ISO/IEC 18000

ISO/IEC 18000 is an international standard that describes a series of diverse RFID technologies, each using a unique frequency range.

ISO/IEC 18000 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management:

  • Part 1: Reference architecture and definition of parameters to be standardized
  • Part 2: Parameters for air interface communications below 135 kHz
  • Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz[a]
  • Part 4: Parameters for air interface communications at 2,45 GHz
  • Part 6: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz
  • Part 7: Parameters for active air interface communications at 433 MHz

The ISO/IEC 18000-6 is a large document. In 2012 it was split into 5 parts for publication:

  • Part 6: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz General
  • Part 61: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type A
  • Part 62: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type B
  • Part 63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C
  • Part 64: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type D

The various parts of ISO/IEC 18000 describe air interface communication at different frequencies in order to be able to utilize the different physical behaviors. The various parts of ISO/IEC 18000 are developed by ISO/IEC JTC1 SC31, "Automatic Data Capture Techniques".

Conformance test methods for the various parts of ISO/IEC 18000 are defined in the corresponding parts of ISO/IEC 18047. (See RFID testing)

Performance test methods are defined in ISO/IEC 18046. (See RFID testing)


  1. ^ The ISO uses the comma as the decimal mark to separate the integer part from the decimal part of a number.


CISC Semiconductor

CISC Semiconductor GmbH defines itself as “design and consulting service company for industries developing embedded microelectronic systems with extremely short Time-To-Market cycles.” The company started in 1999, working on solutions for the semiconductor industry, but soon expanded its field towards the automotive branch and further extended business towards the radio frequency technology (RFID) sector in 2003. Since then, CISC gained significant experience and expertise in RFID, developing an own business segment and highly sensitive measurement equipment to test and verify RFID systems for different industries. Representatives of CISC Semiconductor are actively working on and contributing to worldwide standardization of future technologies like RFID, in different standardization organizations. This effort brings CISC into the position of being a leader in research and development, and thus being able to be “one step ahead of innovation”. As of 2011 CISC Semiconductor is in a globally leading standardization position for RFID testing by providing the convener of ISO/IEC JTC1 WG4/SG6 on “RFID performance and conformance test methods“, as well as GS1 EPCglobal co-chairs for performance and conformance tests.

Their main office is at the Lakeside Science & Technology Park in Klagenfurt, Austria near the University of Klagenfurt. A branch office is located in Graz, Austria, enabling a close cooperation with the Graz University of Technology.


DASH7 Alliance Protocol (D7A) is an open source Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network protocol, which operates in the 433 MHz, 868 MHz and 915 MHz unlicensed ISM band/SRD band. DASH7 provides multi-year battery life, range of up to 2 km, low latency for connecting with moving things, a very small open source protocol stack, AES 128-bit shared key encryption support, and data transfer of up to 167 kbit/s. The DASH7 Alliance Protocol is the name of the technology promoted by the non-profit consortium called the DASH7 Alliance.

DASH7 Alliance

The DASH7 Alliance (D7A) is a group of companies and universities managing the evolution of the Dash7 Alliance protocol. The goal of the group is to create a complete interoperable RF technology to exchange data for wireless sensor networks and devices at a block scale (300m–1 km).

Initially created with the participation of the US DoD and Lockheed Martin in 2009, the group evolved from RFID military needs (ISO-18000-7 support group role), to an industrial generic requirement. The Dash7 Alliance continued to forge an extensive experience in high reliability 433 MHz networks and extended it to 868/915 MHz.

Unlike other protocols, Dash7 Alliance published layered based protocols to ensure interoperability up to the file exchange layers. A complete Open Source implementation, OSS-7, as well as industrial implementations enabled to create a certification lab and organize regular plugfest.

The DASH7 Alliance was a privately held, 501(c)3 not-for-profit trade association founded in February 2009 and headquartered in San Ramon, California. Since 2015, it is a European NGO based in Brussels, Belgium.

Ear tag

An ear tag is a plastic or metal object used for identification of domestic livestock and other animals. If the ear tag uses Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) technology it is referred to as an electronic ear tag. Electronic ear tags conform to international standards ISO 11784 and ISO 11785 working at 134.2 kHz, as well as ISO/IEC 18000-6C operating in the UHF spectrum. There are other non-standard systems such as Destron working at 125 kHz. Although there are many shapes of ear tags, the main types in current use are as follows:

Flag-shaped ear tag: two discs joined through the ear, one or both bearing a wide, flat plastic surface on which identification details are written or printed in large, easily legible script.

Button-shaped ear tag: two discs joined through the ear.

Plastic clip ear tag: a moulded plastic strip, folded over the edge of the ear and joined through it.

Metal ear tag: an aluminium, steel or brass rectangle with sharp points, clipped over the edge of the ear, with the identification stamped into it.

Electronic Identification Tags, include the EID number and sometimes a management number on the button that appears on the back of the ear. These can at times be combined as a matched set, which includes Visual tags with Electronic Identification Tags.Each of these except the metal type may carry a RFID chip, which normally carries an electronic version of the same identification number.

Electronic Product Code

The Electronic Product Code (EPC) is designed as a universal identifier that provides a unique identity for every physical object anywhere in the world, for all time. The EPC structure is defined in the EPCglobal Tag Data Standard [1], which is an open standard freely available for download from the website of EPCglobal, Inc.. The canonical representation of an EPC is a URI, namely the 'pure-identity URI' representation that is intended for use when referring to a specific physical object in communications about EPCs among information systems and business application software. The EPCglobal Tag Data Standard also defines additional representations of an EPC identifier, such as the tag-encoding URI format and a compact binary format suitable for storing an EPC identifier efficiently within RFID tags (for which the low-cost passive RFID tags typically have limited memory capacity available for the EPC/UII memory bank). The EPCglobal Tag Data Standard defines the structure of the URI syntax and binary format, as well as the encoding and decoding rules to allow conversion between these representations. The EPC is designed as a flexible framework that can support many existing coding schemes, including many coding schemes currently in use with barcode technology. EPC identifiers currently support 7 identification keys from the GS1 system of identifiers, as well as a General Identifier and EPC identifiers that can be used for encoding supplies to the US Department of Defense.

EPCs are not designed exclusively for use with RFID data carriers. They can indeed be constructed based on reading of optical data carriers, such as linear bar codes and two-dimensional bar codes, such as Data Matrix symbols. The 'pure identity URI' canonical representation of an EPC is agnostic to the data carrier technology that was used to attach the unique identifier to the individual physical object.

The EPC is designed to meet the needs of various industries, while guaranteeing uniqueness for all EPC-compliant tags. Some of the existing GS1 identification keys [2] (such as the Global Returnable Asset Identifier (GRAI)) already provide for unique identification of individual objects. However, the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) only identifies the product type or stock-keeping unit (SKU) rather than an individual instance of a particular product type. To ensure that an EPC always uniquely identifies an individual physical object, in the case of a GTIN, the EPC is constructed as a serialised Serialised Global Trade Item Number (SGTIN) by combining a GTIN product identifier with a unique serial number.

Both the Universal Product Code and EAN-13 identifiers that are still found on many trade items can be mapped into a 14-digit GTIN identifier, by padding to the left with zero digits to reach a total of 14 digits. An SGTIN EPC identifier can therefore be constructed by combining the resulting GTIN with a unique serial number and following the encoding rules in the EPCglobal Tag Data Standard.

The EPC accommodates existing coding schemes and defines new schemes where necessary. Each coding scheme within the EPC identifier framework is distinguished through the use of a separate namespace. In the URI notations, this is indicated using a URI prefix such as urn:epc:id:sgtin or urn:epc:id:sscc

In the compact binary encoding of an EPC identifier, the namespace is instead indicated using a compact binary header (typically the first 8 bits of the binary encoding of an EPC identifier). The EPCglobal Tag Data Standard provides details of the URI prefixes and corresponding binary header values.

Low-cost passive RFID tags were designed to uniquely identify each item manufactured. In contrast, bar codes for trade items and consumer products have limited capacity and typically only identify the manufacturer and class of products. Although RFID tags are currently still more expensive than a simple optically readable label, they offer additional capabilities such as the ability to be read by radio waves, without requiring 'line of sight' between the reader or interrogator and the tag; this enables individual items within a large cardboard box (case) to be read without first unpacking each individual item from the box. Some RFID tags offer additional read/write user memory that could be used for storage of additional information, such as an expiry date or date of manufacture.

The EPC tag will never entirely replace both plain text and barcoding, as liability obligations for the producer require durable and sufficiently fail-safe labels. Currently (2010) there are no applications in which RFID tags have completely replaced conventional labeling.

The EPC was the creation of the MIT Auto-ID Center, a consortium of over 120 global corporations and university labs. EPC identifiers were designed to identify each item manufactured, as opposed to just the manufacturer and class of products, as bar codes do today. The EPC system is currently managed by EPCglobal, Inc., a subsidiary of GS1. The specifications for the EPC identifiers can be found in the EPCglobal, Inc. Tag Data Standard, which is an open standard, freely available for anyone to download.

The Electronic Product Code is one of the industrial standards for global RFID usage, and a core element of the EPCglobal Network[3], an architecture of open standards developed by the GS1 EPCglobal community. Most currently deployed EPC RFID tags comply with ISO/IEC 18000-6C for the RFID air interface standard.

Health Industry Business Communications Council

The Health Industry Business Communications Council is the primary standard-setting and educational organization for healthcare bar coding.

IEEE 1902.1

The IEEE 1902.1-2009 standard is a wireless data communication protocol also known as RuBee, operates within the Low Frequency radio wave range of 30–900 kHz. Although very resistant to interference, metal, water and obstacles, it is very limited in range, usually only suitable for short-range networks under 70 feet. The baud rate is limited to 1,200 kB/s, making it a very low-rate communication network as well. This standard is aimed at the conception of wireless network of sensors and actuators in industrial and military environments. One of the major advantage 1902.1 tags is they are extremely low power and last for years (5-10) on a simple coin size battery and they can be sealed in a MIL STD 810G package. RuBee tags emit virtually no RF and do not produce any Compromising Emanations, as a result are used in high security facilities. RuBee tags are safe and in use near and on high explosive facilities.

The IEEE 1902.1 is an alternative to other higher-power wireless network of sensors and actuators based on the standard IEEE 802.15.4, such as ZigBee and 6LoWPAN. Other concurrent standards also exist: ISO/IEC 18000-7 DASH7, infrared networking and ultra-wide band networking.

IEEE 1902.1 is unique as it uses a very low frequency and magnetic field modulation (created by a magnetic dipole antenna in the near-field) as the physical mean.

The IEEE Working Group on 1902.1 named itself RuBee, after the gem and insect. RuBee stands in contrast to the well-known network certification ZigBee, a related but completely different networking standard.

ISO/IEC 18000-3

ISO/IEC 18000-3 is an international standard for passive RFID item level identification and describes the parameters for air interface communications at 13.56 MHz. The target markets for MODE 2 are in tagging systems for manufacturing, logistics, retail, transport and airline baggage. MODE 2 is especially suitable for high speed bulk conveyor fed applications.

ISO/IEC 20248

ISO/IEC 20248 Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques – Data Structures – Digital Signature Meta Structure is an international standard specification under development by ISO/IEC JTC1 SC31 WG2. This development is an extension of SANS 1368, which is the current published specification. ISO/IEC 20248 and SANS 1368 are equivalent standard specifications. SANS 1368 is a South African national standard developed by the South African Bureau of Standards.

ISO/IEC 20248 [and SANS 1368] specifies a method whereby data stored within a barcode and/or RFID tag is structured and digitally signed. The purpose of the standard is to provide an open and interoperable method, between services and data carriers, to verify data originality and data integrity in an offline use case. The ISO/IEC 20248 data structure is also called a "DigSig" which refers to a small, in bit count, digital signature.

ISO/IEC 20248 also provides an effective and interoperable method to exchange data messages in the Internet of Things [IoT] and machine to machine [M2M] services allowing intelligent agents in such services to authenticate data messages and detect data tampering.


ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques is a subcommittee of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Joint Technical Committee (JTC) 1, and was established in 1996. SC 31 develops and facilitates international standards, technical reports, and technical specifications in the field of automatic identification and data capture techniques. The first Plenary established three working groups (WGs): Data Carriers, Data Content, and Conformance. Subsequent Plenaries established other working groups: RFID, RTLS, Mobile Item Identification and Management, Security and File Management, and Applications.

As of 2017, SC 31 has the following working groups:

· WG 1: Data carrier

· WG 2: Data and Structure

· WG 4: Radio communications

· WG 8: Application of AIDC standards

The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) located in the United States

ISO 18000

ISO/IEC 18000, an international standard that describes a series of diverse RFID technologies, each using a unique frequency range

OHSAS 18001, an internationally-used British Standard for occupational health and safety management systems, sometimes erroneously cited as an ISO standard

Josef Preishuber-Pflügl

Josef Preishuber-Pflügl is an Austrian technology leader.

He is an RFID, NFC and IoT expert who served as project editor of various international RFID standards, such as ISO/IEC 18000-4 "2.45 GHz air interface", ISO/IEC 18000-6" General UHF RFID air interface", ISO/IEC 18000-63 "Type C: UHF RFID air interface", ISO/IEC 18000-7 "433 MHz Active RFID air interface", ISO/IEC 29143 "Air interface for Mobile Item Identification Methods", and ISO/IEC 29167-1 "RFID Security".

Near-field communication

Near-field communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm (1.6 in) of each other.NFC devices are used in contactless payment systems, similar to those used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards and allow mobile payment to replace or supplement these systems. This is sometimes referred to as NFC/CTLS (contactless) or CTLS NFC. NFC is used for social networking, for sharing contacts, photos, videos or files. NFC-enabled devices can act as electronic identity documents and keycards. NFC offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more capable wireless connections.

Phase-jitter modulation

Phase-jitter modulation (PJM) is a modulation method specifically designed to meet the unique requirements of passive RFID tags. It has been adopted by the high-frequency RFID Air Interface Standard ISO/IEC 18000-3 MODE 2 for high-speed bulk conveyor-fed item-level identification because of its demonstrably higher data rates. The MODE 2 PJM data rate is 423,75 kbit/s; 16 times faster than the alternative MODE 1 system ISO/IEC 18000-3 MODE 1 and the legacy HF system ISO/IEC 15693.

Proximity card

A proximity card or prox card is a "contactless" smart card which can be read without inserting it into a reader device, as required by earlier magnetic stripe cards such as credit cards and "contact" type smart cards. The proximity cards are part of the contactless card technologies. Held near an electronic reader for a moment they enable the identification of an encoded number. The reader usually produces a beep or other sound to indicate the card has been read.

The term "proximity card" refers to the older 125 kHz devices as distinct to the newer 13.56 MHz contactless smartcards. Second generation prox cards are used for mass and distance reading applications. Proximity cards typically have a read range up to 50 cm (< 15 inches) which is the main difference with contactless smartcard with 2 to 10 cm (1 to 3 inches). The card can often be left in a wallet or purse, and read by simply holding the wallet or purse near the reader. These early proximity cards can't hold more data than a magnetic stripe card, and only cards with smart chips (ie, contactless smartcards) can hold other type of data like electronic funds balance for contactless payment systems, history data for time and attendance or biometric templates. When used without encoding data, only with the card serial number, contactless smartcard have similar functionalities to proximity cards.

RFID testing

RFID is a wireless technology supported by many different vendors for tags (also called transponders or smart cards) and readers (also called interrogators or terminals). In order to ensure global operability of the products multiple test standards have been developed. Furthermore, standardization organizations like ETSI organize RFID Plugtests, where products from multiple vendors are tested against each other in order to ensure interoperability.

Radio-frequency identification

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically-stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags have a local power source (such as a battery) and may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC).RFID tags are used in many industries. For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses; and implanting RFID microchips in livestock and pets enables positive identification of animals.

Since RFID tags can be attached to cash, clothing, and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns. These concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues. ISO/IEC 18000 and ISO/IEC 29167 use on-chip cryptography methods for untraceability, tag and reader authentication, and over-the-air privacy. ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data, source and read method authenticity. This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques. Tags can also be used in shops to expedite checkout, and to prevent theft by customers and employees.

In 2014, the world RFID market was worth US$8.89 billion, up from US$7.77 billion in 2013 and US$6.96 billion in 2012. This figure includes tags, readers, and software/services for RFID cards, labels, fobs, and all other form factors. The market value is expected to rise to US$18.68 billion by 2026.

Wireless lock

Wireless lock is a protection concept for authenticated LAN or WLAN network clients offered from various vendors in various functional shapes and physical designs. In contrast to wireless keys, wireless lock puts emphasis on automatic locking instead of just locking by time-out or unlocking.

The wireless lock concept supports initialising the client with authentication and log-on as electronic key solutions. Beyond that a wireless lock supports automatic log-off after user leaves unlocked network client and independent from time-out conditions. Protection comes into effect, while integrated or galvanically attached and paired receiver/transceiver stays connected with protected client object as soon as wireless token gets separated from client exceeding a set maximum allowed distance, generally the manual reach required for operating keyboard attached to client.

Currently (2011-07) there is no general standard supporting inter-operability of wireless lock concepts.

Most offered air interface solution is based on ISO/IEC 18000-3 HF (13,56 MHz) passive RFID tags and near field communication (NFC)-like reader specification.

Most offered authentication procedures make use of IETF public key infrastructure (PKI).

Comfortable solutions support single sign-on servicing.

Bluetooth BLE profile proximity is said to support such application.

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