ISO/IEC 8859

ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings. The series of standards consists of numbered parts, such as ISO/IEC 8859-1, ISO/IEC 8859-2, etc. There are 15 parts, excluding the abandoned ISO/IEC 8859-12. The ISO working group maintaining this series of standards has been disbanded.

ISO/IEC 8859 parts 1, 2, 3, and 4 were originally Ecma International standard ECMA-94.

ISO 8859 encoding family
StandardISO/IEC 8859
ExtendsUS-ASCII
Preceded byISO 646
Succeeded byISO 10646 (Unicode)
Other related encoding(s)Windows-125x

Introduction

While the bit patterns of the 95 printable ASCII characters are sufficient to exchange information in modern English, most other languages that use Latin alphabets need additional symbols not covered by ASCII. ISO/IEC 8859 sought to remedy this problem by utilizing the eighth bit in an 8-bit byte to allow positions for another 96 printable characters. Early encodings were limited to 7 bits because of restrictions of some data transmission protocols, and partially for historical reasons. However, more characters were needed than could fit in a single 8-bit character encoding, so several mappings were developed, including at least ten suitable for various Latin alphabets.

The ISO/IEC 8859-n encodings only contain printable characters, and were designed to be used in conjunction with control characters mapped to the unassigned bytes. To this end a series of encodings registered with the IANA add the C0 control set (control characters mapped to bytes 0 to 31) from ISO 646 and the C1 control set (control characters mapped to bytes 128 to 159) from ISO 6429, resulting in full 8-bit character maps with most, if not all, bytes assigned. These sets have ISO-8859-n as their preferred MIME name or, in cases where a preferred MIME name is not specified, their canonical name. Many people use the terms ISO/IEC 8859-n and ISO-8859-n interchangeably. ISO/IEC 8859-11 did not get such a charset assigned, presumably because it was almost identical to TIS 620.

Characters

The ISO/IEC 8859 standard is designed for reliable information exchange, not typography; the standard omits symbols needed for high-quality typography, such as optional ligatures, curly quotation marks, dashes, etc. As a result, high-quality typesetting systems often use proprietary or idiosyncratic extensions on top of the ASCII and ISO/IEC 8859 standards, or use Unicode instead.

As a rule of thumb, if a character or symbol was not already part of a widely used data-processing character set and was also not usually provided on typewriter keyboards for a national language, it did not get in. Hence the directional double quotation marks « and » used for some European languages were included, but not the directional double quotation marks and used for English and some other languages. French did not get its œ and Œ ligatures because they could be typed as 'oe'. Likewise, Ÿ, needed for all-caps text, was dropped as well.[1][2][3] Albeit under different codepoints, these three characters were later reintroduced with ISO/IEC 8859-15 in 1999, which also introduced the new euro sign character €. Likewise Dutch did not get the ij and IJ letters, because Dutch speakers had become used to typing these as two letters instead. Romanian did not initially get its Ș/ș and Ț/ț (with comma) letters, because these letters were initially unified with Ş/ş and Ţ/ţ (with cedilla) by the Unicode Consortium, considering the shapes with comma beneath to be glyph variants of the shapes with cedilla. However, the letters with explicit comma below were later added to the Unicode standard and are also in ISO/IEC 8859-16. Most of the ISO/IEC 8859 encodings provide diacritic marks required for various European languages using the Latin script. Others provide non-Latin alphabets: Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic and Thai. Most of the encodings contain only spacing characters although the Thai, Hebrew, and Arabic ones do also contain combining characters. However, the standard makes no provision for the scripts of East Asian languages (CJK), as their ideographic writing systems require many thousands of code points. Although it uses Latin based characters, Vietnamese does not fit into 96 positions (without using combining diacritics) either. Each Japanese syllabic alphabet (hiragana or katakana, see Kana) would fit, but like several other alphabets of the world they are not encoded in the ISO/IEC 8859 system.

The parts of ISO/IEC 8859

ISO/IEC 8859 is divided into the following parts:

Part Name Revisions Description
Part 1 Latin-1
Western European
1987, 1998 Perhaps the most widely used part of ISO/IEC 8859, covering most Western European languages: Danish (partial),[nb 1] Dutch (partial),[nb 2] English, Faeroese, Finnish (partial),[nb 3] French (partial),[nb 3] German, Icelandic, Irish, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Rhaeto-Romanic, Scottish Gaelic, Spanish, Catalan, and Swedish. Languages from other parts of the world are also covered, including: Eastern European Albanian, Southeast Asian Indonesian, as well as the African languages Afrikaans and Swahili. The missing euro sign and capital Ÿ are in the revised version ISO/IEC 8859-15 (see below). The corresponding IANA character set is ISO-8859-1.
Part 2 Latin-2
Central European
1987, 1999 Supports those Central and Eastern European languages that use the Latin alphabet, including Bosnian, Polish, Croatian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Serbian, and Hungarian. The missing euro sign can be found in version ISO/IEC 8859-16.
Part 3 Latin-3
South European
1988, 1999 Turkish, Maltese, and Esperanto. Largely superseded by ISO/IEC 8859-9 for Turkish.
Part 4 Latin-4
North European
1988, 1998 Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Greenlandic, and Sami.
Part 5 Latin/Cyrillic 1988, 1999 Covers mostly Slavic languages that use a Cyrillic alphabet, including Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian (partial).[nb 4]
Part 6 Latin/Arabic 1987, 1999 Covers the most common Arabic language characters. Does not support other languages using the Arabic script. Needs to be BiDi and cursive joining processed for display.
Part 7 Latin/Greek 1987, 2003 Covers the modern Greek language (monotonic orthography). Can also be used for Ancient Greek written without accents or in monotonic orthography, but lacks the diacritics for polytonic orthography. These were introduced with Unicode.
Part 8 Latin/Hebrew 1988, 1999 Covers the modern Hebrew alphabet as used in Israel. In practice two different encodings exist, logical order (needs to be BiDi processed for display) and visual (left-to-right) order (in effect, after bidi processing and line breaking).
Part 9 Latin-5
Turkish
1989, 1999 Largely the same as ISO/IEC 8859-1, replacing the rarely used Icelandic letters with Turkish ones.
Part 10 Latin-6
Nordic
1992, 1998 A rearrangement of Latin-4. Considered more useful for Nordic languages. Baltic languages use Latin-4 more.
Part 11 Latin/Thai 2001 Contains characters needed for the Thai language. Virtually identical to TIS 620.
Part 12 Latin/Devanagari N/A The work in making a part of 8859 for Devanagari was officially abandoned in 1997. ISCII and Unicode/ISO/IEC 10646 cover Devanagari.
Part 13 Latin-7
Baltic Rim
1998 Added some characters for Baltic languages which were missing from Latin-4 and Latin-6.
Part 14 Latin-8
Celtic
1998 Covers Celtic languages such as Gaelic and the Breton language.
Part 15 Latin-9 1999 A revision of 8859-1 that removes some little-used symbols, replacing them with the euro sign and the letters Š, š, Ž, ž, Œ, œ, and Ÿ, which completes the coverage of French, Finnish and Estonian.
Part 16 Latin-10
South-Eastern European
2001 Intended for Albanian, Croatian, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Romanian and Slovene, but also Finnish, French, German and Irish Gaelic (new orthography). The focus lies more on letters than symbols. The currency sign is replaced with the euro sign.

Each part of ISO/IEC 8859 is designed to support languages that often borrow from each other, so the characters needed by each language are usually accommodated by a single part. However, there are some characters and language combinations that are not accommodated without transcriptions. Efforts were made to make conversions as smooth as possible. For example, German has all of its seven special characters at the same positions in all Latin variants (1–4, 9, 10, 13–16), and in many positions the characters only differ in the diacritics between the sets. In particular, variants 1–4 were designed jointly, and have the property that every encoded character appears either at a given position or not at all.

Table

Comparison of the various parts (1–16) of ISO/IEC 8859
Binary Oct Dec Hex 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16
1010 0000 240 160 A0 Non-breaking space (NBSP)
1010 0001 241 161 A1 ¡ Ą Ħ Ą Ё     ¡ Ą ¡ Ą
1010 0010 242 162 A2 ¢ ˘ ĸ Ђ   ¢ ¢ Ē ¢ ¢ ą
1010 0011 243 163 A3 £ Ł £ Ŗ Ѓ   £ Ģ £ Ł
1010 0100 244 164 A4 ¤ Є ¤ ¤ Ī ¤ Ċ
1010 0101 245 165 A5 ¥ Ľ   Ĩ Ѕ   ¥ Ĩ ċ ¥
1010 0110 246 166 A6 ¦ Ś Ĥ Ļ І   ¦ Ķ ¦ Š
1010 0111 247 167 A7 § Ї   § §
1010 1000 250 168 A8 ¨ Ј   ¨ Ļ Ø š
1010 1001 251 169 A9 © Š İ Š Љ   © Đ ©
1010 1010 252 170 AA ª Ş Ē Њ   ͺ × ª Š Ŗ ª Ș
1010 1011 253 171 AB « Ť Ğ Ģ Ћ   « Ŧ « «
1010 1100 254 172 AC ¬ Ź Ĵ Ŧ Ќ ، ¬ Ž ¬ ¬ Ź
1010 1101 255 173 AD soft hyphen (SHY) SHY
1010 1110 256 174 AE ® Ž   Ž Ў     ® Ū ® ź
1010 1111 257 175 AF ¯ Ż ¯ Џ   ¯ Ŋ Æ Ÿ ¯ Ż
1011 0000 260 176 B0 ° А   ° ° °
1011 0001 261 177 B1 ± ą ħ ą Б   ± ą ± ±
1011 0010 262 178 B2 ² ˛ ² ˛ В   ² ē ² Ġ ² Č
1011 0011 263 179 B3 ³ ł ³ ŗ Г   ³ ģ ³ ġ ³ ł
1011 0100 264 180 B4 ´ Д   ΄ ´ ī Ž
1011 0101 265 181 B5 µ ľ µ ĩ Е   ΅ µ ĩ µ µ
1011 0110 266 182 B6 ś ĥ ļ Ж   Ά ķ
1011 0111 267 183 B7 · ˇ · ˇ З   · · ·
1011 1000 270 184 B8 ¸ И   Έ ¸ ļ ø ž
1011 1001 271 185 B9 ¹ š ı š Й   Ή ¹ đ ¹ ¹ č
1011 1010 272 186 BA º ş ē К   Ί ÷ º š ŗ º ș
1011 1011 273 187 BB » ť ğ ģ Л ؛ » ŧ » »
1011 1100 274 188 BC ¼ ź ĵ ŧ М   Ό ¼ ž ¼ Œ
1011 1101 275 189 BD ½ ˝ ½ Ŋ Н   ½ ½ œ
1011 1110 276 190 BE ¾ ž   ž О   Ύ ¾ ū ¾ Ÿ
1011 1111 277 191 BF ¿ ż ŋ П ؟ Ώ   ¿ ŋ æ ¿ ż
1100 0000 300 192 C0 À Ŕ À Ā Р   ΐ   À Ā Ą À
1100 0001 301 193 C1 Á С ء Α   Á Į Á
1100 0010 302 194 C2 Â Т آ Β   Â Ā Â
1100 0011 303 195 C3 Ã Ă   Ã У أ Γ   Ã Ć Ã Ă
1100 0100 304 196 C4 Ä Ф ؤ Δ   Ä Ä
1100 0101 305 197 C5 Å Ĺ Ċ Å Х إ Ε   Å Å Ć
1100 0110 306 198 C6 Æ Ć Ĉ Æ Ц ئ Ζ   Æ Ę Æ
1100 0111 307 199 C7 Ç Į Ч ا Η   Ç Į Ē Ç
1100 1000 310 200 C8 È Č È Č Ш ب Θ   È Č Č È
1100 1001 311 201 C9 É Щ ة Ι   É É
1100 1010 312 202 CA Ê Ę Ê Ę Ъ ت Κ   Ê Ę Ź Ê
1100 1011 313 203 CB Ë Ы ث Λ   Ë Ė Ë
1100 1100 314 204 CC Ì Ě Ì Ė Ь ج Μ   Ì Ė Ģ Ì
1100 1101 315 205 CD Í Э ح Ν   Í Ķ Í
1100 1110 316 206 CE Î Ю خ Ξ   Î Ī Î
1100 1111 317 207 CF Ï Ď Ï Ī Я د Ο   Ï Ļ Ï
Binary Oct Dec Hex 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16
1101 0000 320 208 D0 Ð Đ   Đ а ذ Π   Ğ Ð Š Ŵ Ð
1101 0001 321 209 D1 Ñ Ń Ñ Ņ б ر Ρ   Ñ Ņ Ń Ñ Ń
1101 0010 322 210 D2 Ò Ň Ò Ō в ز     Ò Ō Ņ Ò
1101 0011 323 211 D3 Ó Ķ г س Σ   Ó Ó
1101 0100 324 212 D4 Ô д ش Τ   Ô Ō Ô
1101 0101 325 213 D5 Õ Ő Ġ Õ е ص Υ   Õ Ő
1101 0110 326 214 D6 Ö ж ض Φ   Ö Ö
1101 0111 327 215 D7 × з ط Χ   × Ũ × × Ś
1101 1000 330 216 D8 Ø Ř Ĝ Ø и ظ Ψ   Ø Ų Ø Ű
1101 1001 331 217 D9 Ù Ů Ù Ų й ع Ω   Ù Ų Ł Ù
1101 1010 332 218 DA Ú к غ Ϊ   Ú Ś Ú
1101 1011 333 219 DB Û Ű Û л   Ϋ   Û   Ū Û
1101 1100 334 220 DC Ü м   ά   Ü   Ü
1101 1101 335 221 DD Ý Ŭ Ũ н   έ   İ Ý   Ż Ý Ę
1101 1110 336 222 DE Þ Ţ Ŝ Ū о   ή   Ş Þ   Ž Ŷ Þ Ț
1101 1111 337 223 DF ß п   ί ß ฿ ß
1110 0000 340 224 E0 à ŕ à ā р ـ ΰ א à ā ą à
1110 0001 341 225 E1 á с ف α ב á į á
1110 0010 342 226 E2 â т ق β ג â ā â
1110 0011 343 227 E3 ã ă   ã у ك γ ד ã ć ã ă
1110 0100 344 228 E4 ä ф ل δ ה ä ä
1110 0101 345 229 E5 å ĺ ċ å х م ε ו å å ć
1110 0110 346 230 E6 æ ć ĉ æ ц ن ζ ז æ ę æ
1110 0111 347 231 E7 ç į ч ه η ח ç į ē ç
1110 1000 350 232 E8 è č è č ш و θ ט è č č è
1110 1001 351 233 E9 é щ ى ι י é é
1110 1010 352 234 EA ê ę ê ę ъ ي κ ך ê ę ź ê
1110 1011 353 235 EB ë ы ً λ כ ë ė ë
1110 1100 354 236 EC ì ě ì ė ь ٌ μ ל ì ė ģ ì
1110 1101 355 237 ED í э ٍ ν ם í ķ í
1110 1110 356 238 EE î ю َ ξ מ î ī î
1110 1111 357 239 EF ï ď ï ī я ُ ο ן ï ļ ï
1111 0000 360 240 F0 ð đ   đ ِ π נ ğ ð š ŵ ð đ
1111 0001 361 241 F1 ñ ń ñ ņ ё ّ ρ ס ñ ņ ń ñ ń
1111 0010 362 242 F2 ò ň ò ō ђ ْ ς ע ò ō ņ ò
1111 0011 363 243 F3 ó ķ ѓ   σ ף ó ó
1111 0100 364 244 F4 ô є   τ פ ô ō ô
1111 0101 365 245 F5 õ ő ġ õ ѕ   υ ץ õ ő
1111 0110 366 246 F6 ö і   φ צ ö ö
1111 0111 367 247 F7 ÷ ї   χ ק ÷ ũ ÷ ÷ ś
1111 1000 370 248 F8 ø ř ĝ ø ј   ψ ר ø ų ø ű
1111 1001 371 249 F9 ù ů ù ų љ   ω ש ù ų ł ù
1111 1010 372 250 FA ú њ   ϊ ת ú ś ú
1111 1011 373 251 FB û ű û ћ   ϋ   û ū û
1111 1100 374 252 FC ü ќ   ό   ü   ü
1111 1101 375 253 FD ý ŭ ũ §   ύ LRM ı ý   ż ý ę
1111 1110 376 254 FE þ ţ ŝ ū ў   ώ RLM ş þ   ž ŷ þ ț
1111 1111 377 255 FF ÿ ˙ џ       ÿ ĸ   ÿ
Binary Oct Dec Hex 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16

At position 0xA0 there's always the non breaking space and 0xAD is mostly the soft hyphen, which only shows at line breaks. Other empty fields are either unassigned or the system used is not able to display them.

There are new additions as ISO/IEC 8859-7:2003 and ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999 versions. LRM stands for left-to-right mark (U+200E) and RLM stands for right-to-left mark (U+200F).

Relationship to Unicode and the UCS

Since 1991, the Unicode Consortium[nb 4] has been working with ISO and IEC to develop the Unicode Standard and ISO/IEC 10646: the Universal Character Set (UCS) in tandem. Newer editions of ISO/IEC 8859 express characters in terms of their Unicode/UCS names and the U+nnnn notation, effectively causing each part of ISO/IEC 8859 to be a Unicode/UCS character encoding scheme that maps a very small subset of the UCS to single 8-bit bytes. The first 256 characters in Unicode and the UCS are identical to those in ISO/IEC-8859-1 (Latin-1).

Single-byte character sets including the parts of ISO/IEC 8859 and derivatives of them were favoured throughout the 1990s, having the advantages of being well-established and more easily implemented in software: the equation of one byte to one character is simple and adequate for most single-language applications, and there are no combining characters or variant forms. As Unicode-enabled operating systems became more widespread, ISO/IEC 8859 and other legacy encodings became less popular. While remnants of ISO 8859 and single-byte character models remain entrenched in many operating systems, programming languages, data storage systems, networking applications, display hardware, and end-user application software, most modern computing applications use Unicode internally, and rely on conversion tables to map to and from other encodings, when necessary.

Development status

The ISO/IEC 8859 standard was maintained by ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 2, Working Group 3 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 3). In June 2004, WG 3 disbanded, and maintenance duties were transferred to SC 2. The standard is not currently being updated, as the Subcommittee's only remaining working group, WG 2, is concentrating on development of Unicode's Universal Coded Character Set.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Missing several accented vowels including Ǿ and ǿ. These can be replaced with non-accented vowels at the cost of increased ambiguity.
  2. ^ Only the IJ/ij (letter IJ) is missing, which is usually represented as IJ.
  3. ^ a b Missing characters are in ISO/IEC 8859-15.
  4. ^ a b 8859-5 misses the Ґ/ґ letter, which was reintroduced into the Ukrainian alphabet in 1990.

References

  1. ^ Haralambous, Yannis (September 2007). Fonts & Encodings. Translated by Horne, P. Scott (1st ed.). Sebastopol, California, USA: O'Reilly Media, Inc. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-596-10242-5. ISBN 0-596-10242-9. […] According to a urban legend, the French delegate was out sick the day when the standard came up for a vote and had to have his Belgian counterpart act as his proxy. In fact, the French delegate was an engineer, who was convinced that this ligature was useless, and the Swiss and German representatives pressed hard to have the mathematical symbols × and ÷ included at the positions where Œ and œ would logically appear. […]
  2. ^ André, Jacques (2003-10-15) [2003-10-02]. André, Bernard; Baron, Georges-Louis; Bruillard, Éric, eds. "Histoire d'Œ, histoire d'@ des rumeurs typographiques et de leurs enseignements". Traitement de texte et production de documents INRP/GEDIAPS (in French): 19–34. Archived from the original on 2016-12-08. Retrieved 2016-12-09.
  3. ^ André, Jacques (November 1996). "ISO Latin-1, norme de codage des caractères européens? trois caractères français en sont absents!" (PDF). Cahiers GUTenberg (in French) (25): 65–77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-11-30.
  • Published versions of each part of ISO/IEC 8859 are available, for a fee, from the ISO catalogue site and from the IEC Webstore.
  • PDF versions of the final drafts of some parts of ISO/IEC 8859 as submitted to the ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 3 for review & publication are available at the WG 3 web site:
    • ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998 - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1 (draft dated February 12, 1998, published April 15, 1998)
    • ISO/IEC 8859-4:1998 - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 4: Latin alphabet No. 4 (draft dated February 12, 1998, published July 1, 1998)
    • ISO/IEC 8859-7:1999 - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 7: Latin/Greek alphabet (draft dated June 10, 1999; superseded by ISO/IEC 8859-7:2003, published October 10, 2003)
    • ISO/IEC 8859-10:1998 - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 10: Latin alphabet No. 6 (draft dated February 12, 1998, published July 15, 1998)
    • ISO/IEC 8859-11:1999 - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 11: Latin/Thai character set (draft dated June 22, 1999; superseded by ISO/IEC 8859-11:2001, published 15 December 2001)
    • ISO/IEC 8859-13:1998 - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 13: Latin alphabet No. 7 (draft dated April 15, 1998, published October 15, 1998)
    • ISO/IEC 8859-15:1998 - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 15: Latin alphabet No. 9 (draft dated August 1, 1997; superseded by ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999, published March 15, 1999)
    • ISO/IEC 8859-16:2000 - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 16: Latin alphabet No. 10 (draft dated November 15, 1999; superseded by ISO/IEC 8859-16:2001, published July 15, 2001)
  • ECMA standards, which in intent correspond exactly to the ISO/IEC 8859 character set standards, can be found at:
    • Standard ECMA-94: 8-Bit Single Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin Alphabets No. 1 to No. 4 2nd edition (June 1986)
    • Standard ECMA-113: 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Cyrillic Alphabet 3rd edition (December 1999)
    • Standard ECMA-114: 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Arabic Alphabet 2nd edition (December 2000)
    • Standard ECMA-118: 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Greek Alphabet (December 1986)
    • Standard ECMA-121: 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Hebrew Alphabet 2nd edition (December 2000)
    • Standard ECMA-128: 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin Alphabet No. 5 2nd edition (December 1999)
    • Standard ECMA-144: 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Character Sets - Latin Alphabet No. 6 3rd edition (December 2000)
  • ISO/IEC 8859-1 to Unicode mapping tables as plain text files are at the Unicode FTP site.
  • Informal descriptions and code charts for most ISO/IEC 8859 standards are available in ISO/IEC 8859 Alphabet Soup (Mirror)
Code page 922

Code page 922 (also known as CP 922, IBM 00922) is a code page used under IBM AIX and DOS to write the Estonian. It is an extension and modification of ISO/IEC 8859-1, where the letters Ð/ð and Þ/þ used for Icelandic are replaced by the letters Š/š and Ž/ž respectively.

ISO-8859-8-I

ISO-8859-8-I is the IANA charset name for the character encoding ISO/IEC 8859-8 used together with the control codes from ISO/IEC 6429 for the C0 (00–1F hex) and C1 (80–9F) parts. The characters are in logical order.

Escape sequences (from ISO/IEC 6429 or ISO/IEC 2022) are not to be interpreted. Most applications only interpret the control codes for LF, CR, and HT. A few applications also interpret VT, FF, and NEL (in C1). Very few applications interpret the other C0 and C1 control codes.

ISO-8859-8 is sometimes in logical order (HTML, XML), and sometimes in visual (left-to-right) order (plain text without any markup).

Logical order for this charset requires bidi processing for display.

ISO-IR-182

ISO-IR-182 is a Welsh variant of ISO/IEC 8859-1 that supports the Welsh language. However, it lacks the letters used in the Irish language (which are in ISO/IEC 8859-14).

ISO/IEC 8859-1

ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. ISO 8859-1 encodes what it refers to as "Latin alphabet no. 1," consisting of 191 characters from the Latin script. This character-encoding scheme is used throughout the Americas, Western Europe, Oceania, and much of Africa. It is also commonly used in most standard romanizations of East-Asian languages. It is the basis for most popular 8-bit character sets and the first block of characters in Unicode.

ISO-8859-1 is (according to the standards at least) the default encoding of documents delivered via HTTP with a MIME type beginning with "text/" (HTML5 changed this to Windows-1252). As of March 2019, 3.4% of all web sites claim to use ISO 8859-1. However, this includes an unknown number of pages actually using Windows-1252 and/or UTF-8, both of which are commonly recognized by browsers despite the character set tag.

It is the default encoding of the values of certain descriptive HTTP headers, and defines the repertoire of characters allowed in HTML 3.2 documents (HTML 4.0 uses Unicode), and is specified by many other standards. This and similar sets are often assumed to be the encoding of 8-bit text on Unix and Microsoft Windows if there is no byte order mark (BOM), this is only gradually being changed to UTF-8.

ISO-8859-1 is the IANA preferred name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. The following other aliases are registered: iso-ir-100, csISOLatin1, latin1, l1, IBM819. Code page 28591 a.k.a. Windows-28591 is used for it in Windows. IBM calls it code page 819 or CP819. Oracle calls it WE8ISO8859P1.

ISO/IEC 8859-10

ISO/IEC 8859-10:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 10: Latin alphabet No. 6, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1992. It is informally referred to as Latin-6. It was designed to cover the Nordic languages, deemed of more use for them than ISO 8859-4.

ISO-8859-10 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. Microsoft has assigned code page 28600 a.k.a. Windows-28600 to ISO-8859-10 in Windows. IBM has assigned Code page 919 to ISO-8859-10.

ISO/IEC 8859-11

ISO/IEC 8859-11:2001, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 11: Latin/Thai alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 2001. It is informally referred to as Latin/Thai. It is nearly identical to the national Thai standard TIS-620 (1990). The sole difference is that ISO/IEC 8859-11 allocates non-breaking space to code 0xA0, while TIS-620 leaves it undefined. (In practice, this small distinction is usually ignored.)

ISO-8859-11 is not a main registered IANA charset name despite following the normal pattern for IANA charsets based on the ISO 8859 series. However, it is defined as an alias of the close equivalent TIS-620 (which lacks the non-breaking space), and which can without problems be used for ISO/IEC 8859-11, since the no-break space has a code which was unallocated in TIS-620. Microsoft has assigned code page 28601 a.k.a. Windows-28601 to ISO-8859-11 in Windows. A draft had the Thai letters in different spots.As with all varieties of ISO/IEC 8859, the lower 128 codes are equivalent to ASCII. The additional characters, apart from no-break space, are found in Unicode in the same order, only shifted from 0xA1 to U+0E01 and so forth.

The Microsoft Windows code page 874 as well as the code page used in the Thai version of the Apple Macintosh, MacThai, are extensions of TIS-620 — incompatible with each other, however.

ISO/IEC 8859-12

ISO/IEC 8859-12 would have been part 12 of the ISO/IEC 8859 character encoding standard series.

ISO 8859-12 was originally proposed to support the Celtic languages. ISO 8859-12 was later slated for Latin/Devanagari, but this was abandoned in 1997, during the 12th meeting of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 3 in Iraklion-Crete, Greece, 4 to 7 July 1997. The Celtic proposal was changed to ISO 8859-14.

ISO/IEC 8859-13

ISO/IEC 8859-13:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 13: Latin alphabet No. 7, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1998. It is informally referred to as Latin-7 or Baltic Rim. It was designed to cover the Baltic languages, and added characters used in the Polish language missing from the earlier encodings ISO 8859-4 and ISO 8859-10. Unlike these two, it does not cover the Nordic languages.

ISO-8859-13 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

Microsoft has assigned code page 28603 a.k.a. Windows-28603 to ISO-8859-13. IBM has assigned Code page 921 to ISO-8859-13. ISO-IR 206 replaces the currency sign at position A4 with the Euro Sign (€).

ISO/IEC 8859-14

ISO/IEC 8859-14:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 14: Latin alphabet No. 8 (Celtic), is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1998. It is informally referred to as Latin-8 or Celtic. It was designed to cover the Celtic languages, such as Irish, Manx, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish, and Breton.

ISO-8859-14 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. CeltScript made an extension for Windows called Extended Latin-8. Microsoft has assigned code page 28604 a.k.a. Windows-28604 to ISO-8859-14.

ISO/IEC 8859-15

ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 15: Latin alphabet No. 9, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1999. It is informally referred to as Latin-9 (and for a while Latin-0). It is similar to ISO 8859-1, and thus also intended for “Western European” languages, but replaces some less common symbols with the euro sign and some letters that were deemed necessary:

ISO-8859-15 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

Microsoft has assigned code page 28605 a.k.a. Windows-28605 to ISO-8859-15. IBM has assigned code page 923 to ISO 8859-15.

All the printable characters from both ISO/IEC 8859-1 and ISO/IEC 8859-15 are also found in Windows-1252. Since October 2016 0.1% of all web sites use ISO-8859-15.

ISO/IEC 8859-16

ISO/IEC 8859-16:2001, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 16: Latin alphabet No. 10, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 2001. It is informally referred to as Latin-10 or South-Eastern European. It was designed to cover Albanian, Croatian, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian and Slovenian, but also French, German, Italian and Irish Gaelic (new orthography).

ISO-8859-16 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

Microsoft has assigned code page 28606 a.k.a. Windows-28606 to ISO-8859-16.

ISO/IEC 8859-2

ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 2: Latin alphabet No. 2, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. It is informally referred to as "Latin-2". It is generally intended for Central or "Eastern European" languages that are written in the Latin script. Note that ISO/IEC 8859-2 is very different from code page 852 (MS-DOS Latin 2, PC Latin 2) which is also referred to as "Latin-2" in Czech and Slovak regions. Code page 912 is an extension.

ISO-8859-2 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. 0.1% of all web pages use ISO 8859-2 in December 2018. Microsoft has assigned code page 28592 a.k.a. Windows-28592 to ISO-8859-2 in Windows. IBM assigned Code page 1111 to ISO 8859-2.

Windows-1250 is similar to ISO-8859-2 and has all the printable characters it has and more. However a few of them are rearranged (unlike Windows-1252, which keeps all printable characters from ISO-8859-1 in the same place).

These code values can be used for the following languages:

Albanian

Bosnian

Croatian

Czech

German (fully compatible with ISO/IEC 8859-1 for German texts)

Hungarian

Polish

Serbian Latin

Slovak

Slovene

Upper Sorbian

Lower Sorbian

Turkmen.It can also be used for Romanian, but it is not well suited for that language, due to lacking letters s and t with commas below, although it provides s and t with similar-looking cedillas. These letters were unified in the first versions of the Unicode standard, meaning that the appearance with cedilla or with a comma was treated as a glyph choice rather than as separate characters; fonts intended for use with Romanian should therefore, in theory, have characters with a comma below at those code points.

Microsoft did not really provide such fonts for computers sold in Romania. Still, ISO/IEC 8859-2 and Windows-1250 (with the same problem) have been heavily used for Romanian. Unicode subsequently disunified the comma variants from the cedilla variants, and has since taken the lead for web pages, which however often have s and t with cedilla anyway. Unicode notes as of 2014 that disunifying the letters with comma below was a mistake, causing corruptions of Romanian data: pre-existing data and input methods would still contain the older cedilla codepoints, complicating text searching.

ISO/IEC 8859-3

ISO/IEC 8859-3:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 3: Latin alphabet No. 3, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin-3 or South European. It was designed to cover Turkish, Maltese and Esperanto, though the introduction of ISO/IEC 8859-9 superseded it for Turkish. The encoding remains popular with users of Esperanto, though use is waning as application support for Unicode becomes more common.

ISO-8859-3 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. Microsoft has assigned code page 28593 a.k.a. Windows-28593 to ISO-8859-3 in Windows. IBM has assigned code page 913 to ISO 8859-3.

ISO/IEC 8859-4

ISO/IEC 8859-4:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 4: Latin alphabet No. 4, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin-4 or North European. It was designed to cover Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Greenlandic, and Sami. It has been largely superseded by ISO/IEC 8859-10 and Unicode. Microsoft has assigned code page 28594 a.k.a. Windows-28594 to ISO-8859-4 in Windows. IBM has assigned code page 914 to ISO 8859-4.

ISO-8859-4 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. ISO-IR 205 replaces the Currency Sign at 0xA4 with the Euro Sign.

ISO/IEC 8859-5

ISO/IEC 8859-5:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 5: Latin/Cyrillic alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin/Cyrillic. It was designed to cover languages using a Cyrillic alphabet such as Bulgarian, Belarusian, Russian, Serbian and Macedonian but was never widely used. It would also have been usable for Ukrainian in the Soviet Union from 1933–1990, but it is missing the Ukrainian letter ge, ґ, which is required in Ukrainian orthography before and since, and during that period outside Soviet Ukraine. As a result, IBM created Code page 1124.

ISO-8859-5 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

The 8-bit encodings KOI8-R and KOI8-U, CP866, and also Windows-1251 are far more commonly used. Another possible way to represent Cyrillic is Unicode.

The Windows code page for ISO-8859-5 is code page 28595 a.k.a. Windows-28595.

ISO/IEC 8859-6

ISO/IEC 8859-6:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 6: Latin/Arabic alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. It is informally referred to as Latin/Arabic. It was designed to cover Arabic. Only nominal letters are encoded, no preshaped forms of the letters, so shaping processing is required for display. It does not include the extra letters needed to write most Arabic-script languages other than Arabic itself (such as Persian, Urdu, etc.).

ISO-8859-6 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. The text is in logical order, so BiDi processing is required for display. Nominally ISO-8859-6 (code page 28596) is for "visual order", and ISO-8859-6-I (code page 38596) is for logical order. But in practice, and required for HTML and XML documents, ISO-8859-6 also stands for logical order text. There is also ISO-8859-6-E which supposedly requires directionality to be explicitly specified with special control characters; this latter variant is in practice unused. IBM has assigned code page 1089 to ISO 8859-6. It is an emulation for their AIX operating system.

Unicode is preferred over ISO-8859-6 in modern applications, especially on the Internet; meaning the dominant UTF-8 encoding for web pages (see also Arabic script in Unicode, for complete coverage, unlike for e.g. ISO-8859-6 or Windows 1256 that don't cover extras). 0.1% of all web pages use ISO-8859-6.

ISO/IEC 8859-7

ISO/IEC 8859-7:2003, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 7: Latin/Greek alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. It is informally referred to as Latin/Greek. It was designed to cover the modern Greek language. The original 1987 version of the standard had the same character assignments as the Greek national standard ELOT 928, published in 1986. The table in this article shows the updated 2003 version which adds three characters (0xA4: euro sign U+20AC, 0xA5: drachma sign U+20AF, 0xAA: Greek Ypogegrammeni U+037A). Microsoft has assigned code page 28597 a.k.a. Windows-28597 to ISO-8859-7 in Windows. IBM has assigned code page 813 to ISO 8859-7.

ISO-8859-7 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard (formally the 1987 version, but in practice there is no problem using it for the current version, as the changes are pure additions to previously unassigned codes) when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

Unicode is preferred to ISO 8859-7 or other Greek encodings in modern applications, especially on the Internet; meaning the dominant UTF-8 encoding for web pages (see also Greek alphabet in Unicode, for complete coverage, including for Ancient Greek Musical Notation, unlike for e.g. ISO 8859-7 and Windows-1253 that don't cover extras).

ISO/IEC 8859-8

ISO-8859-8ISO/IEC 8859-8, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 8: Latin/Hebrew alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings. ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999 from 1999 represents its second and current revision, preceded by the first edition ISO/IEC 8859-8:1988 in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin/Hebrew. ISO/IEC 8859-8 covers all the Hebrew letters, but no Hebrew vowel signs. IBM assigned code page 916 to it.ISO-8859-8 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. The text is (usually) in logical order, so bidi processing is required for display. Nominally ISO-8859-8 (code page 28598) is for “visual order”, and ISO-8859-8-I (code page 38598) is for logical order. But usually in practice, and required for HTML and XML documents, ISO-8859-8 also stands for logical order text. There is also ISO-8859-8-E which supposedly requires directionality to be explicitly specified with special control characters; this latter variant is in practice unused.

This character set was also adopted by Israeli Standard SI1311:2002. Over a decade after the publication of that standard, Unicode is preferred, at least for the Internet (meaning UTF-8, the dominant encoding for web pages). ISO-8859-8 is used by less that 0.1% of websites.

ISO/IEC 8859-9

ISO/IEC 8859-9:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 9: Latin alphabet No. 5, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1989. It is informally referred to as Latin-5 or Turkish. It was designed to cover the Turkish language, designed as being of more use than the ISO/IEC 8859-3 encoding. It is identical to ISO/IEC 8859-1 except for these six replacements of Icelandic characters with characters unique to the Turkish alphabet:

ISO-8859-9 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. In modern applications Unicode and UTF-8 are preferred. 0.1% of all web pages use ISO-8859-9 in February 2016.Microsoft has assigned code page 28599 a.k.a. Windows-28599 to ISO-8859-9 in Windows. IBM has assigned Code page 920 to ISO-8859-9.

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