ISO/IEC 15897 (Procedures for the registration of cultural elements) is an ISO standard for the registration of new POSIX locales and POSIX charmaps. This standard is the result of a "fast-track" adoption of CEN ENV 12005, a European prestandard published by CEN. It was originally published in 1999, and a second edition was published in 2011.
The standard was produced by Working Group 20 (WG20) of the JTC/1 SC22 committee, but in 2006 the standard was transferred to the JTC/1 SC35 committee. The registry is maintained by Danish UNIX-systems User Group (DKUUG), although it has not been updated since December 2001. The standard was confirmed in 2017, following a five-yearly systematic review.
Items registered in the registry are:
The Common Locale Data Repository Project, often abbreviated as CLDR, is a project of the Unicode Consortium to provide locale data in the XML format for use in computer applications. CLDR contains locale-specific information that an operating system will typically provide to applications. CLDR is written in LDML (Locale Data Markup Language). The information is currently used in International Components for Unicode, Apple's macOS, LibreOffice, MediaWiki, and IBM's AIX, among other applications and operating systems.
Among the types of data that CLDR includes are the following:
Translations for language names.
Translations for territory and country names.
Translations for currency names, including singular/plural modifications.
Translations for weekday, month, era, period of day, in full and abbreviated forms.
Translations for timezones and example cities (or similar) for timezones.
Translations for calendar fields.
Patterns for formatting/parsing dates or times of day.
Exemplar sets of characters used for writing the language.
Patterns for formatting/parsing numbers.
Rules for language-adapted collation.
Rules for formatting numbers in traditional numeral systems (like Roman numerals, Armenian numerals, …).
Rules for spelling out numbers as words.
Rules for transliteration between scripts. A lot of it is based on BGN/PCGN romanization.It overlaps somewhat with ISO/IEC 15897 (POSIX locales). POSIX locale information can be derived from CLDR by using some of CLDR's conversion tools.
CLDR is maintained by the CLDR technical committee, which includes employees from IBM, Apple, Google, Microsoft, and some government-based organizations. The committee is currently chaired by John Emmons (IBM), with Mark Davis (Google) as vice-chair.ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 35
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 35 User interfaces is a standardization subcommittee (SC), which is part of the joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1, of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops standards within the field of user-system interfaces in information and communication technology (ICT) environments. The subcommittee was founded at the 1998 Sendai ISO/IEC JTC 1 Plenary meeting, before which it was a working group directly under ISO/IEC JTC 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/WG 5). The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 35 is AFNOR (Association Française de Normalisation), located in France.List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 15000-15999
This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.Locale (computer software)
In computing, a locale is a set of parameters that defines the user's language, region and any special variant preferences that the user wants to see in their user interface. Usually a locale identifier consists of at least a language code and a country/region code.
On POSIX platforms such as Unix, Linux and others, locale identifiers are defined by ISO/IEC 15897, which is similar to the BCP 47 definition of language tags, but the locale variant modifier is defined differently, and the character set is included as a part of the identifier. It is defined in this format: [language[_territory][.codeset][@modifier]]. (For example, Australian English using the UTF-8 encoding is en_AU.UTF-8.)Registration authority
Registration authorities exist for many standards organizations, such as ANNA (Association of National Numbering Agencies for ISIN), the Object Management Group, W3C, IEEE and others. In general, registration authorities all perform a similar function, in promoting the use of a particular standard through facilitating its use. This may be by applying the standard, where appropriate, or by verifying that a particular application satisfies the standard's tenants. Maintenance agencies, in contrast, may change an element in a standard based on set rules – such as the creation or change of a currency code when a currency is created or revalued (i.e. TRL to TRY for Turkish lira). The Object Management Group has an additional concept of certified provider, which is deemed an entity permitted to perform some functions on behalf of the registration authority, under specific processes and procedures documented within the standard for such a role.
An ISO registration authority (RAs) is not authorized to update standards but provides a registration function to facilitate implementation of an International Standard (e.g. ISBN number for books). Frequently, facilitating the implementation of an ISO standard’s requirements is best suited, by its nature, to one entity, an RA. This, de facto, creates a monopoly situation and this is why care needs to be taken with respect to the functions carried out and the fees charged to avoid an abuse of such a situation. In most cases, there is a formal legal contract in place between the standards body, such as the ISO General Secretariat, and the selected registration authority.
ISO registration authorities differ from a maintenance agency. Maintenance agencies are authorized to update particular elements in an International Standard and as a matter of policy, the secretariats of MAs are assigned to bodies forming part of the ISO system (member bodies or organizations to which a member body delegates certain tasks in its country). The membership of MAs and their operating procedures are subject to approval by the Technical Management Board.
While registration authorities for a particular standard typically do not change, the position is not formally guaranteed and is subject to review and reassignment to a different firm or organization. In some cases, the concept of a registration authority may not exist for a standard at all.
By further example, the equivalent registration authority organization for Internet standards is the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
ISO standards by standard number