IMDb

IMDb (Internet Movie Database) is an online database of information related to films, television programs, home videos and video games, and internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries, trivia, and fan reviews and ratings. An additional fan feature, message boards, was abandoned in February 2017. Originally a fan-operated website, the database is owned and operated by IMDb.com, Inc., a subsidiary of Amazon.

As of October 2018, IMDb has approximately 5.3 million titles (including episodes) and 9.3 million personalities in its database,[2] as well as 83 million registered users.

IMDb
IMDB Logo 2016
Type of site
Online database for movies, television, and video games
Available inEnglish
OwnerAmazon
Created byCol Needham (CEO)
SubsidiariesBox Office Mojo
Websitewww.imdb.com
Alexa rankIncrease 46 (March 2019)[1]
CommercialYes
RegistrationOptional registration, registered members can write reviews, edit the site, vote on ratings
Launched17 October 1990
Current statusActive

Features

The movie and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all internet users, but a registration process is necessary to contribute information to the site.

Most data in the database is provided by volunteer contributors. The site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Users with a proven track record of submitting factual data are given instant approval for additions or corrections to cast, credits, and other demographics of media product and personalities. However, image, name, character name, plot summaries, and title changes are supposedly screened before publication, and usually take between 24 and 72 hours to appear.

All registered users choose their own site name, and most operate anonymously. They have a profile page which shows how long a registered user has been a member, as well as personal movie ratings (should the user decide to display them) and, since 2015, "badges" are added representing how many contributions a particular registered user has submitted. These badges range from total contributions made to independent categories such as photos, trivia, bios, etc. If a registered user or visitor is in the entertainment industry and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO.[3] There is no single index of contributors, no index on each profile page of the items contributed, and (except for plot synopses and biographies) no identification of contributors to each product's or person's data pages.

Users are also invited to rate any film on a scale of 1 to 10, and the totals are converted into a weighted mean-rating that is displayed beside each title, with online filters employed to deter ballot-stuffing.

In January 2019, IMDb launched a free movie streaming platform called Freedive, an ad-supported service offering Hollywood movie titles and TV shows. Many Freedive titles are licensed from Sony Pictures.[4]

History

History before website

IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled "Those Eyes", about actresses with beautiful eyes. Others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own. Needham subsequently started an "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", and Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST" from Hank Driskill, which would later be renamed the "Actress List". Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, but soon retired people were added, so Needham started what was then (but did not remain) a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". Steve Hammond started collecting and merging character names for both the actors and actresses lists. When these achieved popularity, they were merged back into the lists themselves. The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible.

By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, and thus the database that would become the IMDb was born.[5] At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database".

On the web

The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia, biographies, and plot summaries. The movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data, and a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. Later, in 1993, it moved onto the World Wide Web, (a network in its infancy at that time) under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database.[6] The database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994, the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, which enabled people to email the specific list maintainer with their updates. However, the structure remained so that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth.[7]

As an independent company

In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom, becoming the Internet Movie Database Ltd. Founder Col. Needham became the primary owner as well as the figurehead. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising, licensing and partnerships.[8]

As Amazon.com subsidiary (1998–present)

In 1998, Jeff Bezos, founder, owner, and CEO of Amazon.com, struck a deal with Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright for approximately $55 million[9] and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company.[10] This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work, while Amazon.com would be able to use IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes.

IMDb continued to expand its functionality. On January 15, 2002, it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro, aimed at entertainment professionals. IMDbPro was announced and launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival. It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details, as well as a company directory and the ability of subscribers to add personal information pages with details at variance with pages about them appearing in the database.

As an additional incentive for users, as of 2003, users identified as one of "the top 100 contributors" of hard data received complimentary free access to IMDbPro for the following calendar year; for 2006 this was increased to the top 150 contributors, and for 2010 to the top 250.[11] In 2008, IMDb launched their first official foreign language version with the German IMDb.de. Also in 2008, IMDb acquired two other companies: Withoutabox and Box Office Mojo.

The website was originally Perl-based, but IMDb no longer discloses what software it uses for reasons of security.[12] As of May 2011, the site has been filtered in China for more than one year, although many users address it through proxy server or by VPN.[13]

IMDbPro

Actors, crew, and industry executives can post their own resume and upload photos of themselves for a yearly fee. This fee gives them membership in IMDbPro. IMDbPro can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is US$19.99 per month, or if paid annually, US$149.99. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, producer, director etc. that has an IMDb page. Enrolling in IMDbPro for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as an IMDb user and contribute to the site as well as view its content, however those users enrolled in IMDbPro have greater access and privileges.[14]

Television episodes numbers

On January 26, 2006, "Full Episode Support" came online, allowing the database to support separate cast and crew listings for each episode of every television series. This increased the number of titles in the database from 485,000 to nearly 755,000.

Characters' filmography

On October 2, 2007, the characters' filmography was added. Character entries are created from character listings in the main filmography database, and as such do not need any additional verification by IMDb staff. They have already been verified when they are added to the main filmography.

Instant viewing

On September 15, 2008, a feature was added that enables instant viewing of over 6,000 movies and television shows from CBS, Sony and a number of independent film makers, with direct links from their profiles.[15] Due to licensing restrictions, this feature is available only to viewers in the United States.[16]

This feature has since been discontinued. As quoted from IMDb.com video faq's "You won't be able to view the movie or TV Show on IMDb. The videos on IMDb are Trailers, Interviews, Clips, Featurettes, and other original content that dive deeper into great movies and TV shows."

Date discontinued: [information needed]

Freedive: On January 10,2019 free viewing option for US locations was once again added. Freedive is available on the IMDb website and on Amazon Fire TV devices. The difference is that this time the content has embedded ads which can not be skipped.[17]

Content and format

Data provided by subjects

In 2006, IMDb introduced its "Résumé Subscription Service", where actors and crew can post their own résumé and upload photos of themselves[18] for a yearly fee.[19] The base annual charge for including a photo with an account was US$39.95 until 2010, when it was increased to US$54.95. IMDb résumé pages are kept on a sub-page of the regular entry about that person, with a regular entry automatically created for each résumé subscriber who does not already have one.[20]

As of 2012, Resume Services is now included as part of an IMDbPro subscription, and is no longer offered as a separate subscription service.

Copyright, vandalism and error issues

All volunteers who contribute content to the database technically retain copyright on their contributions but the compilation of the content becomes the exclusive property of IMDb with the full right to copy, modify, and sublicense it and they are verified before posting.[21] Credit is not given on specific title or filmography pages to the contributor(s) who have provided information. Conversely, a credited text entry, such as a plot summary, may be corrected for content, grammar, sentence structure, perceived omission or error, by other contributors without having to add their names as co-authors. Due to the time required for processing submitted data or text before it is displayed, IMDb is different from user-contributed projects like Wikipedia, Discogs, or OpenStreetMap in that contributors cannot add, delete, or modify the data or text on impulse, and the manipulation of data is controlled by IMDb technology and salaried staff.[22]

IMDb has been subject to deliberate additions of false information; in 2012 a spokesperson said: "We make it easy for users and professionals to update much of our content, which is why we have an 'edit page.' The data that is submitted goes through a series of consistency checks before it goes live. Given the sheer volume of the information, occasional mistakes are inevitable, and, when reported, they are promptly fixed. We always welcome corrections."[23]

The Java Movie Database (JMDB)[24] is reportedly creating an IMDb_Error.log file that lists all the errors found while processing the IMDb plain text files. A Wiki alternative to IMDb is Open Media Database[25] whose content is also contributed by users but licensed under CC-by and the GFDL. Since 2007, IMDb has been experimenting with wiki-programmed sections for complete film synopses, parental guides, and FAQs about titles as determined by (and answered by) individual contributors.

Data format and access

IMDb does not provide an API for automated queries. However, most of the data can be downloaded as compressed plain text files and the information can be extracted using the command-line interface tools provided.[26] There is also a Java-based graphical user interface (GUI) application available that is able to process the compressed plain text files, which allows a search and a display of the information.[24] This GUI application supports different languages, but the movie related data are in English, as made available by IMDb. A Python package called IMDbPY can also be used to process the compressed plain text files into a number of different SQL databases, enabling easier access to the entire dataset for searching or data mining.[27]

Film titles

The IMDb has sites in English as well as versions translated completely or in part into other languages (Danish, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish and Romanian). The non-English language sites display film titles in the specified language. Originally, IMDb's English language sites displayed titles according to their original country-of-origin language, however, in 2010 IMDb began allowing individual users in the UK and USA to choose primary title display by either the original-language titles, or the US or UK release title (normally, in English).

Ancillary features

User ratings of films

As one adjunct to data, the IMDb offers a rating scale that allows users to rate films on a scale of one to ten. It has been alleged that the rating system is flawed, for several reasons.[28]

IMDb indicates that submitted ratings are filtered and weighted in various ways in order to produce a weighted mean that is displayed for each film, series, and so on. It states that filters are used to avoid ballot stuffing; the method is not described in detail to avoid attempts to circumvent it. In fact, it sometimes produces an extreme difference between the weighted average and the arithmetic mean.

Rankings

The IMDb Top 250 is a list of the top rated 250 films, based on ratings by the registered users of the website using the methods described. As of 7 February 2019, The Shawshank Redemption is #1 on the list.[29] The "Top 250" rating is based on only the ratings of "regular voters". The number of votes a registered user would have to make to be considered as a user who votes regularly has been kept secret. IMDb has stated that to maintain the effectiveness of the Top 250 list they "deliberately do not disclose the criteria used for a person to be counted as a regular voter".[30] In addition to other weightings, the Top 250 films are also based on a weighted rating formula referred to in actuarial science as a credibility formula.[31] This label arises because a statistic is taken to be more credible the greater the number of individual pieces of information; in this case from eligible users who submit ratings. Although the current formula is not disclosed, IMDb originally used the following formula to calculate their weighted rating:[32][33]

  • = weighted rating
  • = average for the movie as a number from 1 to 10 (mean) = (Rating)
  • = number of votes for the movie = (votes)
  • = minimum votes required to be listed in the Top 250 (currently 25,000)
  • = the mean vote across the whole report (currently 7.0)

The in this formula is equivalent to a Bayesian posterior mean (see Bayesian statistics).

The IMDb also has a Bottom 100 feature which is assembled through a similar process although only 1500 votes must be received to qualify for the list.[34]

The Top 250 list comprises a wide range of feature films, including major releases, cult films, independent films, critically acclaimed films, silent films, and non-English language films. Documentaries, short films and TV episodes are not currently included.

Since 2015, there has been a Top 250 list devoted to ranking television shows.[35]

Message boards

Beginning in 2001, the Internet Movie Database also maintained message boards for every title (excepting, as of 2013, TV episodes[36]) and name entry, along with over 140 main boards. This began in 2001. In order to post on the message boards a user needed to "authenticate" their account via cell phone, credit card, or by having been a recent customer of the parent company Amazon.com. Message boards expanded in recent years. The Soapbox started in 1999 as a general message board meant for debates on any subjects. The Politics board started in 2007 was a message board to discuss politics, news events, and current affairs, as well as history and economics.

By February 20, 2017, all the message boards and their content were permanently removed. According to the website, the decision was made because the boards were "no longer providing a positive, useful experience for the vast majority of our more than 250 million monthly users worldwide".[37] Col Needham also mentioned in a post some months earlier that the boards received less income from ads, and that their members only made up a very small part of the website's visitors. The boards were costly to run due to the system's age and dated design, which did not make business sense.[38] The decision to remove the message boards was met with outspoken backlash across the web and on social media, and sparked an online petition garnering over 8,000 signatures.[39] In the days leading up to February 20, 2017, both Archive.org[40] and MovieChat.org[41] preserved the entire contents of the IMDb message boards using web scraping. Archive.org and MovieChat.org have published IMDb message board archives, which is legal under the fair use doctrine, because it has no effect on IMDb's potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.[42][43]

Statistics

As of December 2018, IMDb has the following statistics:[2]

Type Titles
Feature film 505,380
Short film 656,885
TV series 156,992
TV episode 3,754,173
TV movie 126,398
TV special 14,422
TV mini-series 24,083
TV short 8,894
Video 217,703
Video game 22,464

Litigation

In 2011, in the case of Hoang v. Amazon.com, IMDb was sued by an anonymous actress for more than US$1,000,000 due to IMDb's revealing her age (40, at the time).[44] The actress claimed that revealing her age could cause her to lose acting opportunities.[45] Judge Marsha J. Pechman, a U.S. district judge in Seattle, dismissed the lawsuit, saying the actress had no grounds to proceed with an anonymous complaint. The actress re-filed and so revealed that she was Huong Hoang of Texas, who uses the stage name Junie Hoang.[46] In 2013, Pechman dismissed all causes of action except for a breach of contract claim against IMDb; a jury then sided with IMDb on that claim.[47] The Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed the district court judgment in March 2015.[48]

Also in 2011, in the case of United Video Properties Inc., et al. v. Amazon.Com Inc. et al.,[49] IMDb and Amazon were sued by Rovi Corporation and others for patent infringement over their various program listing offerings.[50] The patent claims were ultimately construed in a way favorable to IMDb and Rovi / United Video Properties lost the case.[51] In April 2014, the decision was affirmed by the U.S. Court of Appeals.[52]

On January 1, 2017, the State of California implemented state bill AB-1687, a SAG-AFTRA-backed anti-ageism statute which requires "commercial online entertainment employment services" to honor requests by their subscribers for their ages and birthdays to be hidden.[53] By the beginning of 2017, IMDb had received more than 2,300 requests from individuals to remove their date of birth from the site. Included in this group were 10 Academy Award winners and another 71 nominated for Oscars, Emmys, or Golden Globes.[54] On February 23, 2017, Judge Vince Girdhari Chhabria issued a stay on the bill pending a further trial, claiming that it possibly violated the First Amendment because it inhibited the public consumption of factual information. He also questioned the intent of the bill, as it was ostensibly meant to target IMDb.[55]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Imdb.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors - Alexa". Alexa Internet. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Press Room". IMDB.com. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  3. ^ "Submission guide for users". IMDb. Help Center.
  4. ^ Mehta, Ivan (2019-01-11). "Amazon's new IMDb Freedive service streams ad-supported movies and TV shows in the US". The Next Web. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  5. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn C. (January 19, 2013). "Col Needham created IMDb". Los Angeles Times.
  6. ^ "Historical Internet Movie Database Site". Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Archived from the original on March 24, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  7. ^ "IMDB History". IMDb.
  8. ^ "IMDB turned 20 on 17 October 2010".
  9. ^ "SEC Info - Amazon Com Inc - '8-K' for 4/27/98 - EX-99.2". secinfo.com. April 27, 1998. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  10. ^ IMDb. "Internet bookseller Amazon.com announces acquisition of United Kingdom company The Internet Movie Database Ltd" (Press release). PR Newswire Europe. Retrieved January 15, 2007.
  11. ^ Needham, Col (January 1, 2011). "Top 250 contributors for 2010". IMDb. IMD; announcement. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
  12. ^ "What software are you using to run IMDb?". IMDb. 2017. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
  13. ^ Chacksfield, Marc (January 14, 2010). "China blocks number-one movie site IMDb". TechRadar. 2012 Future US, Inc.
  14. ^ "IMDbPro signup". IMDb.
  15. ^ Hoffman, Harrison (September 15, 2008). "IMDb now serves full-length videos". cnet. Retrieved September 17, 2008.
  16. ^ Modine, Austin (September 16, 2008). "IMDb adds full-length streaming movies (Show your US ID card at the door)". The Register. Retrieved September 17, 2008.
  17. ^ https://www.geekwire.com/2019/amazons-imdb-launches-freedive-free-movie-tv-streaming-service-ads/
  18. ^ "Lycos Europe and IMDb sign sales agreement for 9 European markets". Lycos Europe. press release. July 10, 2006. Archived from the original on October 23, 2006.
  19. ^ "Can I subscribe only for one month or one year?". IMDb. Resume FAQ. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
  20. ^ "Is there any difference between a regular IMDb name page and an IMDb name page created via IMDb Resume?". IMDb. Resume FAQ. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
  21. ^ "Copyright and Conditions of Use". IMDb.
  22. ^ "The plain text data files". IMDb. Alternate Interfaces.
  23. ^ "Which A-list star is hacking IMDb pages?". The Hollywood Reporter. November 14, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  24. ^ a b "Java Movie Database (JMDB)". Jmdb.de. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
  25. ^ "Open Media Database". omdb.org. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  26. ^ "Alternate Interfaces". IMDb. Retrieved January 15, 2007.
  27. ^ "IMDbPY". IMDbPY. sourceforge.net. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
  28. ^ "Why IMDb's Top 250 matters ... and why it doesn't". Screenrant.com. April 13, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  29. ^ "Top 250 movies as voted by our users". IMDb. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  30. ^ "The user votes average on film or show X is 9.4, so it should appear in your Top 250 Movies or TV list, yet it doesn't. Why?". IMDb.
  31. ^ Norberg, Ragnar (2006). "Credibility Theory". Encyclopedia of Actuarial Science (PDF). doi:10.1002/9780470012505.tac068. ISBN 0470846763. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2004.
  32. ^ "IMDB's statement on their voting calculation". imdb.com. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
  33. ^ "IMDB Vote FAQ". IMDb.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  34. ^ "Bottom 100". IMDb. Retrieved March 1, 2007.
  35. ^ "Top 250 TV". IMDb. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  36. ^ Each TV episode uses the same message board for the whole series
  37. ^ "IMDb Message Boards". Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  38. ^ "Can someone on the inside explain to me". IMDb.com Customer Community. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  39. ^ "How some users are trying to save IMDB's message board". Vice.com. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  40. ^ "The Archiveteam IMDb message board archive (raw data)". Archive.org. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  41. ^ "The MovieChat IMDb Message Board Archive (web-based)". MovieChat.org. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  42. ^ "17 U.S. Code § 107 - Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use". Cornell Law School. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  43. ^ "Movie & TV Forums: IMDb Message Board Archives: Are They Legal?". MovieTVForums.com. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  44. ^ Bahr, Lindsey (October 18, 2011). "Lawsuit against IMDb revealing private information". Insidemovies.ew.com. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  45. ^ "Acting unions criticise IMDb in age row". BBC News. BBC. October 29, 2011. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  46. ^ "Actress sued Amazon for revealing age 40 identified as Huong (Junie) Hoang". News.sky.com. January 7, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
  47. ^ "Actress age claim against IMDb rejected". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  48. ^ Gardner, Eriq (March 27, 2015). "IMDb preserves legal win over revelation of actress' age". The Hollywood Reporter.
  49. ^ "Case Docket: United Video Properties Inc., et al v. Amazon.Com Inc. et al.". RECAP. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  50. ^ Masnick, Mike (January 12, 2011). "Rovi sues Amazon for not licensing its Electronic TV Guide patent". Techdirt. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  51. ^ Mullin, Joe (November 4, 2013). "Netflix roasts Rovi's 'Interactive TV guide' patents at ITC". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  52. ^ United Video Properties v. Amazon.com 8 April 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  53. ^ "California enacts law requiring IMDb to remove actor ages on request". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
  54. ^ Bray, Hiawatha (March 23, 2017). "Internet censorship, Hollywood style". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  55. ^ "Judge pauses enforcement of IMDb Age Censorship law". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 23, 2017.

External links

  • IMDb – official site
2014 in film

The following is an overview of the events of 2014 in film, including the highest-grossing films, award ceremonies, festivals, and a list of films released and notable deaths.

Aaron Spelling

Aaron Spelling (April 22, 1923 – June 23, 2006) was an American film and television producer. Some of his works include the TV programs Charlie's Angels (1976–81), The Love Boat (1977–86), Hart to Hart (1979–84), Dynasty (1981–89), Beverly Hills, 90210 (1990–2000), 7th Heaven (1996–2007), and Charmed (1998–2006). He also served as producer of Mod Squad (1968-1973), The Rookies (1972-1976), and Sunset Beach (1997-1999).

Through his eponymous production company Spelling Television, Spelling holds the record as the most prolific television writer and producer in US television history, with 218 producer and executive producer credits. Forbes ranked him the 11th top-earning deceased celebrity in 2009.

AnnaSophia Robb

AnnaSophia Robb (born December 8, 1993) is an American actress, singer, and model. She began as a child actress on television, making her leading debut as the titular role in Samantha: An American Girl Holiday (2004). She made her feature film debut in Because of Winn-Dixie (2005), followed by the supporting role of Violet Beauregarde in Tim Burton's Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005). Her performance as Leslie Burke in Bridge to Terabithia (2007), garnered her recognition and praise, and two Young Artist Awards. Her subsequent film roles include Race to Witch Mountain (2009), Soul Surfer (2011), and The Way, Way Back (2013). She received wider recognition and praise for playing the lead role of Carrie Bradshaw on The CW's series The Carrie Diaries (2013–2014).

Armie Hammer

Armand Douglas "Armie" Hammer (born August 28, 1986) is an American actor. He is known for his portrayal of the Winklevoss twins in the biographical drama film The Social Network (2010), the title character in the western action film The Lone Ranger (2013), Illya Kuryakin in the action film The Man from U.N.C.L.E. (2015), Mike in the thriller film Mine (2016), the voice role of Jackson Storm in the animated film Cars 3, Oliver in the romantic drama film Call Me by Your Name (both 2017), and Martin D. Ginsburg in On the Basis of Sex (2018).

For his role in The Social Network, Hammer won Toronto Film Critics Association Awards for Best Supporting Actor. For his portrayal of Clyde Tolson in the biographical drama film J. Edgar (2011), he was nominated for a Screen Actors Guild Award. For his role in Call Me by Your Name, he received acclaim from critics and nominations for the Critics' Choice Award, Independent Spirit Award, and Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actor. Hammer is the great-grandson of businessman Armand Hammer.

Box Office Mojo

Box Office Mojo is a website that tracks box office revenue in a systematic, algorithmic way. The site was founded in 1999, and was bought in 2008 by IMDb, which itself is owned by Amazon. The website is widely used within the film industry as a source of data.

From 2002–11, Box Office Mojo maintained popular forums on its website.

Chattanooga, Tennessee

Chattanooga is a city located in southeastern Tennessee along the Tennessee River bordering Georgia. With an estimated population of 179,139 in 2017, it is the fourth-largest city in Tennessee and one of the two principal cities of East Tennessee, along with Knoxville. Served by multiple railroads and Interstate highways, Chattanooga is a transit hub. Chattanooga lies 118 miles (190 km) northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, 112 miles (180 km) southwest of Knoxville, Tennessee, 134 miles (216 km) southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, 102 miles (164 km) east-northeast of Huntsville, Alabama, and 147 miles (237 km) northeast of Birmingham, Alabama.

The city, with a downtown elevation of approximately 680 feet (210 m), lies at the transition between the ridge-and-valley portion of the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau. Surrounded by mountains and ridges, the official nickname for Chattanooga is "Scenic City", reinforced by the city's reputation for outdoor activities. Unofficial nicknames include "River City", "Chatt", "Nooga", "Chattown", and "Gig City", referencing Chattanooga's claims that it has the fastest internet service in the Western Hemisphere.Chattanooga is internationally known for the 1941 song "Chattanooga Choo Choo" by Glenn Miller and his orchestra. Chattanooga is home to the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) and Chattanooga State Community College.

The city has its own typeface, Chatype, which was launched in August 2012. According to the Nooga.com website, this marks the first time that an American city has its own custom-made typeface and also the first time a crowd-funded custom-made typeface has been used for any municipality in the world.

David Jason

Sir David John White, (born 2 February 1940), known professionally by his stage name David Jason, is an English actor. He is best known for his roles as Derek "Del Boy" Trotter in Only Fools and Horses and Detective Inspector Jack Frost in the ITV crime drama A Touch of Frost.

Other high-profile television roles were as Granville in the sitcom Open All Hours and Still Open All Hours, and Pop Larkin in the comedy drama The Darling Buds of May, as well as voicing Mr. Toad in The Wind in the Willows and the titular characters of Danger Mouse, and Count Duckula. His last original appearance as Del Boy was in 2014, while Jason retired his role as Frost in 2010.

In September 2006 Jason topped the poll to find TV's 50 Greatest Stars, as part of ITV's 50th anniversary celebrations. He was knighted in 2005 for services to drama. Jason has won four British Academy Television Awards (BAFTAs), (1988, 1991, 1997, 2003), four British Comedy Awards (1990, 1992, 1997, 2001) and seven National Television Awards (1996 twice, 1997, 2001 twice, 2002 and 2011).

Farida Jalal

Farida Jalal (born 14 March 1949) is an Indian actress. In a film career spanning almost fifty years, Jalal acted in over 200 films in the Hindi, the Telugu, and the Tamil film industries. Best known for her character driven roles in independent cinema and supporting work in mainstream Bollywood productions, Jalal has received such accolades as four Filmfare Awards and two Bengal Film Journalists Association Awards.

Jalal started her career with Taqdeer (1967). She went on to play leading and supporting roles in numerous motion pictures through the 1970s and early 80s. She is widely remembered for her roles in Paras (1971), Henna (1991) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995), all of which garnered the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress. She became a household name after portraying motherly roles and strong female characters in the 1990s and the early 2000s. She has also won the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Performance for her role in Mammo (1994). She won the Best Actress Award at the 2012 Harlem International Film Festival for her role in A Gran Plan (2012).

She has successfully transitioned to numerous shows on Indian television alongside her work in films. Some of her notable works are the sitcom Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi, Dekh Bhai Dekh, Shararat and Ammaji Ki Galli. She was seen in the soap opera Satrangi Sasural on channel Zee TV portraying the role of Gomti Vatsal a.k.a. Dadi Maa.

Geneva

Geneva (; French: Genève [ʒənɛv]; Arpitan: Genèva [dzəˈnɛva]; German: Genf [ɡɛnf]; Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra]; Romansh: Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.

The municipality (ville de Genève) has a population (as of December 2017) of 200,548, and the canton (essentially the city and its inner-ring suburbs) has 495,249 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France. Within Swiss territory, the commuter area named "Métropole lémanique" contains a population of 1.26 million. This area is essentially spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area (Vevey, Montreux) and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, in the neighbouring canton of Vaud.

Geneva is a global city, a financial centre, and a worldwide centre for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous international organizations, including the headquarters of many agencies of the United Nations and the Red Cross. Geneva hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world. It is also where the Geneva Conventions were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and prisoners of war.

In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the world's fifteenth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, fifth in Europe behind London, Zürich, Frankfurt and Luxembourg. A 2009 survey by Mercer found that Geneva has the third-highest quality of life of any city in the world (behind Vienna and Zürich for expatriates; it is narrowly outranked by Zürich). The city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis and the "Peace Capital". In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world. Geneva was ranked third in purchasing power in a global cities ranking by UBS in 2018.

J. Stewart Burns

Joseph Stewart Burns is a television writer and producer most notable for his work on Unhappily Ever After, The Simpsons and Futurama.

Noted in the DVD commentaries of "The Deep South" and "Roswell That Ends Well", Stewart has an M.A. in Mathematics from UC Berkeley, where he studied under John Rhodes. He also attended Harvard University where he wrote for the Harvard Lampoon. Aside from writing on the original series, Burns also wrote the script for the Futurama video game and one of the Spyro games.

Jean Simmons

Jean Merilyn Simmons, OBE (31 January 1929 – 22 January 2010) was a British-American actress and singer. One of J. Arthur Rank's "well-spoken young starlets", she appeared predominantly in films, beginning with those made in Great Britain during and after the Second World War, followed mainly by Hollywood films from 1950 onwards.Simmons was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Hamlet (1948), and won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for Guys and Dolls (1955). Other notable film appearances included Young Bess (1953), The Robe (1953), Elmer Gantry (1960), Spartacus (1960), and the 1969 film The Happy Ending, for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress. She also won an Emmy Award for the 1983 miniseries The Thorn Birds.

List of American superhero films

This is a list of superhero films produced by American film studios by year to date.

List of Burkinabe films

This is a list of films produced in Burkina Faso by year.

List of Moroccan films

This is a list of films produced in Morocco.

List of Mozambican films

This is an alphabetical list of films produced in Mozambique.

List of Walt Disney Animation Studios films

This is a list of films from Walt Disney Animation Studios, an American animation studio headquartered in Burbank, California. It creates animated feature films and is owned by The Walt Disney Company. The studio has produced 57 feature films, beginning with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)—one of the first full-length animated feature films and the first one made in the United States—and most recently Ralph Breaks the Internet (2018). Four feature films are in development, with Frozen 2 on November 22, 2019, and three untitled films set to be released on November 25, 2020, November 24, 2021 and November 23, 2022.

Lucky Luciano

Charles "Lucky" Luciano (, Italian: [luˈtʃaːno]; born Salvatore Lucania; November 24, 1897 – January 26, 1962) was an influential Italian-born mobster, criminal mastermind, and crime lord who operated mainly in the United States. Luciano is considered the father of modern organized crime in the United States for the establishment of the first Commission. He was also the first official boss of the modern Genovese crime family. He was, along with his associates, instrumental in the development of the National Crime Syndicate.

Luciano was tried and successfully convicted for compulsory prostitution and running a prostitution racket in 1936 after years of investigation by District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey. He was given a thirty-year prison sentence, but during World War II an agreement was struck with the Department of the Navy through his associate Meyer Lansky in order to protect New York's harbors from Axis U-boats. Dewey almost failed to keep his end of the bargain, and it took months to finally come up with a solution to release Luciano. He was deported to live his life freely outside the U.S.

Matthew Lillard

Matthew Lyn Lillard (born January 24, 1970) is an American voice actor, actor, director, and producer. He is known for portraying Chip Sutphin in Serial Mom (1994), Emmanuel "Cereal Killer" Goldstein in Hackers (1995), Stu Macher in Scream (1996), Stevo in SLC Punk! (1998), Billy Brubaker in Summer Catch (2001), Jerry Conlaine in Without a Paddle (2004), Dez Howard in The Groomsmen (2006), Joey in Home Run Showdown (2012), Jack Rusoe in Return to Nim's Island (2013) and Shaggy Rogers in both Scooby-Doo (2002) and Scooby-Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed (2004). In animation, he has been the current voice of Shaggy since veteran actor Casey Kasem retired from the role. Lillard also stars as Dean Boland in the ongoing television series Good Girls.

While much of his work is comedic in nature, Lillard has given dramatic performances in The Descendants (2011), Trouble with the Curve (2012) and Match (2014). He made his directorial debut with the coming-of-age drama Fat Kid Rules the World (2012).

Miniseries

A miniseries (or mini-series) is a television program that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes. The term "serial" is used in the United Kingdom and in other Commonwealth nations, though its meaning does not necessary equate to "miniseries" in its usage.

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