ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 15: Latin alphabet No. 9, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1999. It is informally referred to as Latin-9 (and for a while Latin-0). It is similar to ISO 8859-1, and thus also intended for “Western European” languages, but replaces some less common symbols with the euro sign and some letters that were deemed necessary:
Microsoft has assigned code page 28605 a.k.a. Windows-28605 to ISO-8859-15. IBM has assigned code page 923 to ISO 8859-15.
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ISO 8859-15 was originally proposed as ISO 8859-0, made from ISO 8859-1 to replace 4 unused or rarely used characters (¤, ¨, ´, and ¸) with other characters missing from ISO 8859-1 (and not in any other ISO 8859 standard at the time), and 6 more characters (¢,¦,±,¼,½,¾) were proposed to possibly be dropped. € became necessary when the euro was introduced. Œ and œ are French ligatures, and Ÿ is needed in French all-caps text, as it is present in a few proper names such as the city of l'Haÿ-les-Roses or the poet and writer Pierre Louÿs. € was at 0xA4, Œ and œ were at 0xB4 and 0xB8 in the proposal, and Ÿ was at 0xA8. Later, four of the six characters proposed for deletion were deleted, and four more new characters were added. These characters, however, were in many other ISO standards. Š, š, Ž, and ž are used in some loanwords and transliteration of Russian names in Finnish and Estonian typography. It had been proposed to put the Euro Sign in place of the plus-minus sign instead of the currency sign (used in some applications as a FIELD SEPARATOR and by some other applications for SUBTOTAL accounting function; ¢ was proposed to remain to avoid confusion; +- would be a fallback). There was strong opposition on this. One said "The proposed «+-» is not an adequate fall-back, as this sequence, though rarely used, has already a fixed mathematical meaning, quite different from «±»; and even, if a reader would deduce the intended meaning, «±», from the context, «+-» in lieu of «±» will hurt a physicist's æsthetic feelings at least as much as «oe» in lieu of an o-e ligature a Francophone's." As a result of the opposition, ISO 8859-15 kept the plus-minus sign and removed the currency sign instead. As diacritics are frequently dropped in all-caps text in French (even though the Académie française discourages this practice), a code point for Ÿ wasn't deemed necessary for ISO-8859-1, even though one was given for its lower-case equivalent ÿ (at 0xFF).
Ironically, the last three characters (Œ, œ, Ÿ) had already been present in DEC's Multinational Character Set (MCS) in 1983, a character set from which ECMA-94 (1985) and ISO-8859-1 (1987) were derived. Since their original codepoints were now occupied by other characters, less logical codepoints had to be chosen for their reintroduction.
There were attempts to make ISO-8859-15 the default character set for 8-bit communication, but it was never able to supplant the popular ISO-8859-1. It did see some use as the default character set for the text console and terminal programs under Linux when the Euro sign was needed, but the use of full Unicode was not practical, but this has since been replaced with UTF-8.
ISO 8859-15 encodes what it refers to as "Latin alphabet no. 9". This character set is used throughout the Americas, Western Europe, Oceania, and much of Africa. It is also commonly used in most standard romanizations of East-Asian languages.
Each character is encoded as a single eight-bit code value. These code values can be used in almost any data interchange system to communicate in the following languages:
For some languages listed above, the correct typographical quotation marks are missing, since only «, », ", and ' are included.
Also, this encoding does not provide the correct character for the apostrophe, and oriented single high quotation marks, although some texts use the spacing grave accent and spacing acute accent, which are both part of ISO 8859-1, instead of the 6-shaped/9-shaped quotations marks or apostrophes (and this works reliably with some font styles, where all these characters are displayed as slanted wedge glyphs).
ISO 8859-15 also has the following, vendor-specific aliases:
On veille donc, en bonne typographie, à utiliser systématiquement les capitales accentuées ... [One takes care then, in good typography, to use accented capitals systematically ...]
The DejaVu fonts are modifications of the Bitstream Vera fonts designed for greater coverage of Unicode, as well as providing more styles. The Bitstream Vera family was limited mainly to the characters in the Basic Latin and Latin-1 Supplement portions of Unicode, roughly equivalent to ISO/IEC 8859-15, but was released with a license that permitted changes. The DejaVu fonts project was started with the aim to "provide a wider range of characters ... while maintaining the original look and feel through the process of collaborative development". The development of the fonts is done by many contributors, and is organized through a wiki and a mailing list.
The DejaVu fonts project was started by Štěpán Roh. Over time, it has absorbed several other projects that also existed to extend the Bitstream Vera typefaces; these projects include the Olwen Font Family, Bepa, Arev Fonts (only partially), and the SUSE Linux standard fonts. Changes made by the DejaVu project are public domain, while the full project incorporates the Bitstream Vera license, an extended MIT License which restricts naming of modified distributions and prohibits individual sale of the typefaces, although they may be embedded within a larger commercial software package.DejaVu fonts can be obtained from the DejaVu project on GitHub. Some operating systems (OpenBSD, Solaris, Haiku, AmigaOS 4, GNU/Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, and RHEL) include DejaVu fonts in their default installation, sometimes even using them as their system fonts. These fonts were also included in the proprietary BlackBerry OS, since its version 4.5, under the names "BBAlphaSans" and "BBAlphaSerif", until they were replaced in BlackBerry 10 with Slate.ISO/IEC 8859
ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings. The series of standards consists of numbered parts, such as ISO/IEC 8859-1, ISO/IEC 8859-2, etc. There are 15 parts, excluding the abandoned ISO/IEC 8859-12. The ISO working group maintaining this series of standards has been disbanded.
ISO/IEC 8859 parts 1, 2, 3, and 4 were originally Ecma International standard ECMA-94.ISO/IEC 8859-1
ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. ISO 8859-1 encodes what it refers to as "Latin alphabet no. 1," consisting of 191 characters from the Latin script. This character-encoding scheme is used throughout the Americas, Western Europe, Oceania, and much of Africa. It is also commonly used in most standard romanizations of East-Asian languages. It is the basis for most popular 8-bit character sets and the first block of characters in Unicode.
ISO-8859-1 is (according to the standards at least) the default encoding of documents delivered via HTTP with a MIME type beginning with "text/" (HTML5 changed this to Windows-1252). As of March 2019, 3.4% of all web sites claim to use ISO 8859-1. However, this includes an unknown number of pages actually using Windows-1252 and/or UTF-8, both of which are commonly recognized by browsers despite the character set tag.
It is the default encoding of the values of certain descriptive HTTP headers, and defines the repertoire of characters allowed in HTML 3.2 documents (HTML 4.0 uses Unicode), and is specified by many other standards. This and similar sets are often assumed to be the encoding of 8-bit text on Unix and Microsoft Windows if there is no byte order mark (BOM), this is only gradually being changed to UTF-8.
ISO-8859-1 is the IANA preferred name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. The following other aliases are registered: iso-ir-100, csISOLatin1, latin1, l1, IBM819. Code page 28591 a.k.a. Windows-28591 is used for it in Windows. IBM calls it code page 819 or CP819. Oracle calls it WE8ISO8859P1.List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 8000-8999
This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.Numeric character reference
A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represents a single character. Since WebSgml, XML and HTML 4, the code points of the Universal Character Set (UCS) of Unicode are used. NCRs are typically used in order to represent characters that are not directly encodable in a particular document (for example, because they are international characters that don't fit in the 8-bit character set being used, or because they have special syntactic meaning in the language). When the document is interpreted by a markup-aware reader, each NCR is treated as if it were the character it represents.Western Latin character sets (computing)
Several binary representations of character sets for common Western European languages are compared in this article. These encodings were designed for representation of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Dutch, English, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic, which use the Latin alphabet, a few additional letters and ones with precomposed diacritics, some punctuation, and various symbols (including some Greek letters). Although they're called "Western European" many of these languages are spoken all over the world. Also, these character sets happen to support many other languages such as Malay, Swahili, and Classical Latin.
This material is technically obsolete, having been functionally replaced by Unicode. However it continues to have historical interest.
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