ISO/IEC 14443 Identification cards -- Contactless integrated circuit cards -- Proximity cards is an international standard that defines proximity cards used for identification, and the transmission protocols for communicating with it.
The standard was developed by the Working Group 8 of Subcommittee 17 in ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1.
Cards may be Type A and Type B, both of which communicate via radio at 13.56 MHz (RFID HF). The main differences between these types concern modulation methods, coding schemes (Part 2) and protocol initialization procedures (Part 3). Both Type A and Type B cards use the same transmission protocol (described in Part 4). The transmission protocol specifies data block exchange and related mechanisms:
ISO/IEC 14443 uses following terms for components:
Andante is a public transport ticketing system used in and around Porto, Portugal.
It started operation in November 2002 at Metro do Porto stations and is now a cross-network ticket used on the Porto Metro, selected bus and train routes and the Funicular dos Guindais cable railway.
Two types of card are currently in use:
Occasional or Azul (blue): This card is a rechargeable ticket intended for occasional riders, and contains a small, flexible memory card within the laminated ticket. The card has an estimated life-span of about one year.
Season or Gold: Similar to a credit card in shape and material, it has a memory chip on the surface. Gold tickets also feature the holder's name and laser-scanned photograph. It has a life-time of several years.Occasional tickets can be bought at the terminals in stations. Ticket machines can recharge both kinds of ticket, although Gold tickets can only be purchased in Lojas Andante (Andante Shops). Tickets can also be recharged at MultiBanco ATMs. When purchasing tickets, passengers must select how many zones the card will allow travel within. The minimum Z2 (2 zone) ticket allows travel for 1 hour after validation, with allowed travel time increasing for each valid zone purchased.
Unlike others ticket zoning systems, Andante zones are not concentric. This makes the system slightly fairer, but also slightly more complicated. To travel within the same zone or up to one neighbouring zone you need Z2 ticket, the more zones you need to cross, the higher the Z ticket you need. Although with Andante Occasional you can use your tickets in any zones, with Andante Gold you must choose in advance which zones you will be travelling in.
The system uses ISO/IEC 14443 type B for communication between card readers (check-in points, automatic vending machines, vending stores and controller handsets) and the card itself. The system is entirely contactless, with validation activated by holding the ticket a short distance in front of the reader for about a second. Teams of ticket inspectors make random checks across the network with hand-held ticket readers.Calypso (electronic ticketing system)
Calypso is an international electronic ticketing standard for microprocessor contactless smart cards, originally designed by a group of transit operators from 11 countries including Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Canada and others. It ensures multi-sources of compatible products, and allows for interoperability between several transport operators in the same area.Card standards
Card standard(s) may refer to any of a number of standards related to smartcards.
ISO/IEC 7810 Identification cards — Physical characteristics
ISO/IEC 7812 Identification cards — Identification of issuers
ISO/IEC 7816 Identification cards — Integrated circuit cards
ISO/IEC 14443 Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cardsContactless smart card
A contactless smart card is a contactless credential whose dimensions are credit-card size. Its embedded integrated circuits can store (and sometimes process) data and communicate with a terminal via NFC. Commonplace uses include transit tickets, bank cards and passports.
There are two broad categories of contactless smart cards. Memory cards contain non-volatile memory storage components, and perhaps some specific security logic. Contactless smart cards contain read-only RFID called CSN (Card Serial Number) or UID, and a re-writeable smart card microchip that can be transcribed via radio waves.Datacard
A datacard is an electronic card for data operations (storage, transfer, transformation, input, output).FeliCa
FeliCa is a contactless RFID smart card system from Sony in Japan, primarily used in electronic money cards. The name stands for Felicity Card. First utilized in the Octopus card system in Hong Kong, the technology is used in a variety of cards also in countries such as Singapore, Japan, Indonesia and the United States.ISO/IEC 7813
ISO/IEC 7813 is an international standard codified by the International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission that defines properties of financial transaction cards, such as ATM or credit cards.Istanbulkart
istanbulkart is a contactless smart card for fare payment on public transport in Istanbul, Turkey. It was introduced on March 23, 2009 in addition to, and to eventually replace, the Akbil, an integrated electronic ticket system (Akbil iButtons are now being phased out as of 2015). The card was developed and put into practice by the information technology company Belbim of the Metropolitan Municipality.The Istanbulkart is valid for boarding buses, funiculars, LRT, subway, commuter trains, ferryboats and trams operated by the Metropolitan Municipality and private companies. Cash payment on these transport systems is not possible. Reduced fees are applicable for up to five transfers within two hours to other vehicles on the transportation network.There are four different types of the Istanbulkart, one ordinary and three special. The special cards are issued upon the holder's legal eligibility, and are therefore personalized:
Ordinary card: for full fare payment,
Mavi Kart (Blue card) (season ticket): seasonal ticket discounted on monthly use basis,
Discounted card: for students, teachers, senior citizens (over 60 years of age)
Free card: for handicapped or disabled persons,senior citizens (over 65 years of age) and government employees underway on duty.The ordinary cards may be acquired from offices at major transport interchanges for a nonrefundable deposit of 10 TL. It can be purchased for 6TL from vending machines located at metro entrances. The remaining sum will be deposited on the card. Afterwards, the cards can be loaded with credits up to 300 TL at these offices, special purpose machines, vending machines on the metro or at news-stands and small shops which offer this service. Cards for a limited number of passes (1, 2, 3, 5 or 10) are also available.
Unlike the ordinary cards, the special cards are issued on a named basis, so they require an application to be made at one of the 13 application centers, or on the internet.
To pay the fare, the smart card is brought into close proximity, up to 8 cm (3.1 in), with a contactless reader during boarding of the transportation vehicle or at the toll gates of the station. It is not necessary for the card to touch the reader, cards inside a wallet or a handbag can be also read for rapid payment. The reader device signals confirmation of the fare payment with an audible sound, and the screen turns green showing the payment and the remaining deposit after a split second.In case of insufficient deposit on the smart card, the card reader shows the warning message "Yetersiz Bakiye" (Insufficient deposit) on its display along with an audible warning. Counterfeit cards will be confiscated by the bus driver or security personnel at the turnpikes.The Istanbulkart is compatible with international standards such as ISO/IEC 7816 and ISO/IEC 14443 and is built using NXP's DESFire technology. Its use is planned to be extended to payments at municipality operated parking lots and theatres, as well as for privately owned taxis, Dolmuş (share taxis) and movie theatres. The personalized type of the smart card can also be used in a more general form for admission to an event or establishment or for municipality provided social welfare purposes.Legic
Legic Identsystems AG (known within the company as LEGIC) with its headquarters in Wetzikon is an international Swissprovider of hardware, software and services in the field of contactless personal identification. The company is considered a leader in this field. The portfolio includes reader chips, transponder chips and software and services to manage ID systems. LEGIC products conform to ISO Standards ISO 15693, ISO/IEC 14443, ISO 18092 (NFC) and the prime RF standard.
LEGIC maintains a global network, currently with over 300 licensed partner companies. Based on the LEGIC technology platform, these companies develop a multitude of ID systems with applications such as staff work time logging, access controls, biometrics, e-payment, parking, ticketing and other multi-applications.
The company has its roots in the «LEGIC IDENTSYSTEMS» business division of Kaba AG in Wetzikon which was created in 1990. In 2002, the business division was converted into an independent limited company. In 1992, LEGIC was the first company to present a contactless and secure Smart Card technology for access controls and other identification applications on the frequency of 13.56 MHz.List of smart cards
Some widely used contactless smart cards include Melbourne's myki, Sydney's Opal Card, London's Oyster card, South Korea's T-money, Hong Kong's Octopus card, Stockholm's Access card, Japan's Suica and Pasmo cards, Manila's Beep cards, Nigeria's ETC Card, Paris' Calypso/Navigo, the Dutch OV-Chipkaart, Toronto's Presto card and Lisbon's LisboaViva card, which predate the ISO/IEC 14443 standard. The following tables list smart cards used for public transport and other electronic purse applications.MIFARE
MIFARE is the NXP Semiconductors-owned trademark of a series of chips widely used in contactless smart cards and proximity cards.
The brand name covers proprietary solutions based upon various levels of the ISO/IEC 14443 Type A 13.56 MHz contactless smart card standard. It incorporates AES and DES/Triple-DES encryption standards, as well as an older proprietary encryption algorithm. According to NXP themselves, 10 billion of their smart card chips and over 150 million reader modules have been sold. MIFARE is owned by NXP Semiconductors, which was spun off from Philips Electronics in 2006.Near-field communication
Near-field communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm (1.6 in) of each other.NFC devices are used in contactless payment systems, similar to those used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards and allow mobile payment to replace or supplement these systems. This is sometimes referred to as NFC/CTLS (contactless) or CTLS NFC. NFC is used for social networking, for sharing contacts, photos, videos or files. NFC-enabled devices can act as electronic identity documents and keycards. NFC offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more capable wireless connections.OPUS card
OPUS is a rechargeable, dual interface (contact/contactless) stored-value smart card using the Calypso Standard and is used by major public transit operators in Greater Montreal and Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. It does comply with the ISO/IEC 14443 standard for smartcards, and can be read by smartphones with an NFC antenna.Proximity card
A proximity card or prox card is a "contactless" smart card which can be read without inserting it into a reader device, as required by earlier magnetic stripe cards such as credit cards and "contact" type smart cards. The proximity cards are part of the contactless card technologies. Held near an electronic reader for a moment they enable the identification of an encoded number. The reader usually produces a beep or other sound to indicate the card has been read.
The term "proximity card" refers to the older 125 kHz devices as distinct to the newer 13.56 MHz contactless smartcards. Second generation prox cards are used for mass and distance reading applications. Proximity cards typically have a read range up to 50 cm (< 15 inches) which is the main difference with contactless smartcard with 2 to 10 cm (1 to 3 inches). The card can often be left in a wallet or purse, and read by simply holding the wallet or purse near the reader. These early proximity cards can't hold more data than a magnetic stripe card, and only cards with smart chips (ie, contactless smartcards) can hold other type of data like electronic funds balance for contactless payment systems, history data for time and attendance or biometric templates. When used without encoding data, only with the card serial number, contactless smartcard have similar functionalities to proximity cards.RFID testing
RFID is a wireless technology supported by many different vendors for tags (also called transponders or smart cards) and readers (also called interrogators or terminals). In order to ensure global operability of the products multiple test standards have been developed. Furthermore, standardization organizations like ETSI organize RFID Plugtests, where products from multiple vendors are tested against each other in order to ensure interoperability.RFdump
RFDump is a software created by Lukas Grunwald and Christian Bottger for the purpose of security auditing of RFID tags. It is periodically updated to emerging RFID standards such as e-passport and Mifare encryption currently found on many pay as you go systems.
RFDump is a back-end GPL tool to directly inter-operate with any RFID reader to make the contents stored on RFID tags accessible. The tools reads an RFID tag's meta information: tag ID, tag type, manufacturer etc. The user data of a tag can be displayed and modified using either a hex or an ASCII editor. In addition, the integrated cookie feature demonstrates how simple it is for a company to abuse RFID technology, and how it can be used to spy on unwitting consumers. RFDump works with the ACG Multi-Tag Reader or similar card reader hardware.
RFDump features (Gtk application):
Runs on Linux, Windows
Supports ACGs PCMCIA/CF Multi-Tag Readers
Decodes the tag type, tag ID and manufacturer
Displays tag memory in hex and ASCII encoding
Allows to write memory using hex or ASCII editor
Full ISO/IEC 14443 type A/B support
Support for Mifare sector keys
Cookie feature using arbitrary cookie ID and automatically incrementing counter
Brute-force cracking of access control cards (sector keys)
Audit of encrypted RFID tags check for default shipping keys
Save and restore of Mifare cards including sector keys
Multi baudrate reader support; RFDump can set baud rate
Configuration menusSupported Tag Types:
ISO/IEC 15693: Tag-it ISO, My-d, I-Code SLI, LRI512, TempSense
ISO/IEC 14443 type A: Mifare Standard(1,2), Mifare UltraLight(1,2)
ISO/IEC 14443 type B: SR176(1,2)
T-money is a rechargeable series of smart cards and other "smart" devices used for paying transportation fares in and around Seoul and other areas of South Korea. T-money can also be used in lieu of cash or credit cards in some convenience stores and other businesses. The T-money System has been implemented and is being operated by Korea Smart Card Co., Ltd of which 34.4% owned by Seoul Metropolitan City Government, 31.85% owned by LG CNS, and 15.73% owned by Credit Card Union.
ISO standards by standard number