ISO/IEC 7812 Identification cards — Identification of issuers was first published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1989. It is the international standard specifies "a numbering system for the identification of the card issuers, the format of the issuer identification number (IIN) and the primary account number (PAN).", and procedures for registering IINs. ISO/IEC 7812 has two parts:
An IIN is currently six digits in length. The leading digit is the major industry identifier (MII), followed by 5 digits, which together make up the IIN. This IIN is paired with an individual account identification number, and a single digit checksum.
In 2015, the industry began work on implementing a change to ISO 7812 to increase the length of the IIN to 8 digits. The 2017 revision of the standard defines the new eight digit IIN and outlines a timeline for conversion of existing six digits IINs to eight digit IINs.
The first (leading) digit of the IIN identifies the major industry of the card issuer.
|MII digit value||Issuer category|
|0||ISO/TC 68 and other industry assignments|
|2||Airlines, financial and other future industry assignments|
|3||Travel and entertainment|
|4||Banking and financial|
|5||Banking and financial|
|6||Merchandising and banking/financial|
|7||Petroleum and other future industry assignments|
|8||Healthcare, telecommunications and other future industry assignments|
|9||For assignment by national standards bodies|
MII 9 has been assigned to national standards bodies for national use. The first digit is a 9 followed by a three-digit numeric country code numeric-3 country code from ISO 3166-1. National Numbering Systems are managed by ISO-member national standards bodies. The US National Numbering system is managed by the American National Standards Institute.
The first six digits, including the major industry identifier, compose the issuer identifier number (IIN) which identifies the issuing organization. The IIN is sometimes referred to as a "bank identification number" (BIN). The IIN's use is much broader than identification of a bank. IINs are used by companies other than banks.
The official "ISO Register of Issuer Identification Numbers", is not available to the general public. It is only available to institutions who hold IINs published in the Register, financial networks and processors. Institutions are required to sign a licensing agreement before they are given access to the Register. Several IINs are well known, especially those representing credit card issuers.
In conjunction with the IIN, card issuers assign an account number to a card holder. The account number is variable in length with a maximum of 12 digits when used in conjunction with a six digit IIN. When using an eight digit IIN, the maximum total length of the Primary Account Number (PAN) remains at 19 digits. The PAN comprises the IIN, the individual account identifier, and the check digit, so when using an eight digit IIN, the maximum length of an individual account identifier would only be 10 digits.
1234 5678 9100 0000
An ATM card is a payment card or dedicated payment card issued by a financial institution which enables a customer to access automated teller machines (ATMs). ATM cards are payment card size and style plastic cards with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smart card with a chip that contains a unique card number and some security information such as an expiration date or CVVC (CVV). ATM cards are known by a variety of names such as bank card, MAC (money access card), client card, key card or cash card, among others. Most payment cards, such as debit and credit cards can also function as ATM cards, although ATM-only cards are also available. Charge and proprietary cards cannot be used as ATM cards. The use of a credit card to withdraw cash at an ATM is treated differently to a POS transaction, usually attracting interest charges from the date of the cash withdrawal. Interbank networks allow the use of ATM cards at ATMs of private operators and financial institutions other than those of the institution that issued the cards.
ATM cards can also be used on improvised ATMs such as "mini ATMs", merchants' card terminals that deliver ATM features without any cash drawer. These terminals can also be used as cashless scrip ATMs by cashing the receipts they issue at the merchant's point of sale.The first ATM cards were issued in 1967 by Barclays in London.Bank account
A bank account is a financial account maintained by a bank for a customer. A bank account can be a deposit account, a credit card account, a current account, or any other type of account offered by a financial institution, and represents the funds that a customer has entrusted to the financial institution and from which the customer can make withdrawals. Alternatively, accounts may be loan accounts in which case the customer owes money to the financial institution.
The financial transactions which have occurred within a given period of time on a bank account are reported to the customer on a bank statement and the balance of the accounts at any point in time is the financial position of the customer with the institution.
The laws of each and every country specify the manner in which accounts may be opened and operated. They may specify, for example, who may open an account, how the signatories can identify themselves, deposit and withdrawal limits and many other matters.Card standards
Card standard(s) may refer to any of a number of standards related to smartcards.
ISO/IEC 7810 Identification cards — Physical characteristics
ISO/IEC 7812 Identification cards — Identification of issuers
ISO/IEC 7816 Identification cards — Integrated circuit cards
ISO/IEC 14443 Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cardsEFTPOS
Electronic funds transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS ) is an electronic payment system involving electronic funds transfers based on the use of payment cards, such as debit or credit cards, at payment terminals located at points of sale. EFTPOS technology originated in the United States in 1981 and was adopted by other countries. In Australia and New Zealand, it is also the brand name of a specific system used for such payments; these systems are mainly country specific and do not interconnect.
Debit and credit cards are embossed plastic cards complying with ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 standard. The cards have an embossed bank card number conforming with the ISO/IEC 7812 numbering standard.IIN
IIN and variants may mean:
International Institute for Nanotechnology at Northwestern University
II-n or IIn, a subtype of Type II supernova
Issuer Identification Number, a field in the ISO/IEC 7812 specification for ID cards
IIN, ICAO airline code for Inter Islands Airlines
IIN, IATA airport code for Nishinoomote Airport or Tanagashima Airport in the Ōsumi Islands
Nieuport II.N, an airplane model
iin, former stock ticker symbol for Australian ISP iiNet, now part of TPG TelecomISO/IEC 4909
ISO/IEC 4909:2006 establishes specifications for financial transaction cards using track 3 and is intended to permit interchange based on the use of magnetic stripe encoded information. It specifies the data content and physical location of read/write information on track 3 and is to be used in conjunction with the relevant parts of ISO/IEC 7811 and ISO/IEC 7812.
ISO/IEC 4909:2006 recognizes the need for formats of track 3 which can be used independently of, or in conjunction with, track 2 as defined in ISO/IEC 7813. This approach is intended to permit the greatest degree of flexibility within the financial community in facilitating international interchange.
Using track 3 in conjunction with track 2 is a mode of operation in both on-line and off-line interchange environments. This mode of operation requires that the original encoded data on track 2 be read; the data on track 3 be read; and, if update is required, all the data on track 3 be rewritten.
Independent use of track 3 is an alternative mode of operation permitting both on-line interchange and off-line interchange based on mutual agreement between interested parties. It requires reading only of the data on track 3 and, if update is required, the rewriting of all the data on track 3.ISO/IEC 7813
ISO/IEC 7813 is an international standard codified by the International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission that defines properties of financial transaction cards, such as ATM or credit cards.International Securities Identification Number
An International Securities Identification Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. Its structure is defined in ISO 6166. The ISIN code is a 12-character alphanumeric code that serves for uniform identification of a security through normalization of the assigned National Number, where one exists, at trading and settlement.International Standard Audiovisual Number
International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) is a unique identifier for audiovisual works and related versions, similar to ISBN for books. It was developed within an ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) TC46/SC9 working group. ISAN is managed and run by ISAN-IA.International Standard Link Identifier
The International Standard Link Identifier (ISLI), is an identifier standard. ISLI is a universal identifier for links between entities in the field of information and documentation. It was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published on May 15, 2015. ISO/TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for the development of the ISLI standard.ISLI is used for identifying links between entities in the field of information and documentation. A linked entity can be physical, e.g. a print book or an electronic resource (text, audio, and video); or something abstract, e.g. a physical position within a frame of reference or the time of day.
In the context of modern information technology, the application of resources in the field of information and documentation is increasingly getting diversified. Isolated content products can no longer satisfy the ever-increasing user demand.
Using a link identifier to build links between resources in the field of information and documentation provides a basis for a combined application of resources in the field, and supports collaborative creation of content and data interoperability between systems.
The openness of the ISLI system will boost the emergence of new applications in both multimedia and other fields, which increases the value of the linked-resources.International Standard Music Number
The International Standard Music Number or ISMN (ISO 10957) is a thirteen-character alphanumeric identifier for printed music developed by ISO.International Standard Musical Work Code
International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC) is a unique identifier for musical works, similar to ISBN for books. It is adopted as international standard ISO 15707. The ISO subcommittee with responsibility for the standard is TC 46/SC 9.International Standard Recording Code
The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings. The code was developed by the recording industry in conjunction with the ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 (TC 46/SC 9), which codified the standard as ISO 3901 in 1986, and updated it in 2001.
An ISRC identifies a particular recording, not the work (composition and lyrical content) itself. Therefore, different recordings, edits, and remixes of the same work should each have their own ISRC. Works are identified by ISWC. Recordings remastered without significant audio-quality changes should retain their existing ISRC, but the threshold is left to the discretion of the record company.International Standard Text Code
The International Standard Text Code (ISTC) is a unique identifier for text-based works. The ISO standard was developed by TC 46/SC 9 and published in March 2009 as ISO 21047:2009. The authority responsible for implementing the standard is The International ISTC Agency.Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm, named after IBM scientist Hans Peter Luhn, is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in the United States, Canadian Social Insurance Numbers, Israel ID Numbers, Greek Social Security Numbers (ΑΜΚΑ), and survey codes appearing on McDonald's, Taco Bell, and Tractor Supply Co. receipts. It was created by IBM scientist Hans Peter Luhn and described in U.S. Patent No. 2,950,048, filed on January 6, 1954, and granted on August 23, 1960.
The algorithm is in the public domain and is in wide use today. It is specified in ISO/IEC 7812-1. It is not intended to be a cryptographically secure hash function; it was designed to protect against accidental errors, not malicious attacks. Most credit cards and many government identification numbers use the algorithm as a simple method of distinguishing valid numbers from mistyped or otherwise incorrect numbers.MII
A Mii is a personalized digital avatar on Nintendo video game consoles.
Mii, or MII, may also refer to:
1002, the year or the number, in Roman numerals
Major Industry Identifier, part of ISO/IEC 7812
Maritime Institute of Ireland, who operate the National Maritime Museum of Ireland
Media Independent Interface, in Ethernet hardware
Medium Independent Interface, in the ITU-T G.hn standard for high-speed networking over home wires
MII, cost estimating software developed for the United States Army Corps of Engineers by Project Time & Cost, Inc
MII (videocassette format), a professional video tape format developed by Panasonic
Cyrix 6x86, an x86 architecture CPU by Cyrix also known as "MII"
Mineral Information Institute, an American educational institute dedicated to teaching schoolchildren about natural resources
Ministry of Information Industry of the People's Republic of China, precursor to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Mutual Information Index, a measure of two random variables' mutual dependence
Mii (Jungle de Ikou!), the busty goddess of fertility in Jungle de Ikou!
Mii, one of the main characters from Popotan
SEAT Mii, a small car by SEAT
Frank Miloye Milenkowichi Airport in Marília, Brazil (IATA code)Magnetic stripe card
A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or magstripe, is read by swiping past a magnetic reading head. Magnetic stripe cards are commonly used in credit cards, identity cards, and transportation tickets. They may also contain an RFID tag, a transponder device and/or a microchip mostly used for business premises access control or electronic payment.
Magnetic recording on steel tape and wire was invented in Denmark around 1900 for recording audio. In the 1950s, magnetic recording of digital computer data on plastic tape coated with iron oxide was invented. In 1960, IBM used the magnetic tape idea to develop a reliable way of securing magnetic stripes to plastic cards, under a contract with the US government for a security system. A number of International Organization for Standardization standards, ISO/IEC 7810, ISO/IEC 7811, ISO/IEC 7812, ISO/IEC 7813, ISO 8583, and ISO/IEC 4909, now define the physical properties of the card, including size, flexibility, location of the magstripe, magnetic characteristics, and data formats. They also provide the standards for financial cards, including the allocation of card number ranges to different card issuing institutions.Payment card
Payment cards are part of a payment system issued by financial institutions, such as a bank, to a customer that enables its owner (the cardholder) to access the funds in the customer's designated bank accounts, or through a credit account and make payments by electronic funds transfer and access automated teller machines (ATMs). Such cards are known by a variety of names including bank cards, ATM cards, MAC (money access cards), client cards, key cards or cash cards.
There are a number of types of payment cards, the most common being credit cards and debit cards. Most commonly, a payment card is electronically linked to an account or accounts belonging to the cardholder. These accounts may be deposit accounts or loan or credit accounts, and the card is a means of authenticating the cardholder. However, stored-value cards store money on the card itself and are not necessarily linked to an account at a financial institution.
It can also be a smart card that contains a unique card number and some security information such as an expiration date or CVVC (CVV) or with a magnetic strip on the back enabling various machines to read and access information. Depending on the issuing bank and the preferences of the client, this may allow the card to be used as an ATM card, enabling transactions at automatic teller machines; or as a debit card, linked to the client's bank account and able to be used for making purchases at the point of sale; or as a credit card attached to a revolving credit line supplied by the bank.
Most payment cards, such as debit and credit cards can also function as ATM cards, although ATM-only cards are also available. Charge and proprietary cards cannot be used as ATM cards. The use of a credit card to withdraw cash at an ATM is treated differently to a POS transaction, usually attracting interest charges from the date of the cash withdrawal. Interbank networks allow the use of ATM cards at ATMs of private operators and financial institutions other than those of the institution that issued the cards.
All ATM machines, at a minimum, will permit cash withdrawals of customers of the machine's owner (if a bank-operated machine) and for cards that are affiliated with any ATM network the machine is also affiliated. They will report the amount of the withdrawal and any fees charged by the machine on the receipt. Most banks and credit unions will permit routine account-related banking transactions at the bank's own ATM, including deposits, checking the balance of an account, and transferring money between accounts. Some may provide additional services, such as selling postage stamps.
For other types of transactions through telephone or online banking, this may be performed with an ATM card without in-person authentication. This includes account balance inquiries, electronic bill payments, or in some cases, online purchases (see Interac Online).
ATM cards can also be used on improvised ATMs such as "mini ATMs", merchants' card terminals that deliver ATM features without any cash drawer. These terminals can also be used as cashless scrip ATMs by cashing the receipts they issue at the merchant's point of sale.Payment card number
A payment card number, primary account number (PAN), or simply a card number, is the card identifier found on payment cards, such as credit cards and debit cards, as well as stored-value cards, gift cards and other similar cards. In some situations the card number is referred to as a bank card number. The card number is primarily a card identifier and does not directly identify the bank account number/s to which the card is/are linked by the issuing entity. The card number prefix identifies the issuer of the card, and the digits that follow are used by the issuing entity to identify the cardholder as a customer and which is then associated by the issuing entity with the customer's designated bank accounts. In the case of stored-value type cards, the association with a particular customer is only made if the prepaid card is reloadable. Card numbers are allocated in accordance with ISO/IEC 7812. The card number is usually prominently embossed on the front of a payment card, and is encoded on the magnetic stripe and chip, but may be imprinted on the back of the card.
The payment card number differs from the Business Identifier Code (BIC/ISO 9362, a normalized code—also known as Business Identifier Code, Bank International Code or SWIFT code). It also differs from Universal Payment Identification Code, another identifier for a bank account in the United States.
ISO standards by standard number