ISO 14000

ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes, etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements; and (c) continually improve in the above.[1]

ISO 14000 is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. As with ISO 9001, certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO directly. The ISO 19011 and ISO 17021 audit standards apply when audits are being performed.

The requirements of ISO 14001 are an integral part of the European Union's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). EMAS's structure and material are more demanding, mainly concerning performance improvement, legal compliance, and reporting duties.[2] The current version of ISO 14001 is ISO 14001:2015, which was published in September 2015.[3]

Brief history of environmental management systems

In March 1992, BSI Group published the world's first environmental management systems standard, BS 7750, as part of a response to growing concerns about protecting the environment.[4] Prior to this, environmental management had been part of larger systems such as Responsible Care. BS 7750 supplied the template for the development of the ISO 14000 series in 1996, which has representation from ISO committees all over the world.[5][6] As of 2017, more than 300,000 certifications to ISO 14001 can be found in 171 countries.[7]

Prior to the development of the ISO 14000 series, organizations voluntarily constructed their own EMSs, but this made comparisons of environmental effects between companies difficult; therefore, the universal ISO 14000 series was developed. An EMS is defined by ISO as: "part of the overall management system, that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes, and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, and maintaining the environmental policy."[8]

Development of the ISO 14000 series

The ISO 14000 family includes most notably the ISO 14001 standard, which represents the core set of standards used by organizations for designing and implementing an effective environmental management system (EMS). Other standards in this series include ISO 14004, which gives additional guidelines for a good EMS, and more specialized standards dealing with specific aspects of environmental management. The major objective of the ISO 14000 series of norms is to provide "practical tools for companies and organizations of all kinds looking to manage their environmental responsibilities."[7]

The ISO 14000 series is based on a voluntary approach to environmental regulation.[9] The series includes the ISO 14001 standard, which provides guidelines for the establishment or improvement of an EMS. The standard shares many common traits with its predecessor, ISO 9000, the international standard of quality management[10], which served as a model for its internal structure[8], and both can be implemented side by side. As with ISO 9000, ISO 14000 acts both as an internal management tool and as a way of demonstrating a company’s environmental commitment to its customers and clients.[11]

ISO 14001 standard

ISO 14001 defines criteria for an EMS. It does not state requirements for environmental performance but rather maps out a framework that a company or organization can follow to set up an effective EMS. It can be used by any organization that wants to improve resource efficiency, reduce waste, and reduce costs. Using ISO 14001 can provide assurance to company management and employees as well as external stakeholders that environmental impact is being measured and improved.[7] ISO 14001 can also be integrated with other management functions and assists companies in meeting their environmental and economic goals.

ISO 14001, like other ISO 14000 standards, is voluntary[12], with its main aim to assist companies in continually improving their environmental performance and complying with any applicable legislation. The organization sets its own targets and performance measures, and the standard highlights what an organization needs to do to meet those goals, and to monitor and measure the situation.[12] The standard does not focus on measures and goals of environmental performance, but of the organization. The standard can be applied to a variety of levels in the business, from the organizational level down to the product and service level.

ISO 14001 is known as a generic management system standard, meaning that it is relevant to any organization seeking to improve and manage resources more effectively. This includes:

  • single-site to large multi-national companies
  • high-risk companies to low-risk service organizations
  • the manufacturing, process, and service industries, including local governments
  • all industry sectors, including public and private sectors
  • original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers

ISO 14001:2015

All standards are periodically reviewed by ISO to ensure they still meet market requirements. The current version is ISO 14001:2015, and certified organizations were given a three-year transition period to adapt their environmental management system to the new edition of the standard. The new version of ISO 14001 focuses on the improvement of environmental performance rather than the improvement of the management system itself.[13] It also includes several new updates all aimed at making environmental management more comprehensive and relevant to the supply chain. One of the main updates asks organizations to consider environmental impact during the entire life cycle, although there is no requirement to actually complete a life cycle analysis. Additionally, the commitments of top management and the methods of evaluating compliance have also been strengthened. Another significant change linked ISO 14001 to the general management system structure, introduced in 2015, called the High Level Structure. Both ISO 9001 and 14001 use this same structure, making implementation and auditing more uniform. The new standard also requires the holder of the certificate to specify risks and opportunities and how to address them.

Basic principles and methodology

PDCA Cycle
The PDCA cycle

The basic principles of ISO 14001 are based on the well-known Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle.

Plan: Establish objectives and processes required

Prior to implementing ISO 14001, an initial review or gap analysis of the organization's processes and products is recommended, to assist in identifying all elements of the current operation and, if possible, future operations, that may interact with the environment, termed "environmental aspects."[14] Environmental aspects can include both direct, such as those used during manufacturing, and indirect, such as raw materials. This review assists the organization in establishing their environmental objectives, goals, and targets (which should ideally be measurable); helps with the development of control and management procedures and processes; and serves to highlight any relevant legal requirement, which can then be built into the policy.[14]

Do: Implement the processes

During this stage, the organization identifies the resources required and works out those members of the organization responsible for the EMS' implementation and control.[14] This includes establishing procedures and processes, although only one documented procedure is specifically related to operational control. Other procedures are required to foster better management control over elements such as documentation control, emergency preparedness and response, and the education of employees, to ensure that they can competently implement the necessary processes and record results. Communication and participation across all levels of the organization, especially top management, is a vital part of the implementation phase, with the effectiveness of the EMS being dependent on active involvement from all employees.[14]

Check: Measure and monitor the processes and report results

During the "check" stage, performance is monitored and periodically measured to ensure that the organization's environmental targets and objectives are being met. In addition, internal audits are conducted at planned intervals to ascertain whether the EMS meets the user's expectations and whether the processes and procedures are being adequately maintained and monitored.[14]

Act: Take action to improve performance of EMS based on results

After the checking stage, a management review is conducted to ensure that the objectives of the EMS are being met, the extent to which they are being met, and that communications are being appropriately managed. Additionally, the review evaluates changing circumstances, such as legal requirements, in order to make recommendations for further improvement of the system. These recommendations are incorporated through continual improvement: plans are renewed or new plans are made, and the EMS moves forward.[14]

Continual Improvement Process (CI)

ISO 14001 encourages a company to continually improve its environmental performance. Apart from the obvious – the reduction in actual and possible negative environmental impacts – this is achieved in three ways[15]:

  • Expansion: Business areas increasingly get covered by the implemented EMS.
  • Enrichment: Activities, products, processes, emissions, resources, etc. increasingly get managed by the implemented EMS.
  • Upgrading: The structural and organizational framework of the EMS, as well as an accumulation of knowledge in dealing with business-environmental issues, is improved.

Overall, the CI concept expects the organization to gradually move away from merely operational environmental measures towards a more strategic approach on how to deal with environmental challenges.


ISO 14001 was developed primarily to assist companies with a framework for better management control, which can result in reducing their environmental impacts. In addition to improvements in performance, organizations can reap a number of economic benefits, including higher conformance with legislative and regulatory requirements[16] by adopting the ISO standard. By minimizing the risk of regulatory and environmental liability fines and improving an organization’s efficiency[17], benefits can include a reduction in waste, consumption of resources, and operating costs. Secondly, as an internationally recognized standard, businesses operating in multiple locations across the globe can leverage their conformance to ISO 14001, eliminating the need for multiple registrations or certifications.[18] Thirdly, there has been a push in the last decade by consumers for companies to adopt better internal controls, making the incorporation of ISO 14001 a smart approach for the long-term viability of businesses. This can provide them with a competitive advantage against companies that do not adopt the standard (Potoki & Prakash, 2005). This in turn can have a positive impact on a company's asset value (Van der Deldt, 1997). It can lead to improved public perceptions of the business, placing them in a better position to operate in the international marketplace.[19][16] The use of ISO 14001 can demonstrate an innovative and forward-thinking approach to customers and prospective employees. It can increase a business’s access to new customers and business partners. In some markets it can potentially reduce public liability insurance costs. It can also serve to reduce trade barriers between registered businesses.[20] There is growing interest in including certification to ISO 14001 in tenders for public-private partnerships for infrastructure renewal. Evidence of value in terms of environmental quality and benefit to the taxpayer has been shown in highway projects in Canada.

Conformity assessment

ISO 14001 can be used in whole or in part to help an organization (for-profit or not-for-profit) better manage its relationship with the environment. If all the elements of ISO 14001 are incorporated into the management process, the organization may opt to prove that it has achieved full alignment or conformity with the international standard, ISO 14001, by using one of four recognized options. These are[14]:

  1. make a self-determination and self-declaration, or
  2. seek confirmation of its conformance by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or
  3. seek confirmation of its self-declaration by a party external to the organization, or
  4. seek certification/registration of its EMS by an external organization.

ISO does not control conformity assessment; its mandate is to develop and maintain standards. ISO has a neutral policy on conformity assessment in so much that one option is not better than the next. Each option serves different market needs. The adopting organization decides which option is best for them, in conjunction with their market needs.

Option one is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "self-certify" or "self-certification". This is not an acceptable reference under ISO terms and definitions, for it can lead to confusion in the market.[14] The user is responsible for making their own determination.

Option two is often referred to as a customer or 2nd-party audit, which is an acceptable market term.

Option three is an independent third-party process by an organization that is based on an engagement activity and delivered by specially trained practitioners. This option was based on an accounting procedure branded as the EnviroReady Report, which was created to help small- and medium-sized organizations. Its development was originally based on the Canadian Handbook for Accountants; it is now based on an international accounting standard.

The fourth option, certification, is another independent third-party process, which has been widely implemented by all types of organizations. Certification is also known in some countries as registration. Service providers of certification or registration are accredited by national accreditation services such as UKAS in the UK.

ISO 14001 and EMAS

In 2010, the latest EMAS Regulation (EMAS III) entered into force; the scheme is now globally applicable, and includes key performance indicators and a range of further improvements. As of April 2017, more than 3,900 organizations and approximately 9,200 sites are EMAS registered.[21]

Complementarities and differences

ISO 14001's EMS requirements are similar to those of EMAS. Additional requirements for EMAS include[2]:

  • stricter requirements on the measurement and evaluation of environmental performance against objectives and targets
  • government supervision of the environmental verifiers
  • strong employee involvement; EMAS organizations acknowledge that active employee involvement is a driving force and a prerequisite for continuous and successful environmental improvements.
  • environmental core indicators creating multi-annual comparability within and between organizations
  • mandatory provision of information to the general public
  • registration by a public authority

ISO 14001 use in supply chains

There are many reasons that ISO 14001 should be potentially attractive to supply chain managers, including the use of the voluntary standard to guide the development of integrated systems, its requirement for supply chain members in industries such as automotive and aerospace, the potential of pollution prevention leading to reduced costs of production and higher profits, its alignment with the growing importance of corporate social responsibility, and the possibility that an ISO-registered system may provide firms with a unique environmental resource, capabilities, and benefits that lead to competitive advantage.

Research on the supply chain impact of ISO 14001 registration posited that potential positive impacts might include more proactive environmental management, higher levels of communication, higher levels of waste reduction and cost efficiency, better ROI, higher levels of customer relationship management, fewer issues with employee health, and a reduced number of safety incidents. This research concluded that ISO 14001 registration can be leveraged across the supply chain for competitive advantage.[22]

List of ISO 14000 series standards

  • ISO 14001 Environmental management systems - Requirements with guidance for use
  • ISO 14004 Environmental management systems - General guidelines on implementation
  • ISO 14006 Environmental management systems - Guidelines for incorporating ecodesign
  • ISO 14015 Environmental management - Environmental assessment of sites and organizations (EASO)
  • ISO 14020 to 14025 Environmental labels and declarations
  • ISO/NP 14030 Green bonds -- Environmental performance of nominated projects and assets; discusses post-production environmental assessment
  • ISO 14031 Environmental management - Environmental performance evaluation - Guidelines
  • ISO 14040 to 14049 Environmental management - Life cycle assessment; discusses pre-production planning and environment goal setting
  • ISO 14050 Environmental management - Vocabulary; terms and definitions
  • ISO/TR 14062 Environmental management - Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development
  • ISO 14063 Environmental management - Environmental communication - Guidelines and examples
  • ISO 14064 Greenhouse gases; measuring, quantifying, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

See also

External links


  1. ^ "ISO 14000 family - Environmental management". ISO. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b "From ISO 14001 to EMAS: Mind the gap" (PDF). Office of the German EMAS Advisory Board. August 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  3. ^ Naden, C. (15 September 2015). "The newly revised ISO 14001 is here". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  4. ^ Smith, C. (1993). "BS 7750 and environmental management". Coloration Technology. 109 (9): 278–279. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.1993.tb01574.x.
  5. ^ Clements, R.B. (1996-01-01). Complete Guide to ISO 14000. Prentice Hall. p. 316. ISBN 9780132429757.
  6. ^ Brorson, T. (1999). Environmental Management: How to Implement an Environmental Management System Within a Company Or Other Organisation. EMS AB. p. 300. ISBN 9789163076619.
  7. ^ a b c "ISO 14000 family - Environmental management". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  8. ^ a b National Research Council (1999). Environmental Management Systems and ISO 14001 Federal Facilities Council Report No. 138. National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/6481. ISBN 9780309184342.
  9. ^ Szymanski, M.; Tiwari, P. (2004). "ISO 14001 and the Reduction of Toxic Emissions". The Journal of Policy Reform. 7 (1): 31–42. doi:10.1080/1384128042000219717.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Jackson, S.L. (1997). "Monitoring and measurement systems for implementing ISO 14001". Environmental Quality Management. 6 (3): 33–41. doi:10.1002/tqem.3310060306.
  11. ^ Boiral, O. (2007). "Corporate Greening Through ISO 14001: A Rational Myth?". Organization Science. 18 (1): 127–46. doi:10.1287/orsc.1060.0224.
  12. ^ a b "ISO 14001". International Institute for Sustainable Development. 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  13. ^ "ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems - Revision". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Martin, R. (10 March 1998). "ISO 14001 Guidance Manual" (PDF). National Center for Environmental Decision-Making Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  15. ^ Gastl, R. (2009). Kontinuierliche Verbesserung im Umweltmanagement: Die KVP-Forderung der ISO 14001 in Theorie und Unternehmenspraxis. vdf Hochschulverlag AG. p. 336. doi:10.3218/3231-4. ISBN 9783728132314.
  16. ^ a b Sheldon, C. (1997). ISO 14001 and Beyond: Environmental Management Systems in the Real World. Greenleaf Publishing. p. 410. ISBN 9781874719014.
  17. ^ Delmas, M. (2004). "Erratum to "Stakeholders and Competitive Advantage: The Case of ISO 14001"". Production and Operations Management. 13 (4): 398. doi:10.1111/j.1937-5956.2004.tb00226.x.
  18. ^ Hutchens Jr., S. "Using ISO 9001 or ISO 14001 to Gain a Competitive Advantage". Intertek. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  19. ^ Potoski, M.; Prakash, A. (2005). "Green Clubs and Voluntary Governance: ISO 14001 and Firms' Regulatory Compliance". American Journal of Political Science. 49 (2): 235–248. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/j.0092-5853.2005.00120.x.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Van der Veldt, D. (1997). "Case studies of ISO 14001: A new business guide for global environmental protection". Environmental Quality Management. 7 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1002/tqem.3310070102.
  21. ^ "Statistics & graphs". European Commission. April 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  22. ^ Curkovic, S.; Sroufe, R. (2011). "Using ISO 14001 to promote a sustainable supply chain strategy". Business Strategy and the Environment. 20 (2): 71–93. doi:10.1002/bse.671.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI AN-see) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide.

ANSI accredits standards that are developed by representatives of other standards organizations, government agencies, consumer groups, companies, and others. These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that people use the same definitions and terms, and that products are tested the same way. ANSI also accredits organizations that carry out product or personnel certification in accordance with requirements defined in international standards.The organization's headquarters are in Washington, D.C. ANSI's operations office is located in New York City. The ANSI annual operating budget is funded by the sale of publications, membership dues and fees, accreditation services, fee-based programs, and international standards programs.

Augustea SpA

Augustea SpA is a traditional shipping company from Naples, Italy founded in 1629.

The basic facts:

In 1629 Pietro Antonio Cafiero created a mutual aid fund "Monte della S.S. Annunziata dei Cafiero", which was rescuing sailors kidnapped by Barbary pirates.

Now Augustea Group employs about 630 people working on company's 50 vessels, tugs and barges and controls another 24 ocean vessels.

Augustea’s fleet fully complies with the International Safety Management Code.

Augustea Group achieved accreditation ISO 9001 and ISO 14000.

Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas S. A. (formerly BVQI, Bureau Veritas Quality International) is an international certification agency. In addition to certifications, they provide HSE expertise (Health, Safety and Environmental). Today the headquarters are in Neuilly-sur-Seine, nearby La Défense. The company went public on the Paris Bourse in October 2007.The organization was originally formed in Antwerp in 1828 as Bureau de Renseignements pour les Assurances Maritimes (Information Office for Maritime Insurance). The Bureau Veritas name was adopted in 1829.

In 2013, Bureau Veritas bought the company 7layers. Bureau Veritas also launched in this year a video about its main businesses and its Testing, Inspection and Certification activities. This video won the 2014 TopCom "Silver Award" in the External Audiovisual category.

Continual improvement process

A continual improvement process, also often called a continuous improvement process (abbreviated as CIP or CI), is an ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes. These efforts can seek "incremental" improvement over time or "breakthrough" improvement all at once. Delivery (customer valued) processes are constantly evaluated and improved in the light of their efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility.

Some see CIPs as a meta-process for most management systems (such as business process management, quality management, project management, and program management). W. Edwards Deming, a pioneer of the field, saw it as part of the 'system' whereby feedback from the process and customer were evaluated against organisational goals. The fact that it can be called a management process does not mean that it needs to be executed by 'management'; but rather merely that it makes decisions about the implementation of the delivery process and the design of the delivery process itself.A broader definition is that of the Institute of Quality Assurance who defined "continuous improvement as a gradual never-ending change which is: '... focused on increasing the effectiveness and/or efficiency of an organisation to fulfil its policy and objectives. It is not limited to quality initiatives. Improvement in business strategy, business results, customer, employee and supplier relationships can be subject to continual improvement. Put simply, it means ‘getting better all the time’.' "

Corporate behaviour

Corporate behaviour is the actions of a company or group who are acting as a single body. It defines the company's ethical strategies and describes the image of the company.

Denel Dynamics

Denel Dynamics, formerly Kentron, is a division of Denel SOC Ltd, a South African armaments development and manufacturing company wholly owned by the South African Government. It underwent a name change from Kentron to Denel Aerospace Systems during the early part of 2004 and later to Denel Dynamics. Denel Dynamics is located in Centurion, South Africa. Several sites are operating according to ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certified.

Dudhsagar Dairy

The Mehsana District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., popularly known as Dudhsagar Dairy, is a member of the state-level Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation, Anand. Dudhsagar Dairy is the largest dairy in Asia, processing on an average 1.41 million kilograms of milk each day. It has established a network for procuring milk from 4,500,000 milk producers through 1150 village milk cooperatives.

Today, Dudhsagar Dairy has a membership of over 520,000 dairy farmers. Its consolidated turnover in 2012-13 was more than Rs. 34 billion. The union procured 614.7 million kg of milk during 2012-13 at an average milk procurement of 3.2 million kg of milk per day during peak season.

The union is ISO 9001:2000, ISO 14000:2004, and ISO 22000:2005 certified and is an environment-friendly organisation.

The building was designed by the architect Achyut Kanvinde.


Eco-labels and Green Stickers are labeling systems for food and consumer products. Ecolabels are voluntary, but green stickers are mandated by law; for example, in North America major appliances and automobiles use Energy Star. They are a form of sustainability measurement directed at consumers, intended to make it easy to take environmental concerns into account when shopping. Some labels quantify pollution or energy consumption by way of index scores or units of measurement, while others assert compliance with a set of practices or minimum requirements for sustainability or reduction of harm to the environment. Many ecolabels are focused on minimising the negative ecological impacts of primary production or resource extraction in a given sector or commodity through a set of good practices that are captured in a sustainability standard. Through a verification process, usually referred to as "certification", a farm, forest, fishery, or mine can show that it complies with a standard and earn the right to sell its products as certified through the supply chain, often resulting in a consumer-facing ecolabel.

The last few years have seen two key trends in the ecolabels space. There is an explosion in the numbers of different ecolabelling programs across the world and across business sectors and secondly the proliferation of umbrella labeling programs.

Ecolabelling systems exist for both food and consumer products. Both systems were started by NGOs, since then the European Union have developed legislation for conduct of ecolabelling and also have created their own ecolabels, one for food and one for consumer products. At least for food, the ecolabel is nearly identical with the common NGO definition of the rules for ecolabelling. Label trust is an issue for consumers because as manufacturers and manufacturing associations have set up "rubber stamp" labels to greenwash their products with fake ecolabels. High trust levels can be created when ecolabels apply for Governmental recognition as formal Certification Marks [recognized by logos or names with 'CTM', CM or 'CertTM']. Typically this means schemes approved as a Certification Mark, have had the Government Department responsible declare that the scheme has a standard and certifies that they are 'Competent to Certify'. The highest trust levels would be a government recognized certification mark that was also compliant with key ISO standards especially ISO 14024- Type 1 Ecolabels that undertake ISO 14040 compliant life cycle analysis as part of their assessment.Type I ecolabels are voluntary labels that signify overall environmental preference of a product or services based on life-cycle considerations that address multiple environmental criteria, which are based on transparent standards for environmental preferability, verified by a qualified organization.

Environmental governance in Brazil

Environmental governance is a concept in environmental policy that steers markets, technology and society towards achieving the goal of sustainability. It considers social, economic and environmental aspects in the decision making of its policies.

Brazil is currently developing at an incredibly fast rate, only out-performed by countries such as China and India, both in terms of economic growth and recovery rate after the global financial crisis in the late 2000s. The saying that “Brazil is the country of the future...and it always will be” has haunted Brazil for decades. But recent economic policy changes, made since the founding of the New Republic, have allowed Brazil to start gaining international confidence. This was epitomised when American President Barack Obama stated that “The people of Brazil should know that the future has arrived” during a visit to Rio de Janeiro in March 2011. Brazil is also no longer referred to as a developing country, but as an emerging country, a newly industrialised country (NIC) and as a member of the BRIC economies. But with this fast economic growth rate comes huge responsibility in terms of sustainability. Brazil's economic growth is supported by the huge demand of natural resources from China, resources that Brazil has in abundance. Brazil is currently successfully matching the needs of China's manufacturing industry and with huge investments currently being made to sustain this demand from China, Brazil is building new ports and airports and increasing the capacity of its current ones.However, this vast extraction of natural resources is coming at a price for the natural environment. Former Environment Minister Marina Silva resigned in 2008 as she felt the Brazilian government was prioritizing the interests of big businesses and the economy, and felt she was fighting a losing battle to protect many of Brazil's natural environments, including the Amazon Rainforest.Despite these claims, Brazil has been praised for its environmental sustainability efforts and attempts to reduce its carbon emissions. The Brazilian government created the Ministry of the Environment (MMA) in 1985 and following this, organisations have been created, such as IBAMA in 1989, with the aim to protect the natural environment. Brazil has also taken a front seat with regards to global environmental governance by jointly creating and presiding the Megadiverse Like-Minded Countries Group, which includes 70% of the world's living biodiversity and 45% of the world's population.

Environmental management system

Environmental management system (EMS) refers to the management of an organization's environmental programs in a comprehensive, systematic, planned and documented manner. It includes the organizational structure, planning and resources for developing, implementing and maintaining policy for environmental protection.

More formally, EMS is "a system and database which integrates procedures and processes for training of personnel, monitoring, summarizing, and reporting of specialized environmental performance information to internal and external stakeholders of a firm".The most widely used standard on which an EMS is based is International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 2004. Alternatives include the EMAS.

An environmental management information system (EMIS) or Environmental Data Management System (EDMS) is an information technology solution for tracking environmental data for a company as part of their overall environmental management system.

ISC Kosmotras

The International Space Company Kosmotras or ISC Kosmotras (Russian: ЗАО Международная космическая компания “Космотрас”) is a joint project, between Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan, established in 1997. It developed and now operates a commercial expendable launch system using the Dnepr rocket. The Dnepr is a converted decommissioned SS-18 ICBM. ISC Kosmotras conducts Dnepr launches from Baikonur Cosmodrome and Yasny launch base in Dombarovskiy, Russia.

ISO/IEC 27000

ISO/IEC 27000 is part of a growing family of ISO/IEC Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) standards, the 'ISO/IEC 27000 series'. ISO/IEC 27000 is an international standard entitled: Information technology — Security techniques — Information security management systems — Overview and vocabulary.

The standard was developed by subcommittee 27 (SC27) of the first Joint Technical Committee (JTC1) of the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission.ISO/IEC 27000 provides:

An overview of and introduction to the entire ISO/IEC 27000 family of Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) standards.

A glossary or vocabulary of fundamental terms and definitions used throughout the ISO/IEC 27000 family.ISO/IEC 27000 is available via the ITTF website. (free download)

ISO/IEC 27000-series

The ISO/IEC 27000-series (also known as the 'ISMS Family of Standards' or 'ISO27K' for short) comprises information security standards published jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).The series provides best practice recommendations on information security management - the management of information risks through information security controls - within the context of an overall Information security management system (ISMS), similar in design to management systems for quality assurance (the ISO 9000 series), environmental protection (the ISO 14000 series) and other management systems.The series is deliberately broad in scope, covering more than just privacy, confidentiality and IT/technical/cybersecurity issues. It is applicable to organizations of all shapes and sizes. All organizations are encouraged to assess their information risks, then treat them (typically using information security controls) according to their needs, using the guidance and suggestions where relevant. Given the dynamic nature of information risk and security, the ISMS concept incorporates continuous feedback and improvement activities to respond to changes in the threats, vulnerabilities or impacts of incidents.

The standards are the product of ISO/IEC JTC1 (Joint Technical Committee 1) SC27 (Subcommittee 27), an international body that meets in person twice a year.

The ISO/IEC standards are sold directly by ISO, mostly in English, French and Chinese. Sales outlets associated with various national standards bodies also sell directly translated versions in other languages.

ISO 14031

The ISO 14031:2013 Environmental management - Environmental Performance Evaluation – Guidelines gives guidance on the design and use of environmental performance evaluation, and on identification and selection of environmental performance indicators, for use by all organizations, regardless of type, size, location and complexity.

ISO 14051

ISO 14051 is part of the ISO 14000 family of standards relating to environmental management codified by the International Organization for Standardization. The purpose of ISO 14051:2011 is to provide principles and generic guidelines on material flow cost accounting. The norm seeks to provide a universally recognized paradigm for practitioners and companies employing material flow cost accounting. It is not intended for third parties certification.

ISO 14064

The ISO 14064 standard (published in 2006) is part of the ISO 14000 series of International Standards for environmental management. The ISO 14064 standard provides governments, businesses, regions and other organisations with a complimentary set of tools for programs to quantify, monitor, report and verify greenhouse gas emissions. The ISO 14064 standard supports organisations to participate in both regulated and voluntary programs such as emissions trading schemes and public reporting using a globally recognised standard.

ISO 19011

ISO 19011 is an international standard that sets forth guidelines for management systems auditing. The current version is ISO 19011:2018.

It is developed by the International Organization for Standardization.

The standard offers four resources to organizations to "save time, effort and money":

A clear explanation of the principles of management systems auditing.

Guidance on the management of audit programs.

Guidance on the conduct of internal or external audits.

Advice on the competence and evaluation of auditors.

Mina Proaño

Mina Proaño, an underground silver mine located in central Mexico, is one of the world's largest and most profitable silver mines. The mine is located just outside the city of Fresnillo, Zacatecas; and is also known as Mina Fresnillo and Fresnillo Silver Mine. The mining operation is run by Peñoles which, since 1967, has been controlled by Mexico City-based Grupo BAL. In 2004, Mina Proaño produced almost 32 million troy ounces (995,000 kg) of silver.

Silver mining activity in the Fresnillo area can be traced back to 1550. As is quite common with long-running large-scale mining operations, especially silver mining, which uses large quantities of cyanide, there have been allegations of mine-related pollution including contamination of water sources, increased illness rates amongst cattle and people, and increased air pollution. This particular mine has obtained ISO 14000 certification of its environmental management processes and equipment, and has received a "Clean Industry Registration" from Mexican authorities. The mining company has also established an "ecological park", which is basically a sanctuary for more than hundred species of mammals, birds and reptiles. This park, established in 2004, was designed as a public area (Parque los Jales) and includes lakes, paths and open areas for physical exercise and relaxation. The park was established on land formerly occupied by a tailings pond.

OHSAS 18001

OHSAS 18001, Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series, (officially BS OHSAS 18001) is a British Standard for occupational health and safety management systems. Compliance with it enables organizations to demonstrate that they have a system in place for occupational health and safety. BS OHSAS 18001 is being replaced by ISO 45001, which was published in March 2018 by the International Organization for Standardization. Organizations which are certified to BS OHSAS 18001 should migrate to ISO 45001 by March 2021 if they want to retain a recognized certification.

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