The iLoo (short for Internet loo) was a cancelled Microsoft project to develop a Wi-Fi Internet-enabled portable toilet. The iLoo, which was to debut at British summer festivals, was described as being a portable toilet with wireless broadband Internet, an adjustable plasma screen, a membrane wireless keyboard, a six-channel speaker system, and toilet paper embossed with popular web site addresses. The iLoo was also to have an extra screen and keyboard on the outside, and was to be guarded. It was intended as the next in a series of successful initiatives by MSN UK which sought to introduce the internet in unusual locations, including MSN Street, MSN Park Bench and MSN Deckchair.

The project was announced by MSN UK on April 30, 2003, and was widely ridiculed before being declared a hoax by Microsoft on May 12. On May 13, another Microsoft press release stated that although the project had not been a hoax, it had been cancelled because it would do little to promote the MSN brand. There has since been speculation as to whether the project was cancelled for fear of being sued by Andrew Cubitt, who had invented the similarly named product "i-Loo". The iLoo was described as a public relations "debacle" by Online Journalism Review.[1]

Msn iloo
The iLoo as depicted by MSN UK and distributed by news providers


The iLoo was designed to be a Wi-Fi Internet-enabled portable toilet that would allow users to surf the internet while using the loo.[2] Internally, the facility would have a broadband connection via wireless 802.11b, a wireless waterproof keyboard, a swivel plasma screen running Windows XP Professional, a 6-channel surround-sound system beneath the sink, toilet paper embossed with popular URLs, and a suction toilet.[2][3] Externally, the facility would feature an MSN logo and have a "Hotmail station" with an additional plasma screen and keyboard for waiting consumers.[3] A security guard was to be stationed near the unit to ensure that it was being properly used and to prevent the unit from being stolen.[3] The iLoo was to debut "at a majority of the summer season festivals".[2] The iLoo was to be deployed only in Britain.[4]

Public relations timeline

The internet's so much a part of everyday life now that surfing on the loo was the next natural step. People used to reach for a book or mag when they were on the loo but now they'll be logging on! It's exciting to think that the smallest room can now be the gateway to the massive virtual world.
—Tracy Blacher, Marketing manager of MSN in April 30 Press Release[2]

The project was announced on April 30, 2003 in press release by MSN UK, MSN's British subsidiary, as part of a "series of initiatives which look at the changing nature of how we use the web as it constantly evolves".[2] The press release stated that:

The UK's most popular website is creating the world's first 'Internet Loo'. The iLoo will be mobile and is part of MSN's mission to allow instant logging on 'anytime and any place'.

In time for the summer festival season, MSN is in the process of converting a portable loo to create a unique experience for surfers looking for an alternative to the bog-standard festival loo experience. Users will be able to sit down, undock a wireless keyboard and conveniently access the first ever WWW.C.[2]

The press release also stated that "MSN is also in talks with toilet paper manufacturers to produce special web paper for those in need of URL inspiration".[2][5][6]

MSN is really working on building a prototype for the Summer festivals, perhaps Glastonbury ... This is very much a 'toe in the water' experiment to gauge interest so we'll have to see how it goes, although judging from response so far it's really captured people's imagination!
—Ben Philipson, Red Consultancy, in response to AP query[7]

News of the iLoo was widely circulated amongst mainstream media.[A 1] The story became the most-emailed story on Yahoo! News on May 1, 2003, being emailed over 4000 times.[8][A 2] The iLoo was widely derided and press coverage subjected MSN and Microsoft to heavy criticism. On May 10, The Inquirer published a story in which Andrew Cubitt alleged that "Microsoft stole his iLoo idea" from his i-Loo invention.[9] On May 12, Microsoft announced that the iLoo was a "hoax perpetrated by its British division" calling it an "April Fool's joke" and issued an apology for the confusion.[7][10] The Associated Press, however, stated that they had previously received confirmation of the project from two of Microsoft's PR firms: Waggener Edstrom Worldwide and Red Consultancy.[7] The Seattle Post-Intelligencer also stated that it received confirmation from Waggener Edstrom and was even provided with a schematic drawing.[11] Furthermore, April Fools was almost a month before, and Microsoft had never before released a fake press release.[10]

On May 13, 2003, Microsoft retracted the denial, stating that the iLoo had been a legitimate demonstration project that was to be released in Britain for summer music festivals, but had been terminated by Microsoft executives in Redmond, Washington who believed the iLoo was inappropriate[12][13] with the final decision made by MSN senior vice president David Cole. MSN product manager Lisa Gurry stated that the project "didn't really map to our global branding objectives".[12][14] Microsoft again apologized for the miscommunication stating "the confusion over the legitimacy of this effort was caused by people moving too quickly and who misspoke before gathering all of the relevant information".[15] Prior to the cancellation, an iLoo prototype was in the "early stages of construction".[2][16] MSN allows regional units to design their own marketing campaigns, and the UK division had developed a reputation for innovative campaigns, in this case involving British toilet humour.[14][17][18] The iLoo which was designed for the UK as part of a "tongue-in-cheek marketing initiative" was "intended to be the next in line of a number of clever initiatives in the UK involving introducing the internet in interesting locations, including MSN Street, MSN Park Bench and MSN Deckchair".[15] The previous initiatives were well received.[19][20] Microsoft stated that no employees were disciplined as a result of the debacle, although the company stated that it would conduct "internal discussions".[21]


Reading in the loo, or the bog, is a traditional English pastime. We've all seen the magazine racks, loo paper with jokes and cartoons on the walls in toilets up and down the land. You've got to hand it to the creative—and uniquely English—minds at Microsoft.
—Jeremy Davies, market researcher from Context[3]

Although the product was not publicly released, many questioned whether "Microsoft had lost its senses" and the product was widely derided.[22][23] Critics contended that the product was a waste of money and doomed to fail.[13] Concerns were raised about how the iLoo would serve to extend waiting lines,[6] how hygienic it would be to share keyboards in a public loo, and what would happen if the keyboard were to be urinated upon.[24][25] Critics also questioned whether users would spend enough time in the loo to make use of the internet facilities, noting that "most port-a-potty users stay only long enough to relieve themselves without having to inhale."[26]

The iLoo, given its toiletry-related nature, subjected MSN and Microsoft to puns and jokes especially since Microsoft's marketing slogan at the time was "where do you want to go today?" with the PC being dubbed Pee-C.[1][21][25][27][28] The Herald Sun wrote that the "iLoo is, unquestionably, very good news – mainly to journalists with a bottomless pit of laboured bum jokes" while the Seattle Times wrote "now the company has a credibility problem as well as a red face."[12][29] Other newspapers issued humorous headlines: Microsoft technology headed for toilet from the San Francisco Chronicle,[30] Toilet mixes zeroes with ones and twos from the Washington Post,[31] and Microsoft's Gone Potty from The Daily Mirror.[32]

The product has since been studied as an example of a public relations disaster and an example of an internet hoax.[33][34][35][36][37] Microsoft's public relations response to the debacle is also considered to be one of the poorest in the company's history, given Microsoft's reputation for micro-managing news releases, interviews and promotional events.[38][39]

The iLoo's negative publicity drowned out the launch of MSN Radio Plus on May 12, 2003.[40][41] It has since inspired a number of spoofs.[42]

i-Loo controversy

After reading an article about the iLoo, Andrew Cubitt, inventor of the similarly named i-Loo, wrote to The Inquirer stating that iLoo "sounds remarkably similar ... it now seems that the clever people at Microsoft have cottoned onto the idea and even call it the i-Loo, the same as mine!"[9] Cubitt went on to say that "mine did everything that the Microsoft one is meant to do, but additionally printed information on toilet paper and didn't use a keyboard for the interface due to hygiene reasons".[43] The i-Loo was prototyped by Cubitt as part of his thesis for his 2001 university degree in Product Design and Engineering at Brunel University. In an interview with The Inquirer, he noted "As it was designed at the university, they own the partial rights to the product so they will be watching the Microsoft 'invention' very closely."[43][44]

Microsoft never formally commented on Cubitt's allegations and instead initially stated the iLoo was an April's fool joke.[45] As a result, Cubitt questioned whether this was "a very calculated ploy to destroy competition in its early stages, or is admitting they don't even know what time of the month it is less embarrassing and ridding them of a potentially expensive situation!"[45][46] Cubitt went on to state that "as they have now discredited my idea as a joke, I will never be able to produce the idea" and as such was "consulting my law books now on defamatory statements".[46] Neither Cubitt, nor Brunel University have taken public legal action against Microsoft pertaining to the i-Loo.

The i-Loo was described as:

The i-Loo internet toilet roll browser is a novel and unique product designed to make best use of the time you spend on the loo! The product allows you to search the internet whilst sitting on the toilet and print out any web pages you are interested in on your toilet paper. i-Loo brings a whole new meaning to the word downloading. The unit is fixed in front of a toilet on the cubical [sic] wall. The product provides up to date information about new products, daily news and lottery results through an easy to navigate software package. Normal operation of the toilet and paper dispenser is evident.[47]

The i-Loo internet toilet roll browser was featured at the 2003 Daily Mail Ideal Home Show as part of the Future Concepts exhibition in Earls Court, London, where it was nominated for the MFI Bright Sparks 2003 awards.[47][48][49] The i-Loo, which was sponsored by Epson Printers, received significant press coverage, and was featured on GMTV as well as various radio shows.[47][50][51][52][53]

See also


  1. ^ The iLoo was covered by the Associated Press, BBC, CNET, Herald Sun, Reuters, San Francisco Chronicle, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Seattle Times, The Guardian, USA Today, Wall Street Journal, and a number of other news providers. See references and further reading for more examples of coverage.
  2. ^ This is based on "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-05-26. Retrieved 2011-02-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) now "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-06-14. Retrieved 2011-02-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) which is a service provided by Yahoo! to track the most popular stories.



  1. ^ a b Glaser, Mark (May 15, 2003). "Media Cred in Toilet with Blair, iLoo Debacles". Online Journalism Review. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "MSN Launches World's First 'Internet Loo':New WWW.C Offers Convenience Surfing Relief to Festival-goers this Summer" (Press release). Microsoft. April 30, 2003. Archived from the original on May 11, 2003. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d Wilcox, Joe (May 2, 2003). "Sit and surf: MSN UK tests portable potty". CNET. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
  4. ^ "Doing the loo log on". Chicago Tribune. May 8, 2003. (subscription required)
  5. ^ "Who needs an online outhouse?". Marion Star. Marion, Ohio. May 13, 2003. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
  6. ^ a b Sue, Lowe (May 7, 2003). "If loo queues are bad, just try going online". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  7. ^ a b c "Microsoft: Internet-ready toilet project a hoax". SFGate. Associated Press. May 12, 2003. Archived from the original on May 16, 2003. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  8. ^ Winston, Paul (May 12, 2003). "Plumbing the Net for the real news". Business Insurance. 37 (19): 6. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  9. ^ a b Magee, Mike (May 10, 2003). "Man claims Microsoft stole his iLoo idea: Nothing new under the seat". The Inquirer. Incisive Media. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  10. ^ a b Kanellos, Michael (May 12, 2003). "iLoo makes Microsoft gag". CNET. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
  11. ^ "Microsoft: Internet potty just a hoax". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. May 13, 2003. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
  12. ^ a b c Dudley, Brier (May 14, 2003). "Microsoft comes clean on iLoo". The Seattle Times.
  13. ^ a b "The Buzz". EWeek. 20 (20): 21. May 19, 2003. ISSN 1530-6283. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  14. ^ a b "Oh, It's Not a Hoax: MS ILoo". WIRED. Associated Press. May 13, 2003. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  15. ^ a b Perrone, Jane (May 14, 2003). "iLoo plans go down the tube". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
  16. ^ Richman, Dan (May 6, 2003). "Internet invades portable potties". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  17. ^ Richman, Dan (May 14, 2003). "On-again, off-again iLoo is off for good". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  18. ^ "Microsoft says iLoo not a hoax, but project dead anyway". The Associated Press. USA Today. May 14, 2003. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  19. ^ Andrew Calabrese; Jean-Claude Burgelman (1999). Communication, citizenship, and social policy: rethinking the limits of the welfare state. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 211–214. ISBN 978-0-8476-9108-1. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
  20. ^ "Park bench goes online". BBC. August 6, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  21. ^ a b Keefe, Lisa M. (December 8, 2003). "Yes. No. Yes ... but". Marketing News. 37 (25): 21. ISSN 0025-3790.
  22. ^ "Internet appliance images". Computer Desktop Encyclopedia. LoveToKnow, Corp. Archived from the original on 2011-03-19. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  23. ^ Olsen, Eric (May 14, 2003). "Skip to iLoo". Blog Critics. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  24. ^ Fowler, Dennis (September 2003). "Something old and something new". NetWorker. 7 (3): 5. doi:10.1145/940830.940836.
  25. ^ a b "The Insider: Not all readers clamoring for a chance to potty-surf". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. May 10, 2004. Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  26. ^ "". The Toronto Star. June 14, 2003. Retrieved February 28, 2011. (subscription required)
  27. ^ Greene, Jay (June 2, 2003). "No Windows-Wiper Jokes, Please". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  28. ^ "Brain Food: Words-worth – Brand extension". Management Today: 22. July 2003. ISSN 0025-1925. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  29. ^ Brown, Terry (May 17, 2003). "Easy on the download". Herald Sun. Melbourne.
  30. ^ "Microsoft technology headed for toilet". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Newspapers. May 6, 2003. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  31. ^ Lemke, Tim (May 7, 2003). "Toilet mixes zeroes with ones and twos". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2011-03-04. (subscription required)
  32. ^ Vickers, Amy (May 2, 2003). "Microsoft's Gone Potty". The Daily Mirror. London.
  33. ^ Horowitz, Adam; Athitakis, Mark; Lasswell, Mark; Thomas, Owen (Jan 1, 2004). "Winner, Dumbest Moment, Product Development: Microsoft: In the crapper?". 101 Dumbest moments in Business:Dumbest moments of 2003. CNN. Business 2.0. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  34. ^ "Photos: Seven of Microsoft's hardware hits and misse s". CNET. July 7, 2006. Archived from the original on August 24, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  35. ^ "Microsoft iLoo – Top 10 technology hoaxes". The Telegraph. London. August 12, 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  36. ^ Meyer, Katherine (May 3, 2006). "The Best of the Worst". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  37. ^ "2003 winners claim dubious distinction". Plastics News Report. December 15, 2003. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  38. ^ "The best and worst in the business of technology". The Seattle Times Business. December 29, 2003. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  39. ^ "Microsoft 'Net loo canned". Toronto Star. Canada. May 14, 2003. ISSN 0319-0781.
  40. ^ "Nothing but 'Net – The doctor is online". The Journal Gazette. Sci-Tech. Fort Wayne, IN. June 2, 2003. p. 6D. Microsoft Corp. might have gotten decent publicity over a new paid Internet radio service, but instead it found itself drowned in a wave of ridicule over its on-again, off-again Internet toilet.
  41. ^ "Microsoft sets MSN radio initiative". MarketWatch. May 12, 2003. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  42. ^ "The Microsoft iLoo". The Museum of Hoaxes. April 30, 2003. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  43. ^ a b Rust, Adamson (May 12, 2003). "Did Microsoft "borrow" the iLoo concept?: Strange case of "Microsoft's" i-Loo continues". The Inquirer. Incisive Media. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  44. ^ "Computer chip in the old chopping block". The Sun-Herald. Sydney. April 20, 2003. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  45. ^ a b Magee, Mike (May 13, 2003). "Microsoft's iLoo was April Fool's joke". The Inquirer. Incisive Media. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  46. ^ a b Cubitt, Andrew (May 13, 2003). "Real iLoo inventor hits out at Microsoft "slur": Letter Inventor's idea down the pan". The Inquirer. Incisive Media. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  47. ^ a b c Cubitt, Andrew. "i-loo". Archived from the original on 2011-11-16. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  48. ^ Woffenden, Claire (May 13, 2003). "Inventor rocked by MSN's iLoo hoax". Webuser. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  49. ^ "Web goes down the toilet". BBC. April 5, 2003. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  50. ^ Adams, Richard (April 8, 2003). "City diary". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  51. ^ Susan, Maushart (May 3, 2003). "Time off in loo". Australian Magazine: 42. The release (if that's the right word for it) of Cubitt's Internet toilet roll browser - a cubicle-mounted unit providing up-to-the-minute news and information that can be printed off on a standard toilet roll - made a huge media splash. And no wonder.
  52. ^ "Science & Technology". Weekend Australian. 6 - NSW Country: T13. April 12, 2003. MEANWHILE, in London, high-tech attention was focused on the dunny when designer Andrew Cubitt revealed his internet toilet roll browser to the world at the Ideal Home Show. Those who can no longer stomach flicking through Gary Larson collections while on the loo will be able to turn to the device, which is mounted on the lavatory door, and can print out information on toilet paper.
  53. ^ "Web in the toilet". Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. April 10, 2003. Retrieved March 7, 2011.

Further reading

External links

External media
Internet Toilet Roll Browser
iToilet Spoof
Microsoft Launches Internet-Equipped Portable Potty, NPR
AutoCollage 2008

AutoCollage 2008 is a Microsoft photomontage desktop application. The software creates a collage of representative elements from a set of images. It is able to detect faces and recognize objects.The software was developed by Microsoft Research labs in Cambridge, England and launched on September 4, 2008.

An update, named Microsoft Research AutoCollage 2008 version 1.1, was released on February, 2009. The software update adds the ability to select images for the AutoCollage, a richer integration with Windows Live Photo Gallery, support for network folders and the ability to define custom output sizes.

A new version, named Microsoft Research AutoCollage Touch 2009, was released on September 2009, and included by some OEMs on machines with Windows 7.

Bing Audio

Bing Audio (also known as Bing Music) is a music recognition application created by Microsoft which is installed on Windows Phones running version 7.5 and above, including Windows Phone 8. On Windows Phone 8.1, and in regions where the Microsoft Cortana voice assistant is available, Bing Music is integrated with Cortana and the music search history is a part of Cortana's "Notebook". The service is only designed to recognize recorded songs, not live performances or humming. Xbox Music Pass subscribers can immediately add the songs to their playlists. A unique feature compared to similar services is that Bing Audio continuously listens and analyzes music while most other services can only listen for a fixed amount of time. Bing Research developed a fingerprinting algorithm to identify songs.On March 30, 2016 Microsoft announced that they'll create bots based on Bing features in Skype of which Bing Music was one.

Bing Vision

Bing Vision is an image recognition application created by Microsoft which is installed on Windows Phones running version 7.5 and above, including Windows Phone 8. It is a part of the Bing Mobile suite of services, and on most devices can be accessed using the search button. On Windows Phone 8.1 devices where Microsoft Cortana is available, it is only available through the lenses of the Camera app (as the search button now activates Cortana). Bing Vision can scan barcodes, QR codes, Microsoft Tags, books, CDs, and DVDs. Books, CDs, and DVDs are offered through Bing Shopping.


Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009. Originally sold on CD-ROM or DVD, it was also later available on the World Wide Web via an annual subscription – although later many articles could also be viewed free online with advertisements. By 2008, the complete English version, Encarta Premium, consisted of more than 62,000 articles, numerous photos and illustrations, music clips, videos, interactive content, timelines, maps, atlases and homework tools.

Microsoft published similar encyclopedias under the Encarta trademark in various languages, including German, French, Spanish, Dutch, Italian, Portuguese and Japanese. Localized versions contained contents licensed from national sources and more or less content than the full English version. For example, the Dutch version had content from the Dutch Winkler Prins encyclopedia.

In March 2009, Microsoft announced it was discontinuing both the Encarta disc and online versions. The MSN Encarta site was closed on October 31, 2009 in all countries except Japan, where it was closed on December 31, 2009. Microsoft continued to operate the Encarta online dictionary until 2011.

High Capacity Color Barcode

High Capacity Color Barcode (HCCB) is a technology developed by Microsoft for encoding data in a 2D "barcode" using clusters of colored triangles instead of the square pixels conventionally associated with 2D barcodes or QR codes. Data density is increased by using a palette of 4 or 8 colors for the triangles, although HCCB also permits the use of black and white when necessary. It has been licensed by the ISAN International Agency for use in its International Standard Audiovisual Number standard, and serves as the basis for the Microsoft Tag mobile tagging application.

The technology was created by Gavin Jancke, an engineering director at Microsoft Research. Quoted by BBC News in 2007, he said that HCCB was not intended to replace conventional barcodes. "'It's more of a 'partner' barcode', he said. 'The UPC barcodes will always be there. Ours is more of a niche barcode where you want to put a lot of information in a small space.'"

Jhalda I

Jhalda I is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Purulia Sadar West subdivision of Purulia district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Lasallian educational institutions

Lasallian educational institutions are educational institutions affiliated with the De La Salle Brothers, a Roman Catholic religious teaching order founded by French Priest Saint Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, who was canonized in 1900 and proclaimed by the Vatican in 1950 as patron saint of all teachers. In regard to their educational activities the Brothers have since 1680 also called themselves "Brothers of the Christian Schools", associated with the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools; they are often referred to by themselves and others by the shorter term "Christian Brothers", a name also applied to the unrelated Congregation of Christian Brothers or Irish Christian Brothers, also providers of education, which commonly causes confusion.The De La Salle Brothers say that, with the assistance of more than 73,000 lay colleagues, they teach over 900,000 students in 80 countries.

Short prayers are recited in Lasallian educational institutions during the school day:

The US-based La Salle International Foundation, which supports global educational and other networks of the De La Salle Brothers, say on their Web site that they sponsor educational projects and support schools in 82 countries; and that they give special attention to youth at risk, including those "educationally excluded, street children, orphans, victims of child abuse, drug addicts, disabled youth, individuals with mental illness, migrant and refugee youth, HIV+ and AIDS children, child victims of war, juvenile offenders, child laborers, victims of child trafficking, ethnic minorities, disadvantaged girls, and impoverished children".Since the 1980s increasing numbers of cases of sexual and physical abuse of children, covered up by authorities, in institutions of the Catholic Church and others have been reported. Cases of physical and sexual abuse of children in Lasallian educational institutions, and failure to investigate, report, and subsequently protect children have been investigated and admitted.

List of Yo-kai Watch characters

The following is a list of characters from Level-5's video game and anime franchise, Yo-kai Watch.

The version of the manga distributed in Southeast Asia (including the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei) by Shogakukan Asia uses the original Japanese character names.

List of state leaders in 1875

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1875.

Malamine Camara

Malamine Camara was a Senegalese sergeant in the French colonial army, and a key figure in the extension of French colonial rule in the Congo Basin.

Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office (or simply Office) is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1, 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for an office suite (bundled set of productivity applications), the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On July 10, 2012, Softpedia reported that Office is used by over a billion people worldwide.Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments. The original, and most widely used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOS operating systems. Office Online is a version of the software that runs within a web browser, while Microsoft also maintains Office apps for Android and iOS.

Since Office 2013, Microsoft has promoted Office 365 as the primary means of obtaining Microsoft Office: it allows use of the software and other services on a subscription business model, and users receive free feature updates to the software for the lifetime of the subscription, including new features and cloud computing integration that are not necessarily included in the "on-premises" releases of Office sold under conventional license terms. In 2017, revenue from Office 365 overtook conventional license sales.

The current on-premises, desktop version of Office is Office 2019, released on September 24, 2018.

Microsoft Store

Microsoft Store is a chain of retail stores and an online shopping site, owned and operated by Microsoft and dealing in computers, computer software and consumer electronics.

The Microsoft Store offers Signature PCs and tablets like the Microsoft Surface and from third parties such as HP, Acer, Dell, Lenovo, and VAIO without demos or trialware (pre-installed free trials of certain third-party software that expire after a limited time). It also offers Windows (most retail versions), Microsoft Office and Xbox One game consoles, games and services including on-site Xbox diagnostics. The Answers Desk helps to answer questions related to Windows, Office, and other Microsoft products. The stores also offer class sessions as well as individual appointments.

The first two Microsoft Stores opened within a week of the Windows 7 launch, in Scottsdale, Arizona and Mission Viejo, California. Additional stores have since opened in California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, Missouri, Texas and Washington. At the 2011 Professional Developers Conference, Microsoft announced that they intend to open 75 new stores in the next three years.The first store outside the U.S. (and the first of eight stores in Canada) opened in Toronto on November 16, 2012 while the first store outside North America (and first store in Asia-Pacific and second flagship store) opened in Sydney, Australia on November 12, 2015 In September 2017, the company announced a store on Regent Street in London, United Kingdom .

Microsoft Student

Microsoft Student is a discontinued application from Microsoft designed to help students in schoolwork and homework. It included Encarta, as well as several student-exclusive tools such as additional Microsoft Office templates (called Learning Essentials) and integration with other Microsoft applications, like Microsoft Word. An example of that is data citations, Encarta dictionary and research Encarta features, which are available in a toolbar in Word.

The product also included Microsoft Math, language and literature resources (book summaries), and research tools (such as access to an online version of Encarta). Student 2006 was the first version of the product and a new version was produced by Microsoft every year until 2009.

Microsoft announced in March 2009 that they will cease to sell Microsoft Student and all editions of the Encarta encyclopedia by June 2009, citing changes in the way people seek information and in the traditional encyclopedia and reference material market as the key reasons behind the termination. Encarta's closing is widely attributed to competition from the larger online encyclopedia Wikipedia.

Microsoft Teams

Microsoft Teams is a unified communications platform that combines persistent workplace chat, video meetings, file storage (including collaboration on files), and application integration. The service integrates with the company's Office 365 subscription office productivity suite and features extensions that can integrate with non-Microsoft products. Microsoft Teams is a competitor to services such as Slack and is the evolution and upgrade path from Microsoft Skype for Business.

Microsoft announced Teams at an event in New York, and launched the service worldwide on 14 March 2017. It was created, and is currently led, by Brian MacDonald, Corporate Vice President at Microsoft.


Ngalifourou, formerly known as Ngassié (1864–June 8,1956) was a queen of the Bateke people of the

kingdom of Mbé, which is now present day Republic of the Congo. At 12 years old she was presented to King Makoko Iloo, who later wed her as his second wife at the age of 15. In 1879 she became the king's main wife and reigned with him, and she ascended the throne after his death. As expected by tradition, she married the kings who succeeded to Mbé, the capital of the kingdom, but did not lose her power. She was sovereign and guardian of the army, and sent soldiers to help the French fight the Nazis in Africa after speaking with Charles de Gaulle; she was given military decorations, including the Legion of Honour.

Satya Nadella

Satya Narayana Nadella (; born 19 August 1967) is an Indian-American business executive. He currently serves as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Microsoft, succeeding Steve Ballmer in 2014. Before becoming chief executive, he was Executive Vice President of Microsoft's Cloud and Enterprise Group, responsible for building and running the company's computing platforms.

Surface Studio

The Surface Studio is an all-in-one PC, designed and produced by Microsoft as part of its Surface series of Windows-based personal computing devices. It was announced at the Windows 10 Devices Event on October 26, 2016, with pre-orders beginning that day.The first desktop computer to be manufactured entirely by Microsoft, the Surface Studio uses the Windows 10 operating system with the Anniversary Update preinstalled. However, it is optimized for the Windows 10 Creators Update, which was released on April 11, 2017. The product, starting at $2,999, is aimed primarily at people in creative professions such as graphic artists and designers.

Surface Studio 2

The Surface Studio 2 is an all-in-one PC, designed and produced by Microsoft as part of its Surface series of Windows-based personal computing devices. It was announced at the Windows 10 Devices Event on October 2, 2018, with pre-orders beginning that day.The second desktop computer to be manufactured entirely by Microsoft, the Surface Studio uses the Windows 10 operating system with the October 2018 update preinstalled. The product, starting at $3,499, is aimed primarily at people in creative professions such as graphic artists and designers.

MSN software and services
Current services
Divested by Microsoft
Cultural aspects
Jobs and activities
Urine-related aspects
Feces-related aspects
Historical terms
See also

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.