Since 2003 the ISO 128 standard contains twelve parts, which were initiated between 1996 and 2003. It starts with a summary of the general rules for the execution and structure of technical drawings. Further it describes basic conventions for lines, views, cuts and sections, and different types of engineering drawings, such as those for mechanical engineering, architecture, civil engineering, and shipbuilding. It is applicable to both manual and computer-based drawings, but it is not applicable to three-dimensional CAD models.
The ISO 128 replaced the previous DIN 6 standard for drawings, projections and views, which was first published in 1922 and updated in 1950 and 1968. ISO 128 itself was first published in 1982, contained 15 pages and "specified the general principles of presentation to be applied to technical drawings following the orthographic projection methods". Several parts of this standard have been updated individually. The last parts and the standard as a whole were withdrawn by the ISO in 2001.
A thirteenth part was added in 2013.
The 15 parts of the ISO 128 standard are:
CAD Standards are a set of guidelines for the way Computer-aided drafting (CAD), or (CADD) Computer Aided Design and Drawing, drawings should appear, to improve productivity and interchange of CAD documents between different offices and CAD programs, especially in architecture and engineering.Computer-aided design
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computers (or workstations) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. The term CADD (for Computer Aided Design and Drafting) is also used.Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation (EDA). In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation (MDA) or computer-aided drafting (CAD), which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software.CAD software for mechanical design uses either vector-based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects. However, it involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.
CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space.CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals, often called DCC digital content creation. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry.The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is occasionally called computer-aided geometric design (CAGD).Engineering drawing
An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.
Engineering drawing (the activity) produces engineering drawings (the documents). More than merely the drawing of pictures, it is also a language—a graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind to another.Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a system for defining and communicating engineering tolerances. It uses a symbolic language on engineering drawings and computer-generated three-dimensional solid models that explicitly describe nominal geometry and its allowable variation. It tells the manufacturing staff and machines what degree of accuracy and precision is needed on each controlled feature of the part. GD&T is used to define the nominal (theoretically perfect) geometry of parts and assemblies, to define the allowable variation in form and possible size of individual features, and to define the allowable variation between features.
Dimensioning specifications define the nominal, as-modeled or as-intended geometry. One example is a basic dimension.
Tolerancing specifications define the allowable variation for the form and possibly the size of individual features, and the allowable variation in orientation and location between features. Two examples are linear dimensions and feature control frames using a datum reference (both shown above).There are several standards available worldwide that describe the symbols and define the rules used in GD&T. One such standard is American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Y14.5-2009. This article is based on that standard, but other standards, such as those from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), may vary slightly. The Y14.5 standard has the advantage of providing a fairly complete set of standards for GD&T in one document. The ISO standards, in comparison, typically only address a single topic at a time. There are separate standards that provide the details for each of the major symbols and topics below (e.g. position, flatness, profile, etc.).ISO 216
ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes used in most countries in the world today, although not in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Colombia, or the Dominican Republic. The standard defines the "A" and "B" series of paper sizes, including A4, the most commonly available paper size worldwide. Two supplementary standards, ISO 217 and ISO 269, define related paper sizes; the ISO 269 "C" series is commonly listed alongside the A and B sizes.
All ISO 216, ISO 217 and ISO 269 paper sizes (except some envelopes) have the same aspect ratio, √2:1, within rounding to millimetres. This ratio has the unique property that when cut or folded in half widthways, the halves also have the same aspect ratio. Each ISO paper size is one half of the area of the next larger size in the same series.ISO 7200
ISO 7200, titled Technical product documentation - Data fields in title blocks and document headers, is an international technical standard defined by ISO which describes title block formats to be used in technical drawings.List of DIN standards
This is an incomplete list of DIN standards.
The "STATUS" column gives the latest known status of the standard.
If a standard has been withdrawn and no replacement specification is listed, either the specification was withdrawn without replacement or a replacement specification could not be identified.
DIN stands for "Deutsches Institut für Normung", meaning "German institute for standardisation". DIN standards that begin with "DIN V" ("Vornorm", meaning "pre-issue") are the result of standardization work, but because of certain reservations on the content or because of the divergent compared to a standard installation procedure of DIN, they are not yet published standards.List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 1-4999
This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.Production drawing
Production drawings (sometimes called working drawings) are complete sets of drawings that detail the manufacturing and assembly of products (as distinct from engineering drawings prepared by and/or for production engineers whose task is to decide how best to manufacture the products).
Machine operators, production line workers and supervisors all use production drawings.
Design engineers also use orthographic or pictorial views called "working cases" to record their ideas. These preliminary sketches are used as the basis for both the component and assembly drawings. Production drawings are 'drawn' (graphic) information prepared by the design team for use by the construction or production team, the main purpose of which is to define the size, shape, location and production of the building or component'.
Orthographic projections are often supplied, giving views of machine parts and their assembly in an accessible form akin to artistic rendering in perspective, sometimes in exploded form which illustrates how the whole may be constructed from sub-assemblies and sub-assemblies into individual components. The production drawings may describe the preferred order in which to assemble components and if the engineering drawings call for a screw fastener to be tightened to a specific torque the production drawings would typically describe the tool to be used and how it should be calibrated.
Material and component specifics are commonly provided in the title block of a production drawing. Sub-assemblies (or the main assembly of components) are usually shown and the production drawings may specify where each assembled component will be built. Production drawings also record the number of parts that are required for making the assembled unit and may form an essential part of the documentation required to authorise the production of the item described.Technical drawing
Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed.
Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in industry and engineering.
To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, and page layout. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and relatively easy to understand. Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO 128.
The need for precise communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted; their meanings are multiply determined. Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning.A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person who makes a drawing (technical or expressive). A professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician.Technical pen
A technical pen is a specialized instrument used by an engineer, architect, or drafter to make lines of constant width for architectural, engineering, or technical drawings. "Rapidograph" is a trademarked name for one type of technical pen. Technical pens use either a refillable ink reservoir (Isograph version) or a replaceable ink cartridge.
ISO standards by standard number