ISO/IEC 8859-1

ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. ISO 8859-1 encodes what it refers to as "Latin alphabet no. 1," consisting of 191 characters from the Latin script. This character-encoding scheme is used throughout the Americas, Western Europe, Oceania, and much of Africa. It is also commonly used in most standard romanizations of East-Asian languages. It is the basis for most popular 8-bit character sets and the first block of characters in Unicode.

ISO-8859-1 is (according to the standards at least) the default encoding of documents delivered via HTTP with a MIME type beginning with "text/" (HTML5 changed this to Windows-1252).[1][2] As of March 2019, 3.4% of all web sites claim to use ISO 8859-1.[3] However, this includes an unknown number of pages actually using Windows-1252 and/or UTF-8, both of which are commonly recognized by browsers despite the character set tag.

It is the default encoding of the values of certain descriptive HTTP headers, and defines the repertoire of characters allowed in HTML 3.2 documents (HTML 4.0 uses Unicode), and is specified by many other standards. This and similar sets are often assumed to be the encoding of 8-bit text on Unix and Microsoft Windows if there is no byte order mark (BOM), this is only gradually being changed to UTF-8.

ISO-8859-1 is the IANA preferred name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. The following other aliases are registered: iso-ir-100, csISOLatin1, latin1, l1, IBM819. Code page 28591 a.k.a. Windows-28591 is used for it in Windows.[4] IBM calls it code page 819 or CP819. Oracle calls it WE8ISO8859P1.[5]

ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998
Latin-1-infobox
ISO 8859-1 code page layout
MIME / IANAISO-8859-1
Alias(es)iso-ir-100, csISOLatin1, latin1, l1, IBM819, CP819
Language(s)English, various others
StandardISO/IEC 8859
ClassificationExtended ASCII, ISO 8859
ExtendsUS-ASCII
Based onDEC MCS
Succeeded byWindows-1252 (web standards)
Other related encoding(s)BraSCII

Coverage

Each character is encoded as a single eight-bit code value. These code values can be used in almost any data interchange system to communicate in the following languages:

Modern languages with complete coverage

Notes
  1. ^ Kurdish Unified Alphabet, based on the Latin character set
  2. ^ Basic classical orthography
  3. ^ Rumi script
  4. ^ Bokmål and Nynorsk
  5. ^ European and Brazilian

Languages with incomplete coverage

ISO-8859-1 was commonly used for certain languages, even though it lacks characters used by these languages. In most cases, only a few letters are missing or they are rarely used, and they can be replaced with characters that are in ISO-8859-1 using some form of typographic approximation. The following table lists such languages.

Language Missing characters Typical workaround Supported by
Catalan Ŀ, ŀ (deprecated) L·, l·
Danish Ǿ, ǿ Ø, ø or øe
Dutch IJ, ij (but with debatable status); j́ in emphasized words like "blíj́f" digraphs IJ, ij; blíjf
Estonian Š, š, Ž, ž (only present in loanwords) Sh, sh, Zh, zh ISO-8859-15, Windows-1252
Finnish Š, š, Ž, ž (only present in loanwords) Sh, sh, Zh, zh ISO-8859-15, Windows-1252
French Œ, œ, and the very rare Ÿ digraphs OE, oe; Y or Ý ISO-8859-15, Windows-1252
German (capital ß, used only in all capitals; included in the official orthography in 2017, still optional) digraph SS
Hungarian Ő, ő, Ű, ű Ö, ö, Ü, ü ISO/IEC 8859-2, Windows-1250
Irish (traditional orthography) Ḃ, ḃ, Ċ, ċ, Ḋ, ḋ, Ḟ, ḟ, Ġ, ġ, Ṁ, ṁ, Ṗ, ṗ, Ṡ, ṡ, Ṫ, ṫ Bh, bh, Ch, ch, Dh, dh, Fh, fh, Gh, gh, Mh, mh, Ph, ph, Sh, sh, Th, th ISO-8859-14
Welsh , ẁ, , ẃ, Ŵ, ŵ, Ŷ, ŷ W, w, Ý, ý ISO-8859-14

The letter ÿ, which appears in French only very rarely, mainly in city names such as L'Haÿ-les-Roses and never at the beginning of words, is included only in lowercase form. The slot corresponding to its uppercase form is occupied by the lowercase letter ß from the German language, which did not have an uppercase form at the time when the standard was created.

Quotation marks

For some languages listed above, the correct typographical quotation marks are missing, as only « », " ", and ' ' are included. Also, this scheme does not provide for oriented (6- or 9-shaped) single or double quotation marks. Some fonts will display the spacing grave accent (0x60) and the apostrophe (0x27) as a matching pair of oriented single quotation marks, but this is not considered part of the modern standard.

History

ISO 8859-1 was based on the Multinational Character Set used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the popular VT220 terminal in 1983. It was developed within ECMA, the European Computer Manufacturers Association, and published in March 1985 as ECMA-94,[6] by which name it is still sometimes known. The second edition of ECMA-94 (June 1986)[7] also included ISO 8859-2, ISO 8859-3, and ISO 8859-4 as part of the specification.

The original draft placed French Œ and œ at code points 215 (0xD7) and 247 (0xF7). However, the French delegate, being neither a linguist nor a typographer, falsely stated that these are not independent French letters on their own, but mere ligatures (like or ). These code points were soon filled with × and ÷ under the suggestion of the German delegation. Then things went even worse for the French language, when it was again falsely stated that the letter ÿ is "not French", resulting in the absence of the capital Ÿ. In fact the letter ÿ is found in a number of French proper names, and the capital letter has been used in dictionaries and encyclopedias.[8] These characters were added to ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999.

In 1985, Commodore adopted ECMA-94 for its new AmigaOS operating system.[9] The Seikosha MP-1300AI impact dot-matrix printer, used with the Amiga 1000, included this encoding.

In 1990 the very first version of Unicode used the code points of ISO-8859-1 as the first 256 Unicode code points.

In 1992, the IANA registered the character map ISO_8859-1:1987, more commonly known by its preferred MIME name of ISO-8859-1 (note the extra hyphen over ISO 8859-1), a superset of ISO 8859-1, for use on the Internet. This map assigns the C0 and C1 control characters to the unassigned code values thus provides for 256 characters via every possible 8-bit value.

Code page layout

ISO/IEC 8859-1
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
1_
16
2_
32
SP
0020
!
0021
"
0022
#
0023
$
0024
%
0025
&
0026
'
0027
(
0028
)
0029
*
002A
+
002B
,
002C
-
002D
.
002E
/
002F
3_
48
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
:
003A
;
003B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
?
003F
4_
64
@
0040
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
5_
80
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
[
005B
\
005C
]
005D
^
005E
_
005F
6_
96
`
0060
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E
8_
128
9_
144
A_
160
NBSP
00A0
¡
00A1
¢
00A2
£
00A3
¤
00A4
¥
00A5
¦
00A6
§
00A7
¨
00A8
©
00A9
ª
00AA
«
00AB
¬
00AC
SHY
00AD
®
00AE
¯
00AF
B_
176
°
00B0
±
00B1
²
00B2
³
00B3
´
00B4
µ
00B5

00B6
·
00B7
¸
00B8
¹
00B9
º
00BA
»
00BB
¼
00BC
½
00BD
¾
00BE
¿
00BF
C_
192
À
00C0
Á
00C1
Â
00C2
Ã
00C3
Ä
00C4
Å
00C5
Æ
00C6
Ç
00C7
È
00C8
É
00C9
Ê
00CA
Ë
00CB
Ì
00CC
Í
00CD
Î
00CE
Ï
00CF
D_
208
Ð
00D0
Ñ
00D1
Ò
00D2
Ó
00D3
Ô
00D4
Õ
00D5
Ö
00D6
×
00D7
Ø
00D8
Ù
00D9
Ú
00DA
Û
00DB
Ü
00DC
Ý
00DD
Þ
00DE
ß
00DF
E_
224
à
00E0
á
00E1
â
00E2
ã
00E3
ä
00E4
å
00E5
æ
00E6
ç
00E7
è
00E8
é
00E9
ê
00EA
ë
00EB
ì
00EC
í
00ED
î
00EE
ï
00EF
F_
240
ð
00F0
ñ
00F1
ò
00F2
ó
00F3
ô
00F4
õ
00F5
ö
00F6
÷
00F7
ø
00F8
ù
00F9
ú
00FA
û
00FB
ü
00FC
ý
00FD
þ
00FE
ÿ
00FF

  Letter   Number   Punctuation   Symbol   Other   undefined   undefined in the first release of ECMA-94 (1985).[6]

Similar character sets

ISO/IEC 8859-15

ISO/IEC 8859-15 was developed in 1999 as an update of ISO/IEC 8859-1. It provides some characters for French and Finnish text and the euro sign, which are missing from ISO/IEC 8859-1. This required the removal of some infrequently used characters from ISO/IEC 8859-1, including fraction symbols and letter-free diacritics: ¤, ¦, ¨, ´, ¸, ¼, ½, and ¾. Ironically, three of the newly added characters (Œ, œ, and Ÿ) had already been present in DEC's 1983 Multinational Character Set (MCS), the predecessor to ISO/IEC 8859-1 (1987). Since their original code points were now reused for other purposes, the characters had to be reintroduced under different, less logical code points.

Windows-1252

The popular Windows-1252 character set adds all the missing characters provided by ISO/IEC 8859-15, plus a number of typographic symbols, by replacing the rarely used C1 controls in the range 128 to 159 (hex 80 to 9F). It is very common to mislabel Windows-1252 text as being in ISO-8859-1. A common result was that all the quotes and apostrophes (produced by "smart quotes" in word-processing software) were replaced with question marks or boxes on non-Windows operating systems, making text difficult to read. Many web browsers and e-mail clients will interpret ISO-8859-1 control codes as Windows-1252 characters, and that behavior was later standardized in HTML5.[10]

Mac Roman

The Apple Macintosh computer introduced a character encoding called Mac Roman in 1984. It was meant to be suitable for Western European desktop publishing. It is a superset of ASCII, and has most of the characters that are in ISO-8859-1 and all the extra characters from Windows-1252 but in a totally different arrangement. The few printable characters that are in ISO 8859-1 but not in this set are often a source of trouble when editing text on websites using older Macintosh browsers (including the last version of Internet Explorer for Mac).

Other

DOS had code page 850, which had all printable characters that ISO-8859-1 had (albeit in a totally different arrangement) plus the most widely used graphic characters from code page 437.

Between 1989[11] and 2015 Hewlett-Packard used another superset of ISO-8859-1 on many of their calculators. This proprietary character set was sometimes referred to simply as "ECMA-94" as well.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ W3C/WHATWG Encoding specification: Names and Labels
  2. ^ HTML5 specification: 2.1.6 Character encodings
  3. ^ "Historical trends in the usage of character encodings, January 2019". Retrieved 2019-02-18.
  4. ^ "Code Page Identifiers". Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved 2010-12-19.
  5. ^ Baird, Cathy; Chiba, Dan; Chu, Winson; Fan, Jessica; Ho, Claire; Law, Simon; Lee, Geoff; Linsley, Peter; Matsuda, Keni; Oscroft, Tamzin; Takeda, Shige; Tanaka, Linus; Tozawa, Makoto; Trute, Barry; Tsujimoto, Mayumi; Wu, Ying; Yau, Michael; Yu, Tim; Wang, Chao; Wong, Simon; Zhang, Weiran; Zheng, Lei; Zhu, Yan; Moore, Valarie (2002) [1996]. "Appendix A: Locale Data". Oracle9i Database Globalization Support Guide (PDF) (Release 2 (9.2) ed.). Oracle Corporation. Oracle A96529-01. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-14. Retrieved 2017-02-14.
  6. ^ a b Standard ECMA-94: 8-bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Set (PDF) (1 ed.). European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA). March 1985 [1984-12-14]. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-01. […] Since 1982 the urgency of the need for an 8-bit single-byte coded character set was recognized in ECMA as well as in ANSI/X3L2 and numerous working papers were exchanged between the two groups. In February 1984 ECMA TC1 submitted to ISO/TC97/SC2 a proposal for such a coded character set. At its meeting of April 1984 SC decided to submit to TC97 a proposal for a new item of work for this topic. Technical discussions during and after this meeting led TC1 to adopt the coding scheme proposed by X3L2. Part 1 of Draft International Standard DTS 8859 is based on this joint ANSI/ECMA proposal. […] Adopted as an ECMA Standard by the General Assembly of Dec. 13–14, 1984. […]
  7. ^ second edition of ECMA-94 (June 1986)
  8. ^ Jacques, André (1996). "ISO Latin-1, norme de codage des caractères européens? Trois caractères français en sont absents!" (PDF). Cahiers GUTenberg (25): 65–77.
  9. ^ Malyshev, Michael (2003-01-10). "Registration of new charset [Amiga-1251]". ATO-RU (Amiga Translation Organization – Russian Department). Archived from the original on 2016-12-05. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
  10. ^ "Encoding". WHATWG. 27 January 2015. sec. 5.2 Names and labels. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  11. ^ a b HP 82240B Infrared Printer (1 ed.). Corvallis, OR, USA: Hewlett Packard. August 1989. HP reorder number 82240-90014. Retrieved 2016-08-01.

External links

0N

0N (zero N) or 0-N may refer to:

0N or 0°N, an expression of the latitude of the equator

0n, an abbreviation for Zero norm in mathematics

HP 0N, ISO/IEC 8859-1 character set on printers by Hewlett-Packard

Code 128

Code 128 is a high-density linear barcode symbology defined in ISO/IEC 15417:2007. It is used for alphanumeric or numeric-only barcodes. It can encode all 128 characters of ASCII and, by use of an extension symbol (FNC4), the Latin-1 characters defined in ISO/IEC 8859-1.GS1-128 (formerly known as UCC/EAN-128) is a subset of Code 128 and is used extensively worldwide in shipping and packaging industries as a product identification code for the container and pallet levels in the supply chain. The symbology was formerly defined as ISO/IEC 15417:2007.

Code page 922

Code page 922 (also known as CP 922, IBM 00922) is a code page used under IBM AIX and DOS to write the Estonian. It is an extension and modification of ISO/IEC 8859-1, where the letters Ð/ð and Þ/þ used for Icelandic are replaced by the letters Š/š and Ž/ž respectively.

DEC Hebrew

The DEC Hebrew character set is an 8-bit character set developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to support the Hebrew alphabet. It was derived from DEC's Multinational Character Set (MCS) by removing the existing definitions from code points 192 to 223 and 224 to 250 and replacing code points 251 to 256 by the Hebrew letters. Since MCS is a predecessor of ISO/IEC 8859-1, DEC Hebrew is similar to ISO/IEC 8859-8 and the Windows code page 1255, that is, many characters in the range 160 to 191 are the same, and the Hebrew letters are at 192 to 250 in all three character sets.

EBCDIC code pages

EBCDIC code pages are based on the original EBCDIC character encoding; there are a variety of EBCDIC code pages intended for use in different parts of the world, including code pages for non-Latin scripts such as Chinese, Japanese (e.g., EBCDIC 930, JEF, and KEIS), Korean, and Greek (EBCDIC 875).

The most common newline convention used with EBCDIC code pages is to use a NEL (NEXT LINE) code between lines. Converters to other encodings often replace NEL with LF or CR/LF, even if there is a NEL in the target encoding.

ISO-IR-182

ISO-IR-182 is a Welsh variant of ISO/IEC 8859-1 that supports the Welsh language. However, it lacks the letters used in the Irish language (which are in ISO/IEC 8859-14).

ISO/IEC 8859

ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings. The series of standards consists of numbered parts, such as ISO/IEC 8859-1, ISO/IEC 8859-2, etc. There are 15 parts, excluding the abandoned ISO/IEC 8859-12. The ISO working group maintaining this series of standards has been disbanded.

ISO/IEC 8859 parts 1, 2, 3, and 4 were originally Ecma International standard ECMA-94.

ISO/IEC 8859-12

ISO/IEC 8859-12 would have been part 12 of the ISO/IEC 8859 character encoding standard series.

ISO 8859-12 was originally proposed to support the Celtic languages. ISO 8859-12 was later slated for Latin/Devanagari, but this was abandoned in 1997, during the 12th meeting of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 3 in Iraklion-Crete, Greece, 4 to 7 July 1997. The Celtic proposal was changed to ISO 8859-14.

ISO/IEC 8859-15

ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 15: Latin alphabet No. 9, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1999. It is informally referred to as Latin-9 (and for a while Latin-0). It is similar to ISO 8859-1, and thus also intended for “Western European” languages, but replaces some less common symbols with the euro sign and some letters that were deemed necessary:

ISO-8859-15 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

Microsoft has assigned code page 28605 a.k.a. Windows-28605 to ISO-8859-15. IBM has assigned code page 923 to ISO 8859-15.

All the printable characters from both ISO/IEC 8859-1 and ISO/IEC 8859-15 are also found in Windows-1252. Since October 2016 0.1% of all web sites use ISO-8859-15.

ISO/IEC 8859-2

ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 2: Latin alphabet No. 2, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. It is informally referred to as "Latin-2". It is generally intended for Central or "Eastern European" languages that are written in the Latin script. Note that ISO/IEC 8859-2 is very different from code page 852 (MS-DOS Latin 2, PC Latin 2) which is also referred to as "Latin-2" in Czech and Slovak regions. Code page 912 is an extension.

ISO-8859-2 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. 0.1% of all web pages use ISO 8859-2 in December 2018. Microsoft has assigned code page 28592 a.k.a. Windows-28592 to ISO-8859-2 in Windows. IBM assigned Code page 1111 to ISO 8859-2.

Windows-1250 is similar to ISO-8859-2 and has all the printable characters it has and more. However a few of them are rearranged (unlike Windows-1252, which keeps all printable characters from ISO-8859-1 in the same place).

These code values can be used for the following languages:

Albanian

Bosnian

Croatian

Czech

German (fully compatible with ISO/IEC 8859-1 for German texts)

Hungarian

Polish

Serbian Latin

Slovak

Slovene

Upper Sorbian

Lower Sorbian

Turkmen.It can also be used for Romanian, but it is not well suited for that language, due to lacking letters s and t with commas below, although it provides s and t with similar-looking cedillas. These letters were unified in the first versions of the Unicode standard, meaning that the appearance with cedilla or with a comma was treated as a glyph choice rather than as separate characters; fonts intended for use with Romanian should therefore, in theory, have characters with a comma below at those code points.

Microsoft did not really provide such fonts for computers sold in Romania. Still, ISO/IEC 8859-2 and Windows-1250 (with the same problem) have been heavily used for Romanian. Unicode subsequently disunified the comma variants from the cedilla variants, and has since taken the lead for web pages, which however often have s and t with cedilla anyway. Unicode notes as of 2014 that disunifying the letters with comma below was a mistake, causing corruptions of Romanian data: pre-existing data and input methods would still contain the older cedilla codepoints, complicating text searching.

ISO/IEC 8859-9

ISO/IEC 8859-9:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 9: Latin alphabet No. 5, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1989. It is informally referred to as Latin-5 or Turkish. It was designed to cover the Turkish language, designed as being of more use than the ISO/IEC 8859-3 encoding. It is identical to ISO/IEC 8859-1 except for these six replacements of Icelandic characters with characters unique to the Turkish alphabet:

ISO-8859-9 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. In modern applications Unicode and UTF-8 are preferred. 0.1% of all web pages use ISO-8859-9 in February 2016.Microsoft has assigned code page 28599 a.k.a. Windows-28599 to ISO-8859-9 in Windows. IBM has assigned Code page 920 to ISO-8859-9.

Macintosh Latin encoding

Macintosh Latin is a character encoding which is used by Kermit to represent text on the Apple Macintosh (but not by standard Mac OS fonts). It is a modification of Mac OS Icelandic to include all characters in ISO/IEC 8859-1, DEC MCS, the PostScript Standard Encoding, and a Dutch ISO 646 variant (with ÿ or ij being a substitute for ij). Although Macintosh Latin is designed to be compatible with the standard Macintosh Mac OS Roman encoding for the shared subset of characters, the two should not be confused.

Each character is shown with its equivalent Unicode code point. Only the second half of the table (code points 128–255) is shown, the first half (code points 0–127) being the same as ASCII.

Mu (letter)

Mu (uppercase Μ, lowercase μ; Ancient Greek μῦ [mŷː], Greek: μι or μυ—both [mi]) or my is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 40. Mu was derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water, which had been simplified by the Phoenicians and named after their word for water, to become 𐤌img (mem). Letters that arose from mu include the Roman M and the Cyrillic М.

National Replacement Character Set

The National Replacement Character Set, or NRCS for short, was a feature supported by later models of Digital's (DEC) computer terminal systems, starting with the VT200 series in 1983. NRCS allowed individual characters from one character set to be replaced by one from another set, allowing the construction of different character sets on the fly. It was used to customize the character set to different local languages, without having to change the terminal's ROM for different counties, or alternately, include many different sets in a larger ROM. Many 3rd party terminals and terminal emulators supporting VT200 codes also supported NRCS.

PostScript Latin 1 Encoding

The PostScript Latin 1 Encoding (often spelled ISOLatin1Encoding) is one of the character sets (or encoding vectors) used by Adobe Systems' PostScript (PS) since 1984 (1982). In 1995, IBM assigned code page 1277 to this character set. It is a superset of ISO/IEC 8859-1.

RISC OS character set

The Acorn RISC OS character set was used in the Acorn Archimedes series and subsequent computers from 1987 onwards. It is an extension of ISO/IEC 8859-1.

Yen sign

The yen

or yuan sign (¥) is a currency sign used by the Japanese yen and the Chinese yuan currencies. This monetary symbol resembles a Latin letter Y with a single or double horizontal stroke. The symbol is usually placed before the value it represents, for example ¥50, unlike the kanji/Chinese character, which is more commonly used in Japanese and Chinese and is written following the amount: 50円 in Japan and 50元 in China.

Early telecommunications
ISO/IEC 8859
Bibliographic use
National standards
EUC
ISO/IEC 2022
MacOS code pages("scripts")
DOS code pages
IBM AIX code pages
IBM Apple MacIntoshemulations
IBM Adobe emulations
IBM DEC emulations
IBM HP emulations
Windows code pages
EBCDIC code pages
Platform specific
Unicode / ISO/IEC 10646
TeX typesetting system
Miscellaneous code pages
Related topics

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.