ISO/IEC 15693

ISO/IEC 15693, is an ISO standard for vicinity cards, i.e. cards which can be read from a greater distance as compared with proximity cards. Such cards can normally be read out by a reader without being powered themselves, as the reader will supply the necessary power to the card over the air (wireless).

ISO/IEC 15693 systems operate at the 13.56 MHz frequency, and offer maximum read distance of 1–1.5 meters. As the vicinity cards have to operate at a greater distance, the necessary magnetic field is less (0.15 to 5 A/m) than that for a proximity card (1.5 to 7.5 A/m).

Example applications

  • Public library: books have a unique ID stored in them. Books can be checked out or in by simply placing them in the range of a reader
  • Ski pass: each of those has a unique ID and the system knows for how long the pass is valid etc.

Communication to the card

Communication from the reader to the card uses an amplitude-shift keying with 10% or 100% modulation index.

The data coding is:

1 out of 4 pulse position modulation
2 bits are coded as the position of a 9.44 µs pause in a 75.52 µs symbol time, giving a bit rate of 26.48 kilobits per second. The least-significant bits are sent first.
1 out of 256 pulse position modulation
8 bits are coded as the position of a 9.44 µs pause in a 4.833 ms symbol time, giving a bit rate of 1.65 kbit/s.

Communication to the reader

The card has two ways to send its data back to the reader:

Amplitude shift keying

Amplitude-shift keying 100% modulation index on a 423.75 kHz subcarrier. The data rate can be:

  • Low 6.62 kbit/s (fc/2048)
  • High 26.48 kbit/s (fc/512)

A logic 0 starts with eight pulses of 423.75 kHz followed by an unmodulated time of 18.88 µs (256/ fc); a logic 1 is the other way round. The data frame delimitors are code violations, a start of frame is:

  1. an unmodulated time of 56.64 µs (768/ fc),
  2. 24 pulses of 423.75 kHz
  3. a logic 1

and the end of a frame is:

  1. a logic 0
  2. 24 pulses of 423.75 kHz
  3. an unmodulated time of 56.64 µs

The data are sent using a Manchester code.

Frequency shift keying

Frequency-shift keying by switching between a 423.75 kHz sub carrier (operating frequency divided by 32) and a 484.25 kHz sub carrier (operating frequency divided by 28). The data rate can be:

  • Low 6.67 kbit/s (fc/2032)
  • High 26.69 kbit/s (fc/508)

A logic 0 starts with eight pulses of 423.75 kHz followed by nine pulses of 484.28 kHz; a logic 1 is the other way round. The data frame delimitors are code violations, a start of frame is:

  1. 27 pulses of 484.28 kHz
  2. 24 pulses of 423.75 kHz
  3. a logic 1

and the end of a frame is:

  1. a logic 0
  2. 24 pulses of 423.75 kHz
  3. 27 pulses of 484.28 kHz

The data are sent using a Manchester code.

Manufacturer codes

see ISO/IEC 7816-6

  1. Code 0x01: Motorola
  2. Code 0x02: ST Microelectronics
  3. Code 0x03: Hitachi
  4. Code 0x04: NXP Semiconductors
  5. Code 0x05: Infineon Technologies
  6. Code 0x06: Cylinc
  7. Code 0x07: Texas Instruments Tag-it™
  8. Code 0x08: Fujitsu Limited
  9. Code 0x09: Matsushita Electric Industrial
  10. Code 0x0A: NEC
  11. Code 0x0B: Oki Electric
  12. Code 0x0C: Toshiba
  13. Code 0x0D: Mitsubishi Electric
  14. Code 0x0E: Samsung Electronics
  15. Code 0x0F: Hyundai Electronics
  16. Code 0x10: LG Semiconductors
  17. Code 0x16: EM Microelectronic-Marin
  18. Code 0x1F: Melexis
  19. Code 0x2B: Maxim
  20. Code 0x33: AMIC
  21. Code 0x44: GenTag, Inc (USA)
  22. Code 0x45: Invengo Information Technology Co.Ltd

Implementations

The first byte of the UID should always be 0xE0.

Products with ISO15693 interface

  • EEPROM: various manufacturers like ST Microelectronics or NXP offer EEPROMs readable via ISO15693
  • µController: Texas instruments offers a small µController entirely powered by the ISO15693 reading field and capable of reading a simple temperature sensor, wirelessly providing the value of that to the reader

External links

Contactless smart card

A contactless smart card is a contactless credential whose dimensions are credit-card size. Its embedded integrated circuits can store (and sometimes process) data and communicate with a terminal via NFC. Commonplace uses include transit tickets, bank cards and passports.

There are two broad categories of contactless smart cards. Memory cards contain non-volatile memory storage components, and perhaps some specific security logic. Contactless smart cards contain read-only RFID called CSN (Card Serial Number) or UID, and a re-writeable smart card microchip that can be transcribed via radio waves.

ISO/IEC 7813

ISO/IEC 7813 is an international standard codified by the International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission that defines properties of financial transaction cards, such as ATM or credit cards.

ISO/IEC 7816

ISO/IEC 7816 is an international standard related to electronic identification cards with contacts, especially smart cards, managed jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

It is edited by the Joint technical committee (JTC) 1 / Sub-Committee (SC) 17, Cards and personal identification.The following describes the different parts of this standard.

Note: abstracts and dates, when present, are mere quotations from the ISO website, and are neither guaranteed at the time of edition nor in the future.

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 15000-15999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

Payment card

Payment cards are part of a payment system issued by financial institutions, such as a bank, to a customer that enables its owner (the cardholder) to access the funds in the customer's designated bank accounts, or through a credit account and make payments by electronic funds transfer and access automated teller machines (ATMs). Such cards are known by a variety of names including bank cards, ATM cards, MAC (money access cards), client cards, key cards or cash cards.

There are a number of types of payment cards, the most common being credit cards and debit cards. Most commonly, a payment card is electronically linked to an account or accounts belonging to the cardholder. These accounts may be deposit accounts or loan or credit accounts, and the card is a means of authenticating the cardholder. However, stored-value cards store money on the card itself and are not necessarily linked to an account at a financial institution.

It can also be a smart card that contains a unique card number and some security information such as an expiration date or CVVC (CVV) or with a magnetic strip on the back enabling various machines to read and access information. Depending on the issuing bank and the preferences of the client, this may allow the card to be used as an ATM card, enabling transactions at automatic teller machines; or as a debit card, linked to the client's bank account and able to be used for making purchases at the point of sale; or as a credit card attached to a revolving credit line supplied by the bank.

Most payment cards, such as debit and credit cards can also function as ATM cards, although ATM-only cards are also available. Charge and proprietary cards cannot be used as ATM cards. The use of a credit card to withdraw cash at an ATM is treated differently to a POS transaction, usually attracting interest charges from the date of the cash withdrawal. Interbank networks allow the use of ATM cards at ATMs of private operators and financial institutions other than those of the institution that issued the cards.

All ATM machines, at a minimum, will permit cash withdrawals of customers of the machine's owner (if a bank-operated machine) and for cards that are affiliated with any ATM network the machine is also affiliated. They will report the amount of the withdrawal and any fees charged by the machine on the receipt. Most banks and credit unions will permit routine account-related banking transactions at the bank's own ATM, including deposits, checking the balance of an account, and transferring money between accounts. Some may provide additional services, such as selling postage stamps.

For other types of transactions through telephone or online banking, this may be performed with an ATM card without in-person authentication. This includes account balance inquiries, electronic bill payments, or in some cases, online purchases (see Interac Online).

ATM cards can also be used on improvised ATMs such as "mini ATMs", merchants' card terminals that deliver ATM features without any cash drawer. These terminals can also be used as cashless scrip ATMs by cashing the receipts they issue at the merchant's point of sale.

Phase-jitter modulation

Phase-jitter modulation (PJM) is a modulation method specifically designed to meet the unique requirements of passive RFID tags. It has been adopted by the high-frequency RFID Air Interface Standard ISO/IEC 18000-3 MODE 2 for high-speed bulk conveyor-fed item-level identification because of its demonstrably higher data rates. The MODE 2 PJM data rate is 423,75 kbit/s; 16 times faster than the alternative MODE 1 system ISO/IEC 18000-3 MODE 1 and the legacy HF system ISO/IEC 15693.

Proximity card

A proximity card or prox card is a "contactless" smart card which can be read without inserting it into a reader device, as required by earlier magnetic stripe cards such as credit cards and "contact" type smart cards. The proximity cards are part of the contactless card technologies. Held near an electronic reader for a moment they enable the identification of an encoded number. The reader usually produces a beep or other sound to indicate the card has been read.

The term "proximity card" refers to the older 125 kHz devices as distinct to the newer 13.56 MHz contactless smartcards. Second generation prox cards are used for mass and distance reading applications. Proximity cards typically have a read range up to 50 cm (< 15 inches) which is the main difference with contactless smartcard with 2 to 10 cm (1 to 3 inches). The card can often be left in a wallet or purse, and read by simply holding the wallet or purse near the reader. These early proximity cards can't hold more data than a magnetic stripe card, and only cards with smart chips (ie, contactless smartcards) can hold other type of data like electronic funds balance for contactless payment systems, history data for time and attendance or biometric templates. When used without encoding data, only with the card serial number, contactless smartcard have similar functionalities to proximity cards.

Pulse-position modulation

Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a form of signal modulation in which M message bits are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of possible required time shifts. This is repeated every T seconds, such that the transmitted bit rate is bits per second. It is primarily useful for optical communications systems, which tend to have little or no multipath interference.

RFID testing

RFID is a wireless technology supported by many different vendors for tags (also called transponders or smart cards) and readers (also called interrogators or terminals). In order to ensure global operability of the products multiple test standards have been developed. Furthermore, standardization organizations like ETSI organize RFID Plugtests, where products from multiple vendors are tested against each other in order to ensure interoperability.

RFdump

RFDump is a software created by Lukas Grunwald and Christian Bottger for the purpose of security auditing of RFID tags. It is periodically updated to emerging RFID standards such as e-passport and Mifare encryption currently found on many pay as you go systems.

RFDump is a back-end GPL tool to directly inter-operate with any RFID reader to make the contents stored on RFID tags accessible. The tools reads an RFID tag's meta information: tag ID, tag type, manufacturer etc. The user data of a tag can be displayed and modified using either a hex or an ASCII editor. In addition, the integrated cookie feature demonstrates how simple it is for a company to abuse RFID technology, and how it can be used to spy on unwitting consumers. RFDump works with the ACG Multi-Tag Reader or similar card reader hardware.

RFDump features (Gtk application):

Runs on Linux, Windows

Supports ACGs PCMCIA/CF Multi-Tag Readers

Decodes the tag type, tag ID and manufacturer

Displays tag memory in hex and ASCII encoding

Allows to write memory using hex or ASCII editor

Full ISO/IEC 14443 type A/B support

Support for Mifare sector keys

Cookie feature using arbitrary cookie ID and automatically incrementing counter

Brute-force cracking of access control cards (sector keys)

Audit of encrypted RFID tags check for default shipping keys

Save and restore of Mifare cards including sector keys

Multi baudrate reader support; RFDump can set baud rate

Scan option

Configuration menusSupported Tag Types:

ISO/IEC 15693: Tag-it ISO, My-d, I-Code SLI, LRI512, TempSense

ISO/IEC 14443 type A: Mifare Standard(1,2), Mifare UltraLight(1,2)

ISO/IEC 14443 type B: SR176(1,2)

Tag-it

I-Code

EM4002

EM4005

EM4050

HITAG1

HITAG2

Q5

TIRIS

Radio-frequency identification

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically-stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags have a local power source (such as a battery) and may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC).RFID tags are used in many industries. For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses; and implanting RFID microchips in livestock and pets enables positive identification of animals.

Since RFID tags can be attached to cash, clothing, and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns. These concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues. ISO/IEC 18000 and ISO/IEC 29167 use on-chip cryptography methods for untraceability, tag and reader authentication, and over-the-air privacy. ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data, source and read method authenticity. This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques. Tags can also be used in shops to expedite checkout, and to prevent theft by customers and employees.

In 2014, the world RFID market was worth US$8.89 billion, up from US$7.77 billion in 2013 and US$6.96 billion in 2012. This figure includes tags, readers, and software/services for RFID cards, labels, fobs, and all other form factors. The market value is expected to rise to US$18.68 billion by 2026.

Vicinity (disambiguation)

Vicinity may refer to:

Vicinity aka surroundings

Vicinity card aka NFC-V, a wireless card following ISO/IEC 15693

Vicinity Corporation, who provided MapBlast web mapping service in the 1990s

IEC standards
ISO/IEC standards
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ISO standards by standard number
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10000–19999
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