devanagari as the standard writing script, such as Marathi, Nepali or Sanskrit.Gha (Indic)
Gha is the fourth consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, gha is derived from the Brahmi letter , which is probably derived from the Aramaic ("H/X") after having gone through the Gupta letter .International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, and formalised by the Transliteration Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894. IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously, exactly as if it were in the original Indic script. It is this faithfulness to the original scripts that accounts for its continuing popularity amongst scholars.Jha (Indic)
Jha is the ninth consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, jha is derived from the Brahmi letter after having gone through the Gupta letter .List of ISO romanizations
List of ISO standards for transliterations and transcriptions (or romanizations):
ISO 9 — Cyrillic
ISO 233 — Arabic
ISO 259 — Hebrew
ISO 843 — Greek
ISO 3602 — Japanese (1989, last reviewed 2013)
ISO 7098 — Chinese
ISO 9984 — Georgian
ISO 9985 — Armenian
ISO 11940 — Thai
ISO 11940-2 — Thai (simplified)
ISO 11941 — Korean (different systems for North and South Korea – withdrawn in 2013)
ISO 15919 — Indic scriptsNational Library at Kolkata romanisation
The National Library at Kolkata romanisation transliteration is the most widely used scheme in dictionaries and grammars of Indic languages. This transliteration scheme is also known as (American) Library of Congress and is nearly identical to one of the possible ISO 15919 variants. The scheme is an extension of the IAST scheme that is used for transliteration of Sanskrit.Romanization
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision.Romanization of Malayalam
There are several romanization schemes for the Malayalam script, including ITRANS and ISO 15919.Romanization of Telugu
There are several systems for romanization of the Telugu script.Tamil script
The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி; Tamiḻ ariccuvaṭi; [t̪ɐmɨɻ ˈɐɾit͡ɕːuʋəɽi]; pronunciation ) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet. Certain minority languages such as Saurashtra, Badaga, Irula, and Paniya are also written in the Tamil script.Ña (Indic)
Ña is the tenth consonant of Indic abugidas. It is derived from the Brahmi letter .अ
अ is the first vowel of the Devanagari abugida.अ़
A with nukta (अ़) is a Devanagari letter. It is used to transliterate the Arabic ayin (ع).ब
ब is one of the Devanagari letters. It transliterates the English letter B.ष
ष is one of the Devanagari consonants. Its sound in IPA is /ʂ/. This word does not exist in Perso-Arabic alphabets, Pashto alphabets, etc., but many people use the Arabic letter Sin(س) with four dots above (ݜ) to represent the Devanagari letter ष.
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