ISO 128

ISO 128 is an international standard (ISO), about the general principles of presentation in technical drawings, specifically the graphical representation of objects on technical drawings.[1]


Since 2003 the ISO 128 standard contains twelve parts, which were initiated between 1996 and 2003. It starts with a summary of the general rules for the execution and structure of technical drawings. Further it describes basic conventions for lines, views, cuts and sections, and different types of engineering drawings, such as those for mechanical engineering, architecture, civil engineering, and shipbuilding. It is applicable to both manual and computer-based drawings, but it is not applicable to three-dimensional CAD models.[1]

The ISO 128 replaced the previous DIN 6 standard for drawings, projections and views, which was first published in 1922 and updated in 1950 and 1968. ISO 128 itself was first published in 1982, contained 15 pages and "specified the general principles of presentation to be applied to technical drawings following the orthographic projection methods".[2] Several parts of this standard have been updated individually. The last parts and the standard as a whole were withdrawn by the ISO in 2001.

A thirteenth part was added in 2013.

Composition of ISO 128

The 15 parts of the ISO 128 standard are:

  • ISO 128-1:2003 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 1: Introduction and index
  • ISO 128-15:2013 Technical product documentation (TPD)—General principles of presentation—Part 15: Presentation of shipbuilding drawings
  • ISO 128-20:1996 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 20: Basic conventions for lines
  • ISO 128-21:1997 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 21: Preparation of lines by CAD systems
  • ISO 128-22:1999 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 22: Basic conventions and applications for leader lines and reference lines
  • ISO 128-23:1999 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 23: Lines on construction drawings
  • ISO 128-24:2014 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 24: Lines on mechanical engineering drawings
  • ISO 128-25:1999 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 25: Lines on shipbuilding drawings
  • ISO 128-30:2001 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 30: Basic conventions for views
  • ISO 128-34:2001 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 34: Views on mechanical engineering drawings
  • ISO 128-40:2001 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 40: Basic conventions for cuts and sections
  • ISO 128-43:2015 Technical product documentation (TPD)—General principles of presentation—Part 43: Projection methods in building drawings
  • ISO 128-44:2001 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 44: Sections on mechanical engineering drawings
  • ISO 128-50:2001 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation—Part 50: Basic conventions for representing areas on cuts and sections
  • ISO/TS 128-71:2010 Technical product documentation (TPD)—General principles of presentation—Part 71: Simplified representation for mechanical engineering drawings

Other ISO standards related to technical drawing

A size illustration
A size chart illustrating the ISO A series described in ISO 216.
  • ISO 129 Technical drawings—Indication of dimensions and tolerances
  • ISO 216 paper sizes, e.g. the A4 paper size
  • ISO 406:1987 Technical drawings—Tolerancing of linear and angular dimensions
  • ISO 1660:1987 Technical drawings—Dimensioning and tolerancing of profiles
  • ISO 2203:1973 Technical drawings—Conventional representation of gears
  • ISO 3040:1990 Technical drawings—Dimensioning and tolerancing -- Cones
  • ISO 3098/1:1974 Technical Drawing - Lettering - Part I: Currently Used Characters
  • ISO 4172:1991 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings—Drawings for the assembly of prefabricated structures
  • ISO 5261:1995 Technical drawings—Simplified representation of bars and profile sections
  • ISO 5455:1979 Technical drawings—Scales
  • ISO 5456 Technical drawings -- Projection methods
  • ISO 5457:1999 Technical product documentation—Sizes and layout of drawing sheets
  • ISO 5459:1981 Technical drawings -- Geometrical tolerancing—Datums and datum-systems for geometrical tolerances
  • ISO 5845-1:1995 Technical drawings—Simplified representation of the assembly of parts with fasteners—Part 1: General principles
  • ISO 6410-1:1993 Technical drawings—Screw threads and threaded parts—Part 1: General conventions
  • ISO 6411:1982 Technical drawings—Simplified representation of centre holes
  • ISO 6412-1:1989 Technical drawings—Simplified representation of pipelines—Part 1: General rules and orthogonal representation
  • ISO 6413:1988 Technical drawings—Representation of splines and serrations
  • ISO 6414:1982 Technical drawings for glassware
  • ISO 6428:1982 Technical drawings—Requirements for microcopying
  • ISO 6433:1981 Technical drawings -- Item references
  • ISO 7200:1984 Technical drawings — Title blocks
  • ISO 7083:1983 Technical drawings—Symbols for geometrical tolerancing—Proportions and dimensions
  • ISO 7437:1990 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings—General rules for execution of production drawings for prefabricated structural components
  • ISO 7518:1983 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings—Simplified representation of demolition and rebuilding
  • ISO 7519:1991 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings—General principles of presentation for general arrangement and assembly drawings
  • ISO 8015:1985 Technical drawings—Fundamental tolerancing principle
  • ISO 8048:1984 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings—Representation of views, sections and cuts
  • ISO 8560:1986 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings—Representation of modular sizes, lines and grids
  • ISO 8560:1986 Technical drawings—Construction drawings—Representation of modular sizes, lines and grids
  • ISO 8826-1:1989 Technical drawings—Rolling bearings—Part 1: General simplified representation
  • ISO 8826-2:1994 Technical drawings—Rolling bearings—Part 2: Detailed simplified representation
  • ISO 9222-1:1989 Technical drawings—Seals for dynamic application—Part 1: General simplified representation
  • ISO 9222-2:1989 Technical drawings—Seals for dynamic application—Part 2: Detailed simplified representation
  • ISO 9958-1:1992 Draughting media for technical drawings—Draughting film with polyester base—Part 1: Requirements and marking
  • ISO 9961:1992 Draughting media for technical drawings—Natural tracing paper
  • ISO 10209-1:1992 Technical product documentation—Vocabulary—Part 1: Terms relating to technical drawings: general and types of drawings
  • ISO 10578:1992 Technical drawings—Tolerancing of orientation and location—Projected tolerance zone
  • ISO 10579:1993 Technical drawings—Dimensioning and tolerancing—Non-rigid parts
  • ISO 13567 is an international Computer-aided design (CAD) layer standard.
  • ISO 13715:2000 Technical drawings—Edges of undefined shape—Vocabulary and indications
  • ISO 15786:2008 Technical drawings—Simplified representation and dimensioning of holes

See also


  1. ^ a b ISO 128-1:2003 Abstract. Accessed 1 March 2009.
  2. ^ ISO 128, 2009.)
CAD standards

CAD Standards are a set of guidelines for the way Computer-aided drafting (CAD), or (CADD) Computer Aided Design and Drawing, drawings should appear, to improve productivity and interchange of CAD documents between different offices and CAD programs, especially in architecture and engineering.

Computer-aided design

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computers (or workstations) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. The term CADD (for Computer Aided Design and Drafting) is also used.Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation (EDA). In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation (MDA) or computer-aided drafting (CAD), which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software.CAD software for mechanical design uses either vector-based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects. However, it involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.

CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space.CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals, often called DCC digital content creation. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry.The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is occasionally called computer-aided geometric design (CAGD).

Engineering drawing

An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.

Engineering drawing (the activity) produces engineering drawings (the documents). More than merely the drawing of pictures, it is also a language—a graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind to another.

Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing

Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a system for defining and communicating engineering tolerances. It uses a symbolic language on engineering drawings and computer-generated three-dimensional solid models that explicitly describe nominal geometry and its allowable variation. It tells the manufacturing staff and machines what degree of accuracy and precision is needed on each controlled feature of the part. GD&T is used to define the nominal (theoretically perfect) geometry of parts and assemblies, to define the allowable variation in form and possible size of individual features, and to define the allowable variation between features.

Dimensioning specifications define the nominal, as-modeled or as-intended geometry. One example is a basic dimension.

Tolerancing specifications define the allowable variation for the form and possibly the size of individual features, and the allowable variation in orientation and location between features. Two examples are linear dimensions and feature control frames using a datum reference (both shown above).There are several standards available worldwide that describe the symbols and define the rules used in GD&T. One such standard is American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Y14.5-2009. This article is based on that standard, but other standards, such as those from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), may vary slightly. The Y14.5 standard has the advantage of providing a fairly complete set of standards for GD&T in one document. The ISO standards, in comparison, typically only address a single topic at a time. There are separate standards that provide the details for each of the major symbols and topics below (e.g. position, flatness, profile, etc.).

ISO 216

ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes used in most countries in the world today, although not in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Colombia, or the Dominican Republic. The standard defines the "A" and "B" series of paper sizes, including A4, the most commonly available paper size worldwide. Two supplementary standards, ISO 217 and ISO 269, define related paper sizes; the ISO 269 "C" series is commonly listed alongside the A and B sizes.

All ISO 216, ISO 217 and ISO 269 paper sizes (except some envelopes) have the same aspect ratio, √2:1, within rounding to millimetres. This ratio has the unique property that when cut or folded in half widthways, the halves also have the same aspect ratio. Each ISO paper size is one half of the area of the next larger size in the same series.

ISO 7200

ISO 7200, titled Technical product documentation - Data fields in title blocks and document headers, is an international technical standard defined by ISO which describes title block formats to be used in technical drawings.

List of DIN standards

This is an incomplete list of DIN standards.

The "STATUS" column gives the latest known status of the standard.

If a standard has been withdrawn and no replacement specification is listed, either the specification was withdrawn without replacement or a replacement specification could not be identified.

DIN stands for "Deutsches Institut für Normung", meaning "German institute for standardisation". DIN standards that begin with "DIN V" ("Vornorm", meaning "pre-issue") are the result of standardization work, but because of certain reservations on the content or because of the divergent compared to a standard installation procedure of DIN, they are not yet published standards.

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 1-4999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

Production drawing

Production drawings (sometimes called working drawings) are complete sets of drawings that detail the manufacturing and assembly of products (as distinct from engineering drawings prepared by and/or for production engineers whose task is to decide how best to manufacture the products).

Machine operators, production line workers and supervisors all use production drawings.

Design engineers also use orthographic or pictorial views called "working cases" to record their ideas. These preliminary sketches are used as the basis for both the component and assembly drawings. Production drawings are 'drawn' (graphic) information prepared by the design team for use by the construction or production team, the main purpose of which is to define the size, shape, location and production of the building or component'.

Orthographic projections are often supplied, giving views of machine parts and their assembly in an accessible form akin to artistic rendering in perspective, sometimes in exploded form which illustrates how the whole may be constructed from sub-assemblies and sub-assemblies into individual components. The production drawings may describe the preferred order in which to assemble components and if the engineering drawings call for a screw fastener to be tightened to a specific torque the production drawings would typically describe the tool to be used and how it should be calibrated.

Material and component specifics are commonly provided in the title block of a production drawing. Sub-assemblies (or the main assembly of components) are usually shown and the production drawings may specify where each assembled component will be built. Production drawings also record the number of parts that are required for making the assembled unit and may form an essential part of the documentation required to authorise the production of the item described.

Technical drawing

Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed.

Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in industry and engineering.

To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, and page layout. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and relatively easy to understand. Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO 128.

The need for precise communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted; their meanings are multiply determined. Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning.A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person who makes a drawing (technical or expressive). A professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician.

Technical pen

A technical pen is a specialized instrument used by an engineer, architect, or drafter to make lines of constant width for architectural, engineering, or technical drawings. "Rapidograph" is a trademarked name for one type of technical pen. Technical pens use either a refillable ink reservoir (Isograph version) or a replaceable ink cartridge.

ISO standards by standard number

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