ISO/IEC 8859-5

ISO/IEC 8859-5:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 5: Latin/Cyrillic alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin/Cyrillic. It was designed to cover languages using a Cyrillic alphabet such as Bulgarian, Belarusian, Russian, Serbian and Macedonian but was never widely used. It would also have been usable for Ukrainian in the Soviet Union from 1933–1990, but it is missing the Ukrainian letter ge, ґ, which is required in Ukrainian orthography before and since, and during that period outside Soviet Ukraine. As a result, IBM created Code page 1124.

ISO-8859-5 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

The 8-bit encodings KOI8-R and KOI8-U, CP866, and also Windows-1251 are far more commonly used. Another possible way to represent Cyrillic is Unicode.

The Windows code page for ISO-8859-5 is code page 28595 a.k.a. Windows-28595.[1]

ISO-8859-5
Alias(es)ISO-IR-144, Windows-28595
Language(s)Russian, Bulgarian, Belarusian, Macedonian, Serbian, Ukrainian (partial)
StandardISO/IEC 8859-5,
ECMA-113 (since 1988 edition)
ClassificationExtended ASCII, ISO 8859
ExtendsUS-ASCII, ISO-IR-153
Preceded byECMA-113:1986 (ISO-IR-111)
Other related encoding(s)IBM-1124

Codepage layout

ISO/IEC 8859-5
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
1_
16
2_
32
SP
0020
!
0021
"
0022
#
0023
$
0024
%
0025
&
0026
'
0027
(
0028
)
0029
*
002A
+
002B
,
002C
-
002D
.
002E
/
002F
3_
48
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
:
003A
;
003B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
?
003F
4_
64
@
0040
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
5_
80
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
[
005B
\
005C
]
005D
^
005E
_
005F
6_
96
`
0060
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E
8_
128
9_
144
A_
160
NBSP
00A0
Ё
0401
Ђ
0402
Ѓ
0403
Є
0404
Ѕ
0405
І
0406
Ї
0407
Ј
0408
Љ
0409
Њ
040A
Ћ
040B
Ќ
040C
SHY
00AD
Ў
040E
Џ
040F
B_
176
А
0410
Б
0411
В
0412
Г
0413
Д
0414
Е
0415
Ж
0416
З
0417
И
0418
Й
0419
К
041A
Л
041B
М
041C
Н
041D
О
041E
П
041F
C_
192
Р
0420
С
0421
Т
0422
У
0423
Ф
0424
Х
0425
Ц
0426
Ч
0427
Ш
0428
Щ
0429
Ъ
042A
Ы
042B
Ь
042C
Э
042D
Ю
042E
Я
042F
D_
208
а
0430
б
0431
в
0432
г
0433
д
0434
е
0435
ж
0436
з
0437
и
0438
й
0439
к
043A
л
043B
м
043C
н
043D
о
043E
п
043F
E_
224
р
0440
с
0441
т
0442
у
0443
ф
0444
х
0445
ц
0446
ч
0447
ш
0448
щ
0449
ъ
044A
ы
044B
ь
044C
э
044D
ю
044E
я
044F
F_
240

2116
ё
0451
ђ
0452
ѓ
0453
є
0454
ѕ
0455
і
0456
ї
0457
ј
0458
љ
0459
њ
045A
ћ
045B
ќ
045C
§
00A7
ў
045E
џ
045F

  Letter   Number   Punctuation   Symbol   Other   undefined

History and related code pages

The ECMA-113 standard has been equivalent to ISO-8859-5 since its second edition,[2] its first edition (ISO-IR-111) having been an extension of the earlier KOI-8 (defined by GOST 19768-74), which lays out the Russian letters in the same way as their ASCII Roman equivalents where possible. The initial draft of ISO-8859-5 (DIS-8859-5:1987) followed ISO-IR-111, but was revised[2] after GOST 19768-74 was replaced[3] by the new ISO-IR-153 in 1987, which re-arranged the Russian letters (except for Ё) into alphabetical order.[3][4] ISO-IR-153 contains the Russian letters, including Ё, and the non-breaking space and soft hyphen; the full Cyrillic set of ISO-8859-5 is also called ISO-IR-144.[5]

Possibly as a consequence of this confusion, RFC 1345 erroneously lists yet another code page as "ISO-IR-111", combining the letter order and case order of ISO-8859-5 with the row order of ISO-IR-111 (and consequently compatible with neither in practice, but in practice partially compatible[6] with Windows-1251).[7][6]

IBM Code page 1124 is mostly identical to ISO-8859-5, but replaces ѓ with ґ for Ukrainian use.

ISO-IR-200, "Uralic Supplementary Cyrillic Set",[8] was registered in 1998 by Everson Gunn Teoranta (directed at that time by Michael Everson, prior to the founding of Evertype in 2001),[9] and changes several of the non-Russian letters in order to support the Kildin Sami, Komi and Nenets languages, not supported by ISO-8859-5 itself. Michael Everson also introduced Mac OS Barents Cyrillic for the same languages on classic Mac OS.

ISO-IR 200[8] (differences from ISO-8859-5)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
. . .
A_
160
NBSP
00A0
Ё
0401
Ӈ
04C7
Ӓ
04D2
Ӭ
04EC
Ҍ
048C
І
0406
Ӧ
04E6
Ҋ
048A
Ӆ
04C5
Ӊ
04C9
«
00AB
Ӎ
04CD
SHY
00AD
Ҏ
049E
ʼ
02BC
. . .
F_
240

2116
ё
0451
ӈ
04C8
ӓ
04D3
ӭ
04ED
ҍ
048D
і
0456
ӧ
04E7
ҋ
048B
ӆ
04C6
ӊ
04CA
»
00BB
ӎ
04CE
§
00A7
ҏ
049F
ˮ
02EE

ISO-IR-201, "Volgaic Supplementary Cyrillic Set",[10] was similarly introduced by Everson Gunn Teoranta in order to support the Chuvash, Komi, Mari and Udmurt languages, spoken in the titular republics of Russia.

ISO-IR 201[10] (differences from ISO-8859-5)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
. . .
A_
160
NBSP
00A0
Ё
0401
Ӑ
04D0
Ӓ
04D2
Ӗ
04D6
Ҫ
04AA
І
0406
Ӧ
04E6
Ӥ
04E4
Ӝ
04DC
Ҥ
04A4
Ӹ
04F8
Ӟ
04DE
SHY
00AD
Ӱ
04F0
Ӵ
04F4
. . .
F_
240

2116
ё
0451
ӑ
04D1
ӓ
04D3
ӗ
04D7
ҫ
04AB
і
0456
ӧ
04E7
ӥ
04E5
ӝ
04DD
ҥ
04A5
ӹ
04F9
ӟ
04DF
§
00A7
ӱ
04F1
ӵ
04F5

References

  1. ^ Code Page Identifiers
  2. ^ a b ECMA-113. 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Cyrillic Alphabet (2nd ed., June 1988)
  3. ^ a b Czyborra, Roman (1998-11-30) [1998-05-25]. "The Cyrillic Charset Soup". Archived from the original on 2016-12-03. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  4. ^ http://czyborra.com/charsets/gost19768-87.txt.gz
  5. ^ "ISO-IR-144" (PDF). 1 May 1988.
  6. ^ a b Nechayev, Valentin (2013) [2001]. "Review of 8-bit Cyrillic encodings universe". Archived from the original on 2016-12-05. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
  7. ^ "ECMA-cyrillic alias iso-ir-111 sore".
  8. ^ a b "ISO-IR 200: Uralic Supplementary Cyrillic Set" (PDF).
  9. ^ Gunn, Marion; Everson, Michael (2001-09-20). "Everson Gunn Teoranta (EGT) & Everson Typography". Unicode Mail List Archive. Unicode Consortium.
  10. ^ a b "ISO-IR 201: Volgaic Supplementary Cyrillic Set" (PDF).

External links

  • ISO/IEC 8859-5:1999
  • Standard ECMA-113: 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Cyrillic Alphabet 3rd edition (December 1999)
  • ISO-IR 144 Cyrillic part of the Latin/Cyrillic Alphabet (May 1, 1988, from ISO 8859-5 2nd version)
Code page 915

Code page 915 (also known as CP 915, IBM 00915) is a code page used under IBM AIX and DOS to write the Bulgarian, Belarusian, Russian, Serbian and Macedonian but was never widely used. It would also have been usable for Ukrainian in the Soviet Union from 1933–1990, but it is missing the Ukrainian letter ge, ґ, which is required in Ukrainian orthography before and since, and during that period outside Soviet Ukraine. As a result, IBM created Code page 1124. It is an extension of ISO/IEC 8859-5.

Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia, particularly in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia. It is based on the Early Cyrillic alphabet developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire. It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, especially those of Orthodox Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 250 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the European Union, following Latin and Greek.Cyrillic is derived from the Greek uncial script, augmented by letters from the older Glagolitic alphabet, including some ligatures. These additional letters were used for Old Church Slavonic sounds not found in Greek. The script is named in honor of the two Byzantine brothers, Saints Cyril and Methodius, who created the Glagolitic alphabet earlier on. Modern scholars believe that Cyrillic was developed and formalized by early disciples of Cyril and Methodius.

In the early 18th century, the Cyrillic script used in Russia was heavily reformed by Peter the Great, who had recently returned from his Grand Embassy in western Europe. The new letterforms became closer to those of the Latin alphabet; several archaic letters were removed and several letters were personally designed by Peter the Great (such as Я, which was inspired by the Latin R). West European typography culture was also adopted.

ES PEVM

ES PEVM (ЕС ПЭВМ) was a Soviet clone of the IBM PC in 1980s. The ES PEVM models lineup also included analogues of IBM PC XT, IBM PC AT, IBM XT/370.

The computers and software were adapted in Minsk, Belarus, at the Scientific Research Institute of Electronic Computer Machines (НИИ ЭВМ).

They were manufactured in Minsk as well, at Minsk Production Group for Computing Machinery (Минское производственное объединение вычислительной техники (МПО ВТ)).

ISO-IR-153

ISO-IR-153 (ST SEV 358-88) is an 8-bit character set that covers the Russian and Bulgarian alphabets. Unlike the KOI encodings, this encoding lists the Cyrillic letters in their correct traditional order. This has become the basis for ISO/IEC 8859-5 and the Cyrillic Unicode block.

ISO-IR-200

ISO-IR-200 is a modification of ISO/IEC 8859-5 which added the letters to support Kildin Sami, Komi, and Nenets. It was created on May 1, 1998 by Everson Gunn Teoranta, which includes Michael Everson, among others.

Iskra-1030

The Iskra 1030 (Russian: Искра 1030) was an Intel 8086 compatible personal computer produced in the USSR. It was designed by Elektronmash (Russian: ЛНПО «Электронмаш») in Leningrad. The main manufacturers were the Iskra factory (Russian: Искра) in Smolensk and the Shchyotmash factory (Russian: Счётмаш) in Kursk. The model line consisted of Iskra 1030.11 (basic), Iskra 1030М (modified), Iskra 1031, and Iskra 3104.

List of Ecma standards

This is a list of standards published by Ecma International, formerly the European Computer Manufacturers Association.

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 8000-8999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

Main code page (Russian)

The Main code page (Russian: Основная кодировка) is an 8-bit code page used in DOS. It was devised in 1986 by a research group at the Academy of Science of the USSR. The other code page by the same group is known as the "Alternative code page" (Russian: Альтернативная кодировка) which is nearly identical to code page 866. Unlike the latter, the "Main code page" does not preserve the code points of the pseudographic symbols of code page 437. However, the majority of software at that period were made to be compatible with code page 437, as a result the Main code page has never gained any wide use. With the introduction of the Russian version of MS-DOS in 1990 which by default uses code page 866, the Main code page has become obsolete. Neither IBM nor Microsoft have ever supported this code page, so it has not been given its code page number by any vendor.

The Main code page was hardwired in some Soviet IBM PC clones such as ES PEVM or Iskra-1030 (however, other Soviet computers such as UKNC generally used KOI-7 or KOI-8).

The cells B0–EF seem to be the origin for the same rows in ISO/IEC 8859-5.

Russian language

Russian (русский язык, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onward.

Russian is the largest native language in Europe and the most geographically widespread language in Eurasia. It is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, with 144 million speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers. The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is also the third most widespread language on the Internet after English and German, respectively.Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Stress, which is unpredictable, is not normally indicated orthographically though an optional acute accent may be used to mark stress, such as to distinguish between homographic words, for example замо́к (zamók, meaning a lock) and за́мок (zámok, meaning a castle), or to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words or names.

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