IMAX Corporation

IMAX Corporation is a Canadian theatre company which designs and manufactures IMAX cameras and projection systems as well as performing film development, production, post production and distribution to IMAX affiliated theatres worldwide.[3] Founded in 1968, it has headquarters in the Toronto area, and operations in New York City and Los Angeles.

As of September 2017, there were 1,302 IMAX theatres located in 75 countries, of which 1,203 were in commercial multiplexes.[4] These include IMAX variations such as IMAX 3D, IMAX Dome, and Digital IMAX. The CEO is Richard Gelfond.[5]

IMAX Corporation
Russell 2000 Component
IndustryMotion picture production and exhibition
PredecessorMulti-Screen Corporation, IMAX Systems Corporation
FoundedAugust 20, 1967 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada
FoundersGraeme Ferguson
Roman Kroitor
Robert Kerr
William Shaw
Area served
Key people
Bradley Wechsler
Richard Gelfond
ProductsSpecial-venue films and movie theatres
RevenueIncrease US$2.095 billion (2016)[1]
Increase US$41.3 million (2012)[1]
Total assetsIncrease US$421 million (2012)[1]
Total equityIncrease US$253 million (2012)[1]
Number of employees
DivisionsIMAX, IMAX 3D, IMAX Dome, IMAX DMR, IMAX at AMC (joint venture with AMC Theatres)
SubsidiariesRidefilm Corporation
Sonics Associates
David Keighley Productions[2]
3D Entertainment


IMAX is a Canadian corporation that is based in Mississauga, Ontario. The company was founded in 1967 when three filmmakers, Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor and Robert Kerr incorporated IMAX Corporation. The idea and the new technology, which resulted in the birth of the company, came from the work that Ferguson, Kroitor and Kerr had done producing the multi-screen National Film Board of Canada production In the Labyrinth and Ferguson's Man and the Polar Regions for Expo 67.[6][7] From their experience, Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor and Robert Kerr realized that new technology would be necessary to develop a larger and more complex project than previously seen. As a result, they sought an engineer named William Shaw in 1968[8] (he had gone to Galt Collegiate Institute in Galt, Ontario, now Cambridge, with Ferguson and Kerr) to help develop this technology. Shaw created this new projector that allowed for films to have exceptionable quality and to be ten times larger than conventional 35mm picture frames.[9] The first movie IMAX Corporation produced using this new technology was Tiger Child which was featured at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan.[9] It was because of the multi-screen viewing that Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor and Robert Kerr wanted to create a theatre with giant screens, surround sound and stadium seating.

William Shaw was instrumental in helping IMAX Corporation fulfill its ambitions in creating larger and more realistic experiences for audience which included oversized screens, surround sound and steep seating for better viewing.[7] Shaw remained at IMAX (although officially retired) as a designer and inventor until his passing on August 31, 2002 at the age of 73.[9] Before retiring Shaw created a 3D camera which was sent to the International Space Station for IMAX films.[9] In 1994, investment bankers Gelfond and Bradley Wechsler, acquired IMAX Corporation through a leveraged buyout and publicly listed the company on the NASDAQ stock exchange.[10][11] IMAX then began to focus their abilities on attracting Hollywood production houses.[12] Another engineer at IMAX Corporation Brian Bonnick, Chief Technology Officer at IMAX Corporation, developed technologies that made it possible for the worldwide IMAX to produce major Hollywood films.[13] More flexible technology required by that industry led to the development of the IMAX DMR (Digital Re-Mastering), which was able to adapt quickly in various locations. Newer technology followed, including the IMAX Experience and the IMAX MPX theatre system. Revamped IMAX 2D footage has been transferred into IMAX 3D.[13]

Recent milestones

  • In April 2009, Gelfond became the sole IMAX CEO and Wechsler moved into the role of chairman of the board of directors.[14][15]
  • Later in 2009, IMAX participated in the movie Avatar, to which the company credits its mainstream Hollywood success.[16][17]
  • In March 2011 IMAX noted that China's Wanda Cinema Line announced a 75-theatre deal with IMAX Corporation.[18]
  • In 2012, IMAX opened its first location in Tianjin, China.[19]
  • On October 8, 2015, IMAX China, a subsidiary of the company, was listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.[20] According to The Hollywood Reporter and The Wall Street Journal, "IMAX China raised $248 Million in its initial public offering,"[21] which was the "bottom of [the] indicative price range."[22]
  • As of September 2017, there were 1,302 theatres in 75 countries.[4]


In November 2016, Marvel Television and IMAX announced the live action television series, Marvel's Inhumans, based on the superhero race of the same name. The series, co-produced with ABC Studios, saw IMAX serve as a financing partner, a first for IMAX, which allowed Marvel to spend more on the series than it had on its other television series, especially for visual effects. The entire series was filmed with IMAX digital cameras. Inhumans debuted an edited specific for theatrical-release version of the first two episodes. The episodes debuted on IMAX screens in theaters worldwide in September 2017, with the series airing weekly on ABC afterwards.[23][24][25] After the poor reception to the IMAX version of the first two episodes and a box office gross of $3.5 million, Richard Gelfond said, "Going forward, we intend to take a more conservative approach consistent with the Game of Thrones approach to capital investments and content. We will be more conservative when considering whether to invest our own capital; and if so, to what extent."[26]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e
  2. ^ "Imax Corporation – Company History". Retrieved 2012-02-24.
  3. ^ "History of IMAX". Funding Universe. 2011-09-03. Retrieved 2013-04-02.
  4. ^ a b "IMAX and Cineplex Launch Canada's First IMAX VR Centre at Scotiabank Theatre Toronto". GmbH.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Aitken, Ian (October 27, 2005). "NFB's Labyrinth". Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film. Routledge. pp. 168–9. ISBN 978-1579584450.
  7. ^ a b Anonymous (Spring 1993). "Oscar Nominated Canadian Company on the Leading Edge". Performing Arts & Entertainment in Canada. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  8. ^ Tillson, Tamsen (September 15, 2002). "Obituaries: Shaw Thought Big: IMAX". Variety. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d Anonymous (September 10, 2002). "His Talents Made IMAX Possible". National Post. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ Schawbel, Dan. "Richard Gelfond: How He Took IMAX From Museums To Hollywood". Forbes.
  13. ^ a b Anonymous (September 24, 2007). "IMAX Corporation". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ "IMAX". IMAX Corporation. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  19. ^ Anonymous (May 5, 2009). "IMAX Corporation; IMAX Signs Theatre Deal in China". China Weekly News. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  20. ^ Brzeski, Patrick (February 24, 2016). "Imax China to Install 100 New Screens in 2016, Bullish on Growth". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  21. ^ Brzeski, Patrick (7 October 2015). "Imax China Begins Trading on Hong Kong Stock Exchange". The Hollywood Reporter.
  22. ^ Lee, Yvonne (1 October 2015). "IMAX China Raises $248 Million in Hong Kong Initial Public Offering". Wall Street Journal.
  23. ^ "'Marvel's The Inhumans' Coming To IMAX & ABC In 2017". November 14, 2016. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  24. ^ Goldberg, Lesley (November 14, 2016). "Marvel, ABC Set 'The Inhumans' TV Series". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  25. ^ Barnes, Brooks (November 14, 2016). "Marvel's 'Inhumans' TV Series Will Arrive via Imax Theaters". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
  26. ^ Hayes, Dade (October 27, 2017). "Imax Concedes 'Marvel Inhumans' Experiment Let Down Moviegoers". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on October 27, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2017.

External links


3net was an American 3D television channel that launched on February 13, 2011. It was a joint venture of Discovery Communications, Sony and IMAX Corporation. The partnership was announced in June 2010, and the channel was previewed publicly at the 2011 Consumer Electronics Show.

China Film Giant Screen

China Film Giant Screen (CFGS) is a Chinese premium large film format company. The company was previously known as DMAX, with the name also referring to the film technology. It has been described as a competitor to IMAX Corporation and its IMAX film format. The company is owned by China Film Group Corporation.

CineStar IMAX Lahore

CineStar (or Cinestar IMAX Cinema) is the first IMAX and one of the top 3D movie theatres in Pakistan. It is based in Township, Lahore, Punjab. In March 2012 it was reported that CineStar had signed on an agreement with IMAX Corporation to open up IMAX theatres in Pakistan. In March 2014, it was announced that Pepsi Pakistan and CineStar had signed on to be partners and acquired the rights for IMAX theatres across Pakistan. The IMAX was launched on June 26, 2014 with the release of Transformers: Age of Extinction in Pakistan.

Cosmic Voyage

Cosmic Voyage is a 1996 short documentary film produced in the IMAX format, directed by Bayley Silleck, produced by Jeffrey Marvin, and narrated by Morgan Freeman. The film was presented by the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum,

and played in IMAX theaters worldwide. The film is available in the DVD format.

Darren Throop

Darren Throop is a Canadian businessman who is the Founder, President & CEO of Entertainment One (eOne), a global independent entertainment studio. Through corporate acquisitions and partnerships, Throop has expanded Entertainment One’s global footprint and network which includes film and television studio The Mark Gordon Company; content creation venture Amblin Partners with Steven Spielberg, DreamWorks Studios, Participant Media, and Reliance Entertainment; leading feature film production and global sales company Sierra Pictures; unscripted television production companies Renegade 83, Paperny Entertainment and Force Four Entertainment; world-class music labels Dualtone Music Group and Last Gang; and award-winning digital agency Secret Location.Prior to Entertainment One he was the CEO of ROW Entertainment Income Fund.Throop sits on the IMAX Corporation Board of Directors. He was recently inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame, and recognized as Entrepreneur of the Year at the Grant Thornton Quoted Company Awards.

Graeme Ferguson

Ivan Graeme Ferguson, CM (born 7 October 1929 in Toronto, Ontario) is a Canadian filmmaker and inventor who co-invented IMAX. Ferguson was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada in 1993. He graduated from the University of Toronto with a bachelor's degree.

Grauman's Chinese Theatre

TCL Chinese Theatre is a movie palace on the historic Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6925 Hollywood Blvd. in Hollywood, California. Originally named and still commonly known as Grauman's Chinese Theatre, it was renamed Mann's Chinese Theatre in 1973; the name lasted until 2001, after which it reverted to its original name. On January 11, 2013, Chinese electronics manufacturer TCL Corporation purchased the facility's naming rights, under which it is officially known as TCL Chinese Theatre.The original Chinese Theatre was commissioned following the success of the nearby Grauman's Egyptian Theatre, which opened in 1922. Built by a partnership headed by Sid Grauman over 18 months starting in January 1926, the theater opened May 18, 1927, with the premiere of Cecil B. DeMille's The King of Kings. It has since been home to many premieres, including the 1977 launch of George Lucas' Star Wars, as well as birthday parties, corporate junkets, and three Academy Awards ceremonies. Among the theatre's most distinctive features are the concrete blocks set in the forecourt, which bear the signatures, footprints, and handprints of popular motion picture personalities from the 1920s to the present day.

In 2013, the Chinese Theatre partnered with IMAX Corporation to convert the house into a custom-designed IMAX theater. The newly renovated theater seats 932 people and features one of the largest movie screens in North America.


IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats, film projectors and theaters known for having very large screens with a tall aspect ratio (of ~1.4:1) and steep stadium seating. Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr, and William C. Shaw were the co-founders of what would be named the IMAX Corporation (founded in September of 1967 as Multiscreen Corporation, Limited), and they developed the first IMAX cinema projection standards in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Canada. Unlike conventional projectors, the film runs horizontally so that the image width is greater than the width of the film. When IMAX was introduced, it was a radical change in the movie-going experience. Viewers were treated to the scene of a gently curved giant screen more than seven stories tall (~75 feet in height, with the tallest being 117') and steep stadium seating that made for a visually immersive experience, along with a sound system that was far superior to the audio at typical theaters in the years prior to the advent of THX. Some IMAX theaters have a dome screen geometry which can give the viewer an even more immersive feel. Over the decades since its introduction, IMAX evolved to include "3D" stereoscopic films, introduced in January 1998, and then began to proliferate with a transition away from analog film into the digital era. Beginning in May of 1991, a visceral dimension of the movie experience was added by having the audience's seats mounted on a full-motion platform as an amusement park ride in IMAX ride film theaters. Switching to digital projection, introduced in July 2008, came at a steep cost in image quality, with 2K projectors having roughly an order of magnitude less resolution. Maintaining the same 7-story giant screen size would only make this loss more noticeable, and so many new theaters were being built with significantly smaller screen sizes, yet being marketed with the same brand name of "IMAX". These newer theaters with the much lower resolution and much smaller screens were soon being referred to by the derogatory name "LieMAX", particularly because the company did not make this major distinction clear to the public, going so far as to build the smallest "IMAX" screen having 10 times less area than the largest while persisting with the exact same brand name. Since 2002, some feature films have been converted into IMAX format for displaying in IMAX theatres, and some have also been (partially) shot in IMAX. By late 2017, 1,302 IMAX theatre systems were installed in 1,203 commercial multiplexes, 13 commercial destinations, and 86 institutional settings in 75 countries, with less than a quarter of these having the capability to show 70mm film at the resolution of the large format as originally conceived.

In the Labyrinth (film)

In the Labyrinth (French: Dans le labyrinthe) was a groundbreaking multi-screen presentation at the Labyrinth pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It used 35 mm and 70 mm film projected simultaneously on multiple screens and was the precursor of today's IMAX format.The film split elements across the five screens and also combined them for a mosaic of a single image. It was hailed as a "stunning visual display" by Time magazine, which concludes: "such visual delights as Labyrinth ... suggest that cinema—the most typical of 20th century arts—has just begun to explore its boundaries and possibilities."In the Labyrinth was co-directed by Roman Kroitor, Colin Low and Hugh O'Connor and produced by the National Film Board of Canada. Kroitor left the NFB shortly after to co-found Multi-Screen Corporation, which later became IMAX Corporation.NFB animator Ryan Larkin also designed animated sequences for the film.It inspired Canadian filmmaker Norman Jewison to apply similar techniques to his film The Thomas Crown Affair.

Jonn Serrie

Jonn Serrie is an American composer of space music, a genre of ambient electronic music, and New Age music. He has recorded at least 18 albums and worked on projects for Lucasfilm, IMAX Corporation, NASA, the United States Navy, Hayden Planetarium, Expo Seville, and CNN.

Richard Gelfond

Richard L. Gelfond (born July 1955) is the chief executive of IMAX Corporation. An investment banker, Gelfond and business partner Bradley Wechsler acquired IMAX Corporation in 1994, with Gelfond serving as Executive Director and Vice Chairman. In 1996, he become co-CEO, later becoming CEO in April 2009.


SANDDE is a software and hardware system, developed primarily by IMAX Corporation, designed to create hand-drawn, stereoscopic 3D animation content. SANDDE is an acronym for "Stereoscopic ANimation Drawing DEvice" and is a play on the Japanese term for "3D", which is pronounced "San-D".

The concept of SANDDE is to enable artists to draw and animate in three-dimensional space. It is intended to be intuitively usable, like a pencil. As an art form, SANDDE incorporates aspects of drawing, painting, sculpture and puppetry. Unlike most other 3D computer graphic animation tools, SANDDE does not require the construction of mathematically defined models. The main input device is a "wand" which allows the user to create drawings in the air.

Animators sit in virtual stereoscopic theaters and, using a specialized "wand," draw in space to create individual frames and then animate their creations using the interactive capabilities of the wand to create shots, sequences, and complete movies.

SANDDE was originally developed by IMAX in the mid-1990s, and was used to create one IMAX short (Paint Misbehavin' [1997]) and portions of two other IMAX feature films: Mark Twain 3D (1999) and Cyberworld (2000). Thereafter, IMAX stopped active development of the system but provided licenses for use and future development to the National Film Board of Canada for artistic experimentation and to Janro Imaging Laboratory to explore commercial use of the application. The former has used SANDDE in numerous stereoscopic productions including Falling in Love Again", Moonman, June, The Wobble Incident, Subconscious Password, and Minotaur, while the latter has licensed SANDDE for Ultimate Wave 3D and Legends of Flight, both produced by the Stephen Low Company.

SM City Cebu

SM City Cebu, also known locally as SM Cebu, is a large shopping mall located in Cebu City, Philippines. It is the 4th shopping mall owned and developed by SM Prime Holdings, the country's largest shopping mall owner and developer. It is the company's first shopping mall outside of Metro Manila and the 6th largest shopping mall in the Philippines. It has a land area of 11.8 hectares and a gross floor area of 268,611 m2 (2,891,300 sq ft)On an average day, more than 100,000 people visit SM City Cebu, with the figure increasing to 140,000 to 150,000 on weekends. Due to Cebu City's position as a transshipment point for the Visayas and Mindanao, and SM City Cebu's location close to the city's port area, the mall attracts a significant number of transient shoppers.

Scott Buck

Scott Randall Buck is an American television writer. Buck has written for several television series including HBO's Six Feet Under, Rome, Showtime's Dexter, Everybody Loves Raymond, Coach, Inhumans and The Oblongs.

Space Station 3D

Space Station 3D (simply known as Space Station in 2D format) is a 2002 Canadian-American 3D short documentary film about the International Space Station written, produced, edited and directed by Toni Myers. Narrated by Tom Cruise, it is the first IMAX 3D production filmed in space.

Voyage of Time

Voyage of Time is a 2016 American IMAX documentary film written and directed by Terrence Malick. The film is said to be an examination of the birth and death of the known universe. Malick has been working on the film for over forty years and it has been described by Malick himself as "one of my greatest dreams".Voyage of Time was released in two versions: a forty-minute IMAX version with narration by Brad Pitt, and a 35-millimetre feature-length edition (also known as Voyage of Time: Life's Journey) narrated by Cate Blanchett. The feature-length edition was selected to compete for the Golden Lion at the 73rd Venice International Film Festival. The IMAX version of the film was released on October 7, 2016, by IMAX Corporation and Broad Green Pictures.Both versions of Voyage of Time were met with favorable responses from critics.

William Breukelman

William Breukelman, O.C., MBA, P.ENG, is the former principal and Chairman of IMAX Corporation, and co-founder (with Barry French) and former CEO and Chairman of Sciex, Limited, whose technology the Office of the Governor General of Canada has described as "breakthrough", and Business Arts Inc., which funds startups.He was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 2013.

Other IMAX ventures
Related topics
Film studios in the United States and Canada

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