ISO/IEC 27000 is part of a growing family of ISO/IEC Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) standards, the 'ISO/IEC 27000 series'. ISO/IEC 27000 is an international standard entitled: Information technology — Security techniques — Information security management systems — Overview and vocabulary.
The standard was developed by subcommittee 27 (SC27) of the first Joint Technical Committee (JTC1) of the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission.
ISO/IEC 27000 provides:
The standard describes the purpose of an Information Security Management System (ISMS), a management system similar to those recommended by other ISO standards such as ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, used to manage information security risks and controls within an organization. Bringing information security deliberately under overt management control is a central principle throughout the ISO/IEC 27000 standards.
Information security, like many technical subjects, is evolving a complex web of terminology. Relatively few authors take the trouble to define precisely what they mean, an approach which is unacceptable in the standards arena as it potentially leads to confusion and devalues formal assessment and certification. As with ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, the base '000' standard is intended to address this.
The target audience is users of the remaining ISO/IEC 27000-series information security management standards.
BSI Group, also known as the British Standards Institution (BSI), is the national standards body of the United Kingdom. BSI produces technical standards on a wide range of products and services, and also supplies certification and standards-related services to businesses.BS 7799
BS 7799 was a standard originally published by BSI Group (BSI) in 1995. It was written by the United Kingdom Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), and consisted of several parts.
The first part, containing the best practices for Information Security Management, was revised in 1998; after a lengthy discussion in the worldwide standards bodies, was eventually adopted by ISO as ISO/IEC 17799, "Information Technology - Code of practice for information security management." in 2000. ISO/IEC 17799 was then revised in June 2005 and finally incorporated in the ISO 27000 series of standards as ISO/IEC 27002 in July 2007.
The second part to BS 7799 was first published by BSI in 1999, known as BS 7799 Part 2, titled "Information Security Management Systems - Specification with guidance for use." BS 7799-2 focused on how to implement an information security management system (ISMS), referring to the information security management structure and controls identified in BS 7799-2, which later became ISO/IEC 27001. The 2002 version of BS 7799-2 introduced the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) (Deming quality assurance model), aligning it with quality standards such as ISO 9000. BS 7799 Part 2 was adopted by ISO as ISO/IEC 27001 in November 2005.
BS 7799 Part 3 was published in 2005, covering risk analysis and management. It aligns with ISO/IEC 27001.British Standards
British Standards (BS) are the standards produced by the BSI Group which is incorporated under a Royal Charter (and which is formally designated as the National Standards Body (NSB) for the UK). The BSI Group produces British Standards under the authority of the Charter, which lays down as one of the BSI's objectives to:
(2) Set up standards of quality for goods and services, and prepare and promote the general adoption of British Standards and schedules in connection therewith and from time to time to revise, alter and amend such standards and schedules as experience and circumstances require
Formally, as per the 2002 Memorandum of Understanding between the BSI and the United Kingdom Government, British Standards are defined as:
"British Standards" means formal consensus standards as set out in BS 0-1 paragraph 3.2 and based upon the principles of standardisation recognised inter alia in European standardisation policy.
Products and services which BSI certifies as having met the requirements of specific standards within designated schemes are awarded the Kitemark.Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency
The Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) was a UK government agency providing computer and telecoms support to government departments.Factor analysis of information risk
Factor analysis of information risk (FAIR) is a taxonomy of the factors that contribute to risk and how they affect each other. It is primarily concerned with establishing accurate probabilities for the frequency and magnitude of data loss events. It is not a methodology for performing an enterprise (or individual) risk assessment.FAIR is also a risk management framework developed by Jack A. Jones, and it can help organizations understand, analyze, and measure information risk according to Whitman & Mattord (2013).
A number of methodologies deal with risk management in an IT environment or IT risk, related to information security management systems and standards like ISO/IEC 27000-series.
FAIR seeks to provide a foundation and framework for performing risk analyses. Much of the FAIR framework can be used to strengthen, rather than replace, existing risk analysis processes like those mentioned above. It is not another methodology to deal with risk management, but complements existing ones. It is in direct competition with the other risk assessment frameworks, if complementary to many of them.Although the basic taxonomy and methods have been made available for non-commercial use under a creative commons license, FAIR itself is proprietary. Using FAIR to analyze someone else's risk for commercial gain (e.g. through consulting or as part of a software application) requires a license from RMI.ISO/IEC 27000-series
The ISO/IEC 27000-series (also known as the 'ISMS Family of Standards' or 'ISO27K' for short) comprises information security standards published jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).The series provides best practice recommendations on information security management - the management of information risks through information security controls - within the context of an overall Information security management system (ISMS), similar in design to management systems for quality assurance (the ISO 9000 series), environmental protection (the ISO 14000 series) and other management systems.The series is deliberately broad in scope, covering more than just privacy, confidentiality and IT/technical/cybersecurity issues. It is applicable to organizations of all shapes and sizes. All organizations are encouraged to assess their information risks, then treat them (typically using information security controls) according to their needs, using the guidance and suggestions where relevant. Given the dynamic nature of information risk and security, the ISMS concept incorporates continuous feedback and improvement activities to respond to changes in the threats, vulnerabilities or impacts of incidents.
The standards are the product of ISO/IEC JTC1 (Joint Technical Committee 1) SC27 (Subcommittee 27), an international body that meets in person twice a year.
The ISO/IEC standards are sold directly by ISO, mostly in English, French and Chinese. Sales outlets associated with various national standards bodies also sell directly translated versions in other languages.ISO/IEC 27001
ISO/IEC 27001 is an information security standard, part of the ISO/IEC 27000 family of standards, of which the last version was published in 2013, with a few minor updates since then. It is published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) under the joint ISO and IEC subcommittee, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27.ISO/IEC 27001 specifies a management system that is intended to bring information security under management control and gives specific requirements. Organizations that meet the requirements may be certified by an accredited certification body following successful completion of an audit.ISO/IEC 27002
ISO/IEC 27002 is an information security standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), titled Information technology – Security techniques – Code of practice for information security controls.
The ISO/IEC 27000-series standards are descended from a corporate security standard donated by Shell to a UK government initiative in the early 1990s
. The Shell standard was developed into British Standard BS 7799 in the mid-1990s, and was adopted as ISO/IEC 17799 in 2000. The ISO/IEC standard was revised in 2005, and renumbered ISO/IEC 27002 in 2007 to align with the other ISO/IEC 27000-series standards. It was revised again in 2013.
ISO/IEC 27002 provides best practice recommendations on information security controls for use by those responsible for initiating, implementing or maintaining information security management systems (ISMS). Information security is defined within the standard in the context of the C-I-A triad:
the preservation of confidentiality (ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access), integrity (safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of information and processing methods) and availability (ensuring that authorized users have access to information and associated assets when required).ISO/IEC 27006
ISO/IEC 27006 is an information security standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Part of the ISO/IEC 27000 series of ISO/IEC Information Security Management System (ISMS) standards, it is titled Information technology - Security techniques - Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of information security management systems.
ISO/IEC 27006 lays out formal requirements for accredited organizations which certify other organizations compliant with ISO/IEC 27001.
It effectively replaces EA 7/03 (Guidelines for the Accreditation of bodies operating certification/ registration of. Information Security Management Systems).
The standard helps ensure that ISO/IEC 27001 certificates issued by accredited organizations are meaningful and trustworthy, in other words it is a matter of assurance.ISO/IEC 27040
ISO/IEC 27040 is part of a growing family of International Standards published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in the area of security techniques; the standard is being developed by Subcommitee 27 (SC27) - IT Security techniques of the first Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) of the ISO/IEC. A major element of SC27's program of work includes International Standards for information security management systems (ISMS), often referred to as the 'ISO/IEC 27000-series'.
The full title of ISO/IEC 27040 is Information technology — Security techniques — Storage security.ISO/IEC 27552
ISO/IEC 27552 is a privacy extension to ISO/IEC 27001. The design goal is to enhance the existing Information Security Management System (ISMS) with additional requirements in order to establish, implement, maintain, and continually improve a Privacy Information Management System (PIMS). The draft standard outlines a framework for Personally Identifiable Information (PII) Controllers and PII Processors to manage privacy controls to reduce the risk to the privacy rights of individuals.While the standard is currently still in draft, ISO/IEC 27552 is intended to be a certifiable extension to ISO/IEC 27001 certifications. In other words, organizations planning to seek an ISO/IEC 27552 certification will also need to an ISO/IEC 27001 certification.ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27 IT Security techniques is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27 develops International Standards, Technical Reports, and Technical Specifications within the field of information and IT security. Standardization activity by this subcommittee includes general methods, management system requirements, techniques and guidelines to address both information security and privacy. Drafts of International Standards by ISO/IEC JTC 1 or any of its subcommittees are sent out to participating national standardization bodies for ballot, comments and contributions. Publication as an ISO/IEC International Standard requires approval by a minimum of 75% of the national bodies casting a vote. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27 is the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) located in Germany.IT baseline protection
The IT baseline protection (in German IT-Grundschutz) approach from the German Federal Office for Information Security (FSI) is a methodology to identify and implement computer security measures in an organization. The aim is the achievement of an adequate and appropriate level of security for IT systems. To reach this goal the FSI recommends "well-proven technical, organizational, personnel, and infrastructural safeguards". Organizations and federal agencies show their systematic approach to secure their IT systems (e.g. Information Security Management System) by obtaining an ISO/IEC 27001 Certificate on the basis of IT-Grundschutz.IT service management
IT service management (ITSM) refers to the entirety of activities – directed by policies, organized and structured in processes and supporting procedures – that are performed by an organization to design, plan, deliver, operate and control information technology (IT) services offered to customers.Differing from more technology-oriented IT management approaches like network management and IT systems management, IT service management is characterized by adopting a process approach towards management, focusing on customer needs and IT services for customers rather than IT systems, and stressing continual improvement. The CIO WaterCoolers' annual ITSM report states that business use ITSM "mostly in support of customer experience (35%) and service quality (48%)."Information security management
Information security management (ISM) describes controls that an organization needs to implement to ensure that it is sensibly protecting the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of assets from threats and vulnerabilities. By extension, ISM includes information risk management, a process which involves the assessment of the risks an organization must deal with in the management and protection of assets, as well as the dissemination of the risks to all appropriate stakeholders. This of course requires proper asset identification and valuation steps, including evaluating the value of confidentiality, integrity, availability, and replacement of assets. As part of information security management, an organization may implement an information security management system and other best practices found in the ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 27002, and ISO/IEC 27035 standards on information security.Management system
A management system is a set of policies, processes and procedures used by an organization to ensure that it can fulfill the tasks required to achieve its objectives. These objectives cover many aspects of the organization's operations (including financial success, safe operation, product quality, client relationships, legislative and regulatory conformance and worker management). For instance, an environmental management system enables organizations to improve their environmental performance and an occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) enables an organization to control its occupational health and safety risks, etc.
Many parts of the management system are common to a range of objectives, but others may be more specific.
A simplification of the main aspects of a management system is the 4-element "Plan, Do, Check, Act" approach. A complete management system covers every aspect of management and focuses on supporting the performance management to achieve the objectives. The management system should be subject to continuous improvement as the organization learns.
Elements may include:
Leadership Involvement & Responsibility
Identification & Compliance with Legislation & Industry Standards
Employee Selection, Placement & Competency Assurance
Communication with Stakeholders (others peripherally impacted by operations)
Identification & Assessment of potential failures & other hazards
Documentation, Records & Knowledge Management
Project Monitoring, Status and Handover
Management of Interfaces
Standards & Practices
Management of Change & Project Management
Operational Readiness & Start-up
Inspection & Maintenance of facilities
Management of Critical systems
Work Control, Permit to Work & Task Risk Management
Contractor/Vendor Selection & Management
Incident Reporting & Investigation
Audit, Assurance and Management System review & InterventionSecurity level management
Security level management (SLM) comprises a quality assurance system for electronic information security.
The aim of SLM is to display the IT security status transparently across a company at any time, and to make IT security a measurable quantity. Transparency and measurability form the prerequisites for making IT security proactively monitorable, so that it can be improved continuously.
SLM is oriented towards the phases of the Deming Cycle/Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle: within the scope of SLM, abstract security policies or compliance guidelines at a company are transposed into operative, measureable specifications for the IT security infrastructure. The operative aims form the security level to be reached.
The security level is checked permanently against the current performance of the security systems (malware scanner, patch systems, etc.). Deviations can be recognised early on and adjustments made to the security system.
SLM falls under the range of duties of the Chief Security Officer (CSO), the Chief Information Officer (CIO) or the Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), who report directly to the Executive Board on IT Security and data availability.Semantic service-oriented architecture
A Semantic Service Oriented Architecture (SSOA) is an architecture that allows for scalable and controlled Enterprise Application Integration solutions. SSOA describes a sophisticated approach to enterprise-scale IT infrastructure. It leverages rich, machine-interpretable descriptions of data, services, and processes to enable software agents to autonomously interact to perform critical mission functions. SSOA is technically founded on three notions:
The principles of Service-oriented architecture (SOA);
Standards Based Design (SBD); and
Semantics-based computing.SSOA combines and implements these computer science concepts into a robust, extensible architecture capable of enabling complex, powerful functions.Standard of Good Practice for Information Security
The Standard of Good Practice for Information Security, published by the Information Security Forum (ISF), is a business-focused, practical and comprehensive guide to identifying and managing information security risks in organizations and their supply chains.
The most recent edition is 2018, an update of the 2016 edition.
Upon release, the 2011 Standard was the most significant update of the standard for four years. It covers information security 'hot topics' such as consumer devices, critical infrastructure, cybercrime attacks, office equipment, spreadsheets and databases and cloud computing.
The 2011 Standard is aligned with the requirements for an Information Security Management System (ISMS) set out in ISO/IEC 27000-series standards, and provides wider and deeper coverage of ISO/IEC 27002 control topics, as well as cloud computing, information leakage, consumer devices and security governance.
In addition to providing a tool to enable ISO 27001 certification, the 2011 Standard provides full coverage of COBIT v4 topics, and offers substantial alignment with other relevant standards and legislation such as PCI DSS and the Sarbanes Oxley Act, to enable compliance with these standards too.
The Standard is used by Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs), information security managers, business managers, IT managers, internal and external auditors, IT service providers in organizations of all sizes.
The 2018 Standard is available free of charge to members of the ISF. Non-members are able to purchase a copy of the standard directly from the ISF.
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