IGN

IGN (formerly Imagine Games Network) is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc., a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider. The IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, films, television, comics, technology, and other media. Originally a network of desktop websites, IGN is now also distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, Roku, and via YouTube, Twitch, Hulu, and Snapchat.

Originally, IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests, games, and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, and AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary.

IGN
IGN Entertainment Logo
Type of businessSubsidiary
Type of site
Entertainment
Available inEnglish, German, French, Hebrew, Swedish, Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, Polish, Greek, Romanian, Korean, Russian, Croatian, Turkish, French, Czech, Portuguese, Japanese, Hindi, and other Philippine dialects
Founded1996 (as Imagine Games Network)
Headquarters625 2nd Street, 4th Floor
San Francisco, California,
U.S.[1]
Coordinates37°46′53″N 122°23′29″W / 37.7814°N 122.3914°WCoordinates: 37°46′53″N 122°23′29″W / 37.7814°N 122.3914°W
Owner
Founder(s)Jonathan Simpson-Bint
Key peoplePeer Schneider (General Manager)
IndustryVideo game and media journalism
Employees250
Websitewww.ign.com
Alexa rankIncrease 283 (June 2017)[2]
Registration
  • Free
  • IGN Prime
  • Founder's Club
Current statusActive

History

Ignentertainmenthq
IGN Entertainment's former headquarters in Brisbane, California

Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com (later renamed ign64.com), PSXPower, Saturnworld, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online. Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, and GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand. The homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation; U.G.P.O. dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, and Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand.

In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter.[3] That same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com. At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball held an IPO in 2000, but shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider (later IGN Prime), which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002.

In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa.[4] In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million.[5] IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008.[6] IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, California, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.[7]

Acquisition of UGO, sale to Ziff Davis

In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment (owners of 1UP.com) from Hearst Corporation. Ultimately, News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had previously acquired (including MySpace and Photobucket).[8]

On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, which was recently acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had previously been owned by Ziff Davis.[9] Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, and UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen.[10]

Subsidiaries and spin-offs

The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999.[11] GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" (Game Popularity Meter) rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game. However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, and the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003.[12][13] IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005.[14] The merger also brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group; as of 2011 both FilePlanet and the GameSpy website still operate as video game-related web sites. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005.[15] In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster.[16] In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN.[17]

Scoring systems

Original scale

A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, which is assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, graphics, sound, gameplay and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category.[18]

20-point scale

On August 3, 2010, IGN announced that the site would be changing to a new scoring scale. Instead of a 100-point scale, where games are scored in increments of 0.1, all future reviews would use a 20-point scale where games are scored in increments of 0.5. Under both systems, the maximum possible score a game can receive is 10.0. The scoring change is not retroactive: all scores on reviews written before the change will remain the same. This change also did not affect the scoring system for reader reviews.

100-point scale

On September 13, 2012, IGN revealed that as part of their new review format all future reviews would now follow a 100-point scale again, but this time without using decimals, meaning a score of 8.5 would now be an 85. Unlike the previous conversion to the 20-point scale, this latest scoring system change was retroactive and all previous IGN review scores were to be updated to follow the new system. However, despite the announcement, the article included a short addition, post-release; it stated that after much discussion, they have decided to retain the decimal point in all upcoming scores.[19]

Re-review policy

In early 2014, IGN introduced a new policy, in which a game's review score can be re-reviewed and improved, provided that continuous updates form a significant change in the game compared to how it was at launch. Examples of games in which they are were re-reviewed were League of Legends and the pocket edition of Minecraft.[20]

IGN 'Best of' awards

IGN's 'Best of' is an end-of-year event to annually honor the year's best games, films, television shows and comics.[21] Winners of each award category is selected by IGN staff from a list of nominees, while readers are able to cast their own votes online to determine the 'People's Choice' award for each category.

Other sections

In 2000, Snowball.com purchased an E-federation called the Internet Wrestling Organization (IWO).[22] Since Snowball owned both IWO and IGN, IWO would go on to become IGN's first official E-Fed, even doing a column on the website. The IGN For Men section officially closed down on October 2, 2001, and is no longer updated. IGN has sites such as IGN Stars and AskMen.com that fulfil much of the function of the old IGN For Men site. IGN Wrestling met its end in early 2002 when many of the staff departed. Interviews with professional wrestling personalities and coverage of wrestling games have been folded into IGN Sports, currently headed by Jon Robinson. IGN Sci-Fi: Largely dead since 2002, this section of the site included movie news, comic book reviews, anime coverage and other associated items. It has since been discontinued. The site, SciFI.ign.com, now redirects to the recently created SciFiBrain.ign.com, which covers some of the content of the old Sci-Fi site.

In 2002, IGN launched a dedicated video game FAQs site specifically designed to host user-submitted guides.[23] This was launched following the cancellation of affiliation with GameFAQs. In 2004, IGN launched GameStats, which was intended to be a more unbiased rating network, as it takes in scores from every corporately owned game rating site and averages them all into one score to give a general idea of the quality of a game. IGN also launched Direct2Drive.com in 2004. Its primary focus is selling digital downloads of full PC and Mac video games, as well as anime, comics and game guides. In 2005, IGN launched its comics site, which is devoted to not just the staple Marvel and DC titles, but also manga, graphic novels, statues and toys.

In 2006, IGN launched its television site. It provides interviews with various television celebrities, in addition to a TV schedule, TV trivia and TV news. Akin to IGN FilmForce, IGN's TV section has a variety of exclusive clips from upcoming television shows.

On May 30, 2006, IGN Dreamcast was restarted; however, none of the Dreamcast updates were posted on the main IGN webpage.

In 2007, IGN launched its anime site. It provided features on anime and manga, including trailers and free episodes. It also included reviews of manga and anime from other sections of IGN, such as IGN Comics and IGN DVD. The anime channel was dropped after IGN redesigned the site. In 2008, the IGN Retro channel was launched to mark IGN's 10th anniversary.[24] To coincide with the release of Super Smash Bros. Brawl, IGN created the Super Smash Bros. World site. On the site, people can submit their user-created stages from the game and download ones made by other people. IGN subsequently launched a similar website called GTA 'Hood on April 29, 2008, for Grand Theft Auto IV.

Along with their popular website content, IGN also publishes many different podcasts on both their website and on iTunes. Some of their podcasts include console-oriented shows like the PlayStation-focused "Podcast Beyond" and the Xbox-oriented "Podcast Unlocked", the Nintendo-oriented "Nintendo Voice Chat", and Game Scoop!, a podcast where a variety of editors discuss news and topics surrounding the video game industry.[25]

Regional websites

  • Since 2006, IGN Entertainment began launching regional versions of the website for various countries and pan-regions. Initially, IGN began opening new offices outside the United States in order to support those regional websites, but later IGN began franchising its brand as a more cost-effective means of globalization, wherein it licensed various media publishers in many countries to use the IGN brand and manage regional websites on their own. When visiting www.ign.com from an IGN-supported region, the site automatically redirects visitors to their localized version using geolocation software, based on their countries' IP addresses. Each version of the site has a modified logo with their country's/region's respective flags near the IGN logo. However, it is still possible to access the original American website using a navigation bar on top or below (depending on the regional website) the page's master template.
  • IGN opened its first offices in the UK and Australia in 2006, which both share the same information as the American site but with added content authored from editors within each respective region. Other licensed regional publishers work on their own servers, albeit can link to IGN's HQ database, where they can import or translate articles, and use videos uploaded on IGN's servers that use IGN's own hosted video player.
  • On May 16, 2012, in collaboration with the Emirati-based company t-break Media, IGN Middle East was announced for the MENA gaming community. The site replaces t-break Media's own ME Gamers website, which was formerly one of the largest Middle Eastern-based gaming media outlets that was originally launched in 2006. ME Gamers' entire staff converted their duties to IGN Middle East, importing or translating many of IGN's English articles, whilst writing up their own articles, especially for Middle Eastern-specific events. IGN Middle East is available in both English and Arabic languages.[26] Whilst the site was initially launched to cover only video games, t-break Media announced in September 2012 that they started posting movie-related articles under the IGN brand as IGN Movies Middle East, merging most of the duties from their own ME Movies website, which was originally established in 2009, under a similar manner to their video game content.[27] Unlike video games, however, most movie-related content will be in English only.
  • In September 2012 the Italian edition of IGN launched, managed by a local team, providing both original and translated contents.[28]
  • On October 9, 2012, in collaboration with the Spanish-based media company Marca, IGN Spain was announced. The site effectively replaces Marca's own Marca Player gaming news website. Marca Player's editors converted their duties to IGN Spain, translating many of IGN's English articles, whilst writing up their own Spanish articles as well, covering various topics including video games, movies, TV series and comics.[29]
  • In March 2013, IGN Russia was launched. Russian version is managed by Gameland publishing house, and its staff was initially completed by former editors and writers from Strana Igr, Gameland's printed video game magazine that was closed later that year.
  • On December 2, 2013, IGN Africa was launched.[30][31]
  • On December 17, 2013, in collaboration with Times Internet, IGN India was launched. The Indian edition takes AAA game reviews from its US counterpart and focuses more on coverage of gaming news and events in the country, apart from writing about comics, movies, technology.[32]
  • On September 1, 2014, IGN Latinoamérica was launched in collaboration with Publimetro and cover the whole Central and South American region (except Brazil) with content in Spanish.
  • On November 11, 2014, IGN Israel was launched.
  • On February 23, 2015, IGN Brazil was launched.
  • 2015, IGN Hungary was launched.
  • On June 2015, IGN Romania was launched.[33]
  • On November 6, 2015, IGN Poland was launched.[34]
  • On January 4, 2016, IGN Adria was launched. IGN Adria covers countries of ex Yugoslavia region: Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia.
  • On April 11, 2016, in collaboration with Sankei Digital, the online publishing arm of Japanese newspaper publisher Sankei Shimbun, IGN Japan was publicly launched, and is expected to have a full scale release by summer 2016. The launch of IGN Japan is considered a critical development: In addition to translation of English articles, IGN Japan is hoping to also contribute much original content for other IGN editions from the Japanese end of the gaming industry,[35] one of the world's largest video game markets with little mainstream journalism for Western media.
  • On April 12, 2016, in collaboration with Pakistani-based Express Publications, IGN Pakistan was publicly launched. Pakistan originally shared some media coverage with IGN Middle East, and later IGN India, before spinning off to a completely independent IGN edition with focus on local gaming and pop culture events in Pakistan.[36] IGN Pakistan is initially only available in English, but an Urdu language version is expected to launch later in 2016.

IGN Pro League

In 2011, IGN launched IGN Pro League, a professional e-sports circuit that ran tournaments for StarCraft II: Wings of Liberty, ShootMania Storm and League of Legends.[37] On March 6, 2013, only weeks prior to the event, IGN abruptly cancelled the finals of IPL 6—which were to be held in Las Vegas from March 28 through 31, and discontinued the league. IGN indicated that it was no longer in a position to commit to competing with the increased number of e-sports events that were now being held.[38][39] On April 8, 2013, Blizzard Entertainment announced that it had acquired the staff and assets of the IPL from IGN; its former staff were reassigned to work on in-house e-sports productions.[40]

Plagiarism

In August 2018, the owner of YouTube channel Boomstick Gaming accused IGN reviewer Filip Miucin of plagiarizing his video review of the game Dead Cells.[41] On August 7, IGN replaced its review with a statement that its writers "take plagiarism very seriously" and were investigating the claim.[41] Later that day, IGN stated that it had found "substantial similarities" between the reviews, apologized, and announced that it had dismissed Miucin.[41] On August 10, IGN published a new review by Brandin Tyrrel, which included an editor's note apologizing again and stating that "this review (and its score) represents solely the opinion of the new reviewer".[42]

Miucin responded that while he took "complete ownership over what happened", the similarity was not intentional.[43] Website Kotaku found similarities between Miucin's other reviews and reviews on Nintendo Life and Engadget,[44] and material posted on the games discussion forum NeoGAF.[45] On August 14, IGN announced that it would remove all of Miucin's work pending further review.[45]

References

  1. ^ "Contact - IGN Entertainment". Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  2. ^ "Ign.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  3. ^ Willmott, Don (February 9, 1999). "The 100 Top Web Sites". PC Magazine. 18 (3): 114.
  4. ^ Doe, Johnny (2009-08-21). "ign.com — Site Information from Alexa". Alexa. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
  5. ^ "News Corp. Acquires IGN for $650 Million". Bloomberg Businessweek. September 11, 2005. Archived from the original on November 4, 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
  6. ^ Geddes, Ryan. "IGN: Origins: The History of IGN". Retro.ign.com. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
  7. ^ "Gamefly, Inc. Acquires Direct2Drive from IGN Entertainment" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-26. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
  8. ^ Siegler, M. G. "Confirmed: IGN Buys UGO, Hearst Gets Equity In New Venture That Will Soon Spin Out". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  9. ^ "IGN Entertainment sold by News Corp to publisher Ziff Davis". Digital Spy. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  10. ^ "IGN hit with layoffs; 1UP, Gamespy and UGO shutting down". Joystiq. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  11. ^ Robert Lemos (28 September 1999), "IGN.com will buy the Vault Network", www.zdnet.com
  12. ^ "IGN Entertainment acquires TeamXbox website (Press Release)", corp.ign.com, IGN, 21 October 2003, archived from the original on 2007-12-12
  13. ^ "IGN Acquires VE3D Gaming Site; Premier Gaming News Site Joins IGN Network", www.allbusiness.com, AllBusiness.com, 15 April 2003, archived from the original on 2010-07-01
  14. ^ "IGN/Gamespy merger creates one of the internet's largest game and internet-focused company (Press Release)", corp.ign.com, IGN, 5 March 2004, archived from the original on 2007-07-01
  15. ^ "IGN Entertainment acquires Askmen.com (Press Release)", corp.ign.com, IGN, 1 June 2005, archived from the original on 2007-11-18
  16. ^ Graser, Marc (January 4, 2010). "Flixster buys Rotten Tomatoes". Variety. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
  17. ^ "Humble Bundle is Joining Forces with IGN!". Humble Mumble. Retrieved 2017-10-13.
  18. ^ "IGN Ratings and Reviews Policy". IGN. Archived from the original on 2009-04-20. Retrieved 2009-05-25.
  19. ^ j bendickson (2012-09-13). "Reviews 2.0 - The Future of Reviews Starts Now  — Blog by kami casey". IGN. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
  20. ^ Stapleton, Dan (13 February 2014). "IGN's Re-Review Policy".
  21. ^ "Television – Best of 2011". IGN. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  22. ^ "Internet Wrestling Organization". Archived from the original on 2000-05-19.
  23. ^ "Get the FAQs". IGN. 2002-07-09.
  24. ^ "IGN: Playing With the Past: IGN Retro". Uk.games.ign.com. 2008-01-11. Archived from the original on 2012-03-12. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
  25. ^ "IGN Podcasts". IGN. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  26. ^ Jaffar Ali, Abbas (2012-05-16). "IGN Entertainment and T-Break Media launch IGN Middle East". IGN Middle East. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  27. ^ Hashmi, Faisal (2012-09-02). "ME-Movies Has Now Merged With IGN Middle East Movies". IGN Middle East. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  28. ^ "Videogiochi, trucchi, recensioni, notizie, anteprime, video e trailer da IGN". It.ign.com. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
  29. ^ Sanz, David (2012-10-09). "Bienvenidos a IGN España" (in Spanish). IGN Spain. Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
  30. ^ "Ziff Davis launches IGN Africa". GamesIndustry. 2013-11-18.
  31. ^ "IGN Africa is live! Why is NAG excited?". NAG Online. 2013-12-03.
  32. ^ "IGN India Goes Live". medianama.com. 17 December 2013.
  33. ^ "S-a lansat IGN România". 1 July 2015.
  34. ^ "Koniec plotek i domysłów. Właśnie ruszył polski IGN - AntyWeb". AntyWeb (in Polish). Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  35. ^ Dring, Christopher (2016-04-11). "IGN launches Japanese website". MCV UK. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
  36. ^ Ansari, Noman (2016-04-12). "Welcome to IGN Pakistan". IGN Pakistan. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
  37. ^ Mendez, Alex. "Announcing the IPL weekly Shootmania Cup". IGN. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  38. ^ "IGN cancels IPL6 eSports tournament". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
  39. ^ "IPL6 eSports tournament officially cancelled – refunds available for ticket holders". PC Gamer. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  40. ^ "IGN Pro League "technology and assets" purchased by Blizzard". PC Gamer. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  41. ^ a b c Hernandez, Patricia (August 7, 2018). "IGN pulls game review after YouTuber's plagiarism accusations". The Verge. Retrieved August 12, 2018..
  42. ^ Tyrrel, Brandin (2018-08-10). "Dead Cells Review". IGN. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  43. ^ Leri, Michael (August 10, 2018). "IGN Dead Cells Reviewer Disputes Plagiarism Allegations". Game Revolution. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  44. ^ Schreier, Jason (2018-08-11). "Former IGN Reviewer Responds To Plagiarism Allegations: 'Not At All Intentional' [UPDATES: Third Review Questioned, Video Removed]". Kotaku. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
  45. ^ a b Schafer, Jason (August 15, 2018). "IGN Pulls Ex-Editor's Posts After Dozens More Plagiarism Accusations Surface". Kotaku. Retrieved August 15, 2018.

External links

1UP.com

1UP.com is an American entertainment website that focused on video games. Launched in 2003, 1UP.com provided its own original features, news stories, game reviews, and video interviews, and also featured comprehensive PC-focused content (an extension of the previously published Games for Windows: The Official Magazine). Like a print magazine, 1UP.com also hosted special week-long "online cover stories" (examples include Soulcalibur III, The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, and Virtua Fighter 5) that presented each day a new in-depth feature story, interview with the developers, game screenshot gallery, game video footage, and/or video of the game studio and creators.

The site was created by Ziff Davis as an extension of Electronic Gaming Monthly, a gaming magazine formerly published by the company. 1UP was sold in 2009 to Hearst Corporation's UGO Networks, who was acquired by IGN Entertainment (then owned by News Corporation) in 2011. Coming full circle, Ziff Davis acquired IGN Entertainment as a whole in February 2013, re-uniting 1UP with its original owners. Shortly after the acquisition, however, Ziff Davis announced that in an effort to concentrate on IGN, it would shut down most of its secondary sites, including 1UP. Remaining staff members from 1UP were to be transferred to IGN.

Final Fantasy

Final Fantasy is a Japanese science fantasy media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and developed and owned by Square Enix (formerly Square). The franchise centers on a series of fantasy and science fantasy role-playing video games (RPGs/JRPGs). The first game in the series was released in 1987, with 14 other main-numbered entries being released since then. The franchise has since branched into other video game genres such as tactical role-playing, action role-playing, massively multiplayer online role-playing, racing, third-person shooter, fighting, and rhythm, as well as branching into other media, including CGI films, anime, manga, and novels.

Final Fantasy installments are generally stand-alone stories, each with different settings, plots and main characters, however, as a corpus they feature some identical elements that help to define the franchise. These recurring elements include plot themes, character names, and game mechanics. Each plot centers on a particular group of heroes who are battling a great evil, but also explores the characters' internal struggles and relationships. Character names are frequently derived from the history, languages, pop culture, and mythologies of cultures worldwide. The mechanics of each game involve similar battle systems and maps.

The Final Fantasy video game series has been both critically and commercially successful, selling more than 142 million games worldwide, making it one of the best-selling video game franchises of all time. The series is well known for its innovation, visuals, and music, such as the inclusion of full-motion videos (FMVs), photorealistic character models, and music by Nobuo Uematsu. It has been a driving force in the video game industry, and the series has affected Square Enix's business practices and its relationships with other video game developers. It has popularized many features now common in role-playing games, also popularizing the genre as a whole in markets outside Japan.

GameCube

The Nintendo GameCube, abbreviated NGC in Japan and GCN in Europe and North America, is a home video game console released by Nintendo in Japan and North America in 2001 and Europe and Australia in 2002. The sixth generation console is the successor to the Nintendo 64 and competed with Sony's PlayStation 2 and Microsoft's Xbox.

The GameCube is the first Nintendo console to use optical discs as its primary storage medium. The discs are in the miniDVD format and the system was not designed to play full sized DVDs or audio CDs. The console supports online gaming for a small number of games via the broadband or modem adapter and connects to the Game Boy Advance via the link cable, allowing players to access exclusive in-game features using the handheld as a second screen and controller.

The Nintendo GameCube uses composite video cables to display games on the television; however, there are differences in the two models produced. The models produced before May of 2004 also had the ability to use the digital component AV cables and progressive scan and a second serial port. The nameplate on the top of the console reading "Nintendo GameCube" could also be removed. This model was known as "DOL-001". All said were removed in GameCube consoles produced between 2004-2007, and the later model was known as "DOL-101". The newer models also had firmware that disabled action replays and cheat codes and the laser reading the discs was improved, though it did not last as long as the "DOL-001" model's laser. The newer models came with a 48 watt AC adapter to power the console, while the original models came with a 46 watt AC adapter.Contemporary reception of the GameCube was generally positive. The console was praised for its controller, extensive software library and high-quality games, but was criticized for its exterior design and lack of features. Nintendo sold 21.74 million GameCube units worldwide before it was discontinued in 2007. Its successor, the Wii, some models of which have backward compatibility with most GameCube software, was released in November 2006.

GameSpy

GameSpy was a provider of online multiplayer and matchmaking middleware for video games. The company originated from a Quake fan site founded by Mark Surfas in 1996; after the release of a multiplayer server browser for the game, QSpy, Surfas licensed the software under the GameSpy brand to other video game publishers through a newly established company, GameSpy Industries, which also incorporated his Planet Network of video game news and information websites, and GameSpy.com.

GameSpy merged with IGN in 2004; by 2014, its services had been used by over 800 video game publishers and developers since its launch. In August 2012, the GameSpy Industries division (which remained responsible for the GameSpy service) was acquired by mobile video game developer Glu Mobile. IGN (then owned by News Corporation) retained ownership of the GameSpy.com website. In February 2013, IGN's new owner, Ziff Davis, shut down IGN's "secondary" sites, including GameSpy's network. This was followed by the announcement in April 2014 that GameSpy's service platform would be shut down on May 31, 2014.

Grand Theft Auto

Grand Theft Auto (GTA) is an action-adventure video game series created by David Jones and Mike Dailly; the later titles of which were created by brothers Dan and Sam Houser, Leslie Benzies and Aaron Garbut. It is primarily developed by Rockstar North (formerly DMA Design), and published by Rockstar Games. The name of the series references the term used in the US for motor vehicle theft.

Most games in the series are set in fictional locales modelled on cities, usually either Liberty City, Vice City or San Andreas, which are stand-ins for New York City, Miami and the state of California, respectively. The first game encompassed three fictional cities, while subsequent titles tend to emphasise a single setting. Gameplay focuses on an open world where the player can choose missions to progress an overall story, as well as engaging in side activities, all consisting of action-adventure, driving, third-person shooting, carjacking, occasional role-playing, stealth and racing elements. The series focuses on many different protagonists who attempt to rise through the ranks of the criminal underworld, although their motives for doing so vary in each game. The series also has elements of the earlier beat 'em up games from the 16-bit era. The antagonists are commonly characters who have betrayed the protagonist or his organisation, or characters who have the most impact impeding the protagonist's progress. Film and music veterans have voiced characters, including Ray Liotta, Burt Reynolds, Dennis Hopper, Samuel L. Jackson, James Woods, Debbie Harry, Phil Collins, Axl Rose and Peter Fonda.British video game developer DMA Design began the series in 1997. As of 2014, it has eleven stand-alone games and four expansion packs. The third chronological title, Grand Theft Auto III, is considered a landmark title, as it brought the series to a 3D setting and more immersive experience. Subsequent titles have followed and built upon the concept established in Grand Theft Auto III, and received significant acclaim. They have influenced many other open-world action games, and led to the label Grand Theft Auto clone on similar games.

The series has been critically acclaimed and commercially successful, having shipped more than 250 million units, making it the fourth-highest selling video game franchise of all time, behind Nintendo's Mario and Pokémon franchises, and Tetris. In 2006, Grand Theft Auto was featured in a list of British design icons in the Great British Design Quest organised by the BBC and the Design Museum. In 2013, The Telegraph ranked Grand Theft Auto among Britain's most successful exports. The series has also been controversial for its adult nature and violent themes.

Grand Theft Auto V

Grand Theft Auto V is an action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It was released in September 2013 for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, in November 2014 for PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, and in April 2015 for Microsoft Windows. It is the first main entry in the Grand Theft Auto series since 2008's Grand Theft Auto IV. Set within the fictional state of San Andreas, based on Southern California, the single-player story follows three criminals and their efforts to commit heists while under pressure from a government agency. The open-world design lets players freely roam San Andreas' open countryside and the fictional city of Los Santos, based on Los Angeles.

The game is played from either a third-person or first-person perspective and its world is navigated on foot or by vehicle. Players control the three lead protagonists throughout single-player and switch between them both during and outside missions. The story is centred on the heist sequences, and many missions involve shooting and driving gameplay. A "wanted" system governs the aggression of law enforcement response to players who commit crimes. Grand Theft Auto Online, the game's online multiplayer mode, lets up to 30 players engage in a variety of different cooperative and competitive game modes.

The development of Grand Theft Auto V began soon after Grand Theft Auto IV's release and was shared between many of Rockstar's studios worldwide. The development team drew influence from many of their previous projects such as Red Dead Redemption and Max Payne 3 and designed the game around three lead protagonists to innovate on the core structure of its predecessors. Much of the development work constituted the open world's creation, and several team members conducted field research around California to capture footage for the design team. The game's soundtrack features an original score composed by a team of producers who collaborated over several years.

Extensively marketed and widely anticipated, the game broke industry sales records and became the fastest-selling entertainment product in history, earning $800 million in its first day and $1 billion in its first three days. It received widespread critical acclaim, with praise directed at its multiple protagonist design, open world, presentation and gameplay. However, it caused controversies related to its depiction of women and a mission featuring torture during a hostage interrogation. Considered one of the seventh generation console gaming's most significant titles and among the best games ever made, it won year-end accolades including Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications. It is the third-best-selling video game of all time with over 100 million copies shipped, and is one of the most financially successful entertainment products of all time, with about $6 billion in worldwide revenue.

Halo (franchise)

Halo is a military science fiction first-person shooter video game franchise managed and developed by 343 Industries, a subsidiary of Xbox Game Studios. However, this was originally developed by Bungie Studios. The series centers on an interstellar war between humanity and an alliance of aliens known as the Covenant. The Covenant, led by their religious leaders called the Prophets, worship an ancient civilization known as the Forerunners, who perished while defeating the parasitic Flood. The central focus of the franchise builds off the experiences of Master Chief John-117, one of a group of supersoldiers codenamed Spartans, and his artificial intelligence (AI) companion, Cortana. Other characters, such as Noble Six from Halo: Reach, are also introduced in the series. The term "Halo" refers to the Halo Array: a group of immense, habitable, ring-shaped superweapons that were created by the Forerunners to destroy the Flood. They are similar to the Orbitals in Iain M. Banks' Culture novels, and to a lesser degree to author Larry Niven's Ringworld concept.The games in the series are critically well-received, and are considered the Xbox's "killer app". This led to the term "Halo killer" being used to describe console games that aspire, or are considered, to be better than Halo. Fueled by the success of Halo: Combat Evolved, and by marketing campaigns from publisher Microsoft, its sequels went on to record-breaking sales. The games have sold over 65 million copies worldwide, with the games alone grossing almost $3.4 billion.Strong sales of the games led to the franchise's expansion to other media; there are multiple best-selling novels, graphic novels, and other licensed products. Halo Wars took the franchise into new video game genre territory, as a real-time strategy game, while the rest of the games in the series are first-person shooters. Beyond the original trilogy, Bungie developed the expansion Halo 3: ODST, and a prequel, Halo: Reach, their last project for the franchise. A high-definition remake of the first game, entitled Halo: Combat Evolved Anniversary, was released on November 15, 2011, ten years after the release of the original. A new installment in a second series of games, Halo 4, was released on November 6, 2012. Halo: The Master Chief Collection, a remastered compilation of the four primary Halo titles, was released for the Xbox One on November 11, 2014. In October 2015, Halo 5: Guardians was released. In February 2017, Halo Wars 2 was released. In June 2018, the next main installment of the Halo series was announced as Halo Infinite.

The collective group of fans of the series is referred to as the "Halo Nation".

Institut géographique national

The Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière (National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information), previously Institut géographique national (National Geographic Institute) or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment founded in 1940 to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories.

Kingdom Hearts

Kingdom Hearts (Japanese: キングダム ハーツ, Hepburn: Kingudamu Hātsu) is a series of action role-playing games developed and published by Square Enix (originally by Square). It is a collaboration between Disney Interactive and Square Enix, and is under the direction of Tetsuya Nomura, a longtime Square Enix character designer.

Kingdom Hearts is a crossover of various Disney properties based in a fictional universe. The series centers on the main character, Sora, and his journey and experiences with various Disney, Final Fantasy, The World Ends with You and Pixar characters. The heroes of the series clash against the multiple incarnations of the primary antagonist, Xehanort, throughout the series. The Walt Disney Company owns almost all characters and worlds of the Kingdom Hearts franchise.

The series consists of thirteen games available for multiple platforms, and future titles are planned. Most of the games in the series have been positively received and commercially successful. As of February 2019, the Kingdom Hearts series has shipped more than 30 million copies worldwide. A wide variety of related merchandise has been released along with the games, including soundtracks, figurines, companion books, light novels, cards, and comic series.

List of PlayStation 3 games released on disc

This is a list of PlayStation 3 (PS3) games released or planned for release on Blu-ray Disc.

For a list of retail disc games also released on PSN in downloadable format, see List of PlayStation 3 disc games released for download

There are currently 1442 games on this list.

For a chronological list, click the sort button in any of the available region's columns. Games dated November 11, 2006 (Japan), March 23, 2007 (Europe), and November 13, 2006 (North America) are launch titles for the specified regions.

List of Relic Entertainment games

Relic Entertainment is a Canadian video game developer based in Vancouver and founded in June 1997 by Alex Garden and Luke Moloney. After its debut title Homeworld (1999), the company developed two more games, Impossible Creatures (2003) and Homeworld 2 (2003), and signed a contract with publisher THQ for an additional two games. Before either game was released, however, Relic was bought by THQ in May 2004 for US$10.2 million in cash; the company was renamed THQ Canada, with "Relic Entertainment" used as a marketing brand by the studio. THQ published the next five games by the company. A few months after being purchased, Relic released its first licensed title, Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War (2004). It released two more original titles in 2006, The Outfit and Company of Heroes, before transitioning to focus on further titles and expansion packs in the Warhammer 40,000 and Company of Heroes franchises.

In December 2012, THQ declared bankruptcy and began selling off its properties and subsidiary companies; THQ Canada was auctioned to Sega in January 2013, for US$26.6 million, along with the rights to the Company of Heroes franchise. The studio was then renamed back to Relic Entertainment. Since joining Sega, Relic has released one more title in both the Warhammer and Company of Heroes franchises, both published by Sega. It is currently developing Age of Empires IV, to be published by Microsoft Studios.

Metroid

Metroid is a science fiction action game franchise created by Nintendo. The series is primarily produced by the company's first-party developers Nintendo R&D1 and Retro Studios, although some games have been handled by other developers, including Fuse Games, Team Ninja, Next Level Games, and MercurySteam.

Metroid follows space-faring bounty hunter Samus Aran, who protects the galaxy from the Space Pirates and their attempts to harness the power of the parasitic Metroid creatures. Metroid combines the platforming of Super Mario Bros. and the adventure of The Legend of Zelda with a dark science fiction atmosphere and greater emphasis on nonlinear gameplay.

The series consists of fourteen games that were released on almost every Nintendo video game console. It is one of Nintendo's most successful franchises, and the games have received varying levels of critical acclaim. As of September 2012, the Metroid series had sold over 17.44 million copies. The series has been represented in other Nintendo media, including the Super Smash Bros. series. Additional media includes soundtracks, comic books, and manga.

Red Dead Redemption

Red Dead Redemption is a Western action-adventure game developed by Rockstar San Diego and published by Rockstar Games. A spiritual successor to 2004's Red Dead Revolver, it is the second game in the Red Dead series, and was released for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in May 2010. Red Dead Redemption is set during the decline of the American frontier in the year 1911 and follows John Marston, a former outlaw whose wife and son are taken hostage by the government in ransom for his services as a hired gun. Having no other choice, Marston sets out to bring three members of his former gang to justice.

The game is played from a third-person perspective in an open world, allowing the player to interact with the game world at their leisure. The player can travel the virtual world, a fictionalized version of the Western United States and Mexico, primarily by horseback and on foot. Gunfights emphasize a gunslinger gameplay mechanic called "Dead Eye" that allows players to mark multiple shooting targets on enemies in slow motion. The game makes use of a morality system, by which the player's actions in the game affect their character's levels of honor and fame and how other characters respond to the player. An online multiplayer mode is included with the game, allowing up to 16 players to engage in both cooperative and competitive gameplay in a recreation of the single-player setting.

Red Dead Redemption was developed over the course of five years and is one of the most expensive video games ever made. The game received critical acclaim for its visuals, dynamically-generated music, voice acting, gameplay, and story, and shipped over 15 million copies by 2017. It won several year-end accolades, including Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications, and is considered by critics as one of the greatest video games ever made. After the game's release, several downloadable content additions were released; Red Dead Redemption: Undead Nightmare, later released as a standalone game, added a new single-player experience in which Marston searches for a cure for an infectious zombie plague that has swept across the Old West. A Game of the Year Edition containing all additional content was released in October 2011. A prequel, Red Dead Redemption 2, was released in October 2018 to similar acclaim.

Resident Evil 4

Resident Evil 4 is a survival horror game developed and published by Capcom. The sixth major installment in the Resident Evil series, it was originally released for the GameCube in 2005. Players control U.S. government special agent Leon S. Kennedy, who is sent on a mission to rescue the U.S. president's daughter, who has been kidnapped by a cult. In rural Spain, Leon fights hordes of villagers infected by a mind-controlling parasite, and reunites with the spy Ada Wong.

Development began for PlayStation 2 as early as 1999. Resident Evil 4 underwent a long development during which four proposed versions were discarded; the first attempt was directed by Hideki Kamiya after producer Shinji Mikami. The game was announced as a GameCube exclusive as part of the Capcom Five, but a PlayStation 2 version was announced before it was released. Resident Evil 4 was ported to Windows, Wii, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, and Nintendo Switch and in downsized versions for iOS, Zeebo, and Android.

Resident Evil 4 garnered critical acclaim, with praise for its narrative, gameplay, voice acting, and characters. It received multiple Game of the Year awards for 2005 and was seen as a successful cross-platform hit that influenced the evolution of the survival horror and third-person shooter genres. It pioneered the "over the shoulder" third-person view perspective in video games. It is widely considered to be one of the best video games of all time. A sequel, Resident Evil 5, was released in 2009.

Silent Hill

Silent Hill (Japanese: サイレントヒル, Hepburn: Sairento Hiru) is a survival horror video game series created by Keiichiro Toyama, developed and published by Konami, and published by its subsidiary Konami Digital Entertainment. The first four video games in the series, Silent Hill, 2, 3 and 4: The Room, were developed by an internal group called Team Silent, a development staff within former Konami subsidiary Konami Computer Entertainment Tokyo. The later six games, Origins, Homecoming, Shattered Memories, Downpour, Book of Memories and P.T. (Silent Hills demo), were developed by other unrelated groups. The Silent Hill franchise has expanded to include various print pieces, two feature films, and spin-off video games.

Silent Hill is set in the series' eponymous fictitious American town. The series is heavily influenced by the literary genre of psychological horror, with its player characters being mostly "everymen".

Sonic the Hedgehog

Sonic the Hedgehog is a video game franchise produced by Sega centering on a series of high-speed platform games. Sonic, the protagonist, is an anthropomorphic blue hedgehog with supersonic speed. Typically, Sonic must stop antagonist Doctor Eggman's plans for world domination, often helped by his friends, such as Tails, Amy, and Knuckles.

The first Sonic the Hedgehog game, released in 1991, was conceived by Sega's Sonic Team division after Sega requested a mascot character to compete with Nintendo's mascot Mario. Its success spawned many sequels and helped Sega become one of the leading video game companies during the 16-bit era of the early 1990s. The first major 3D Sonic game, Sonic Adventure, was released in 1998 for the Dreamcast. Spin-offs have explored other genres, including racing games such as Sonic R (1997) and sports games such as Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games (2007).

By March 2011, the series had sold over 89 million physical copies, and grossed over $5 billion by 2014. As of 2018, the series has shifted 800 million copies, including free-to-play mobile game downloads. Several Sonic games are often included in lists of the greatest games of all time. The franchise has also crossed over into a variety of different media including animation, comic books, and a Hollywood film.

The Last of Us

The Last of Us is an action-adventure survival horror video game developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was released for the PlayStation 3 worldwide on June 14, 2013. Players control Joel, a smuggler tasked with escorting a teenage girl, Ellie, across a post-apocalyptic United States. The Last of Us is played from a third-person perspective. Players use firearms and improvised weapons, and can use stealth to defend against hostile humans and cannibalistic creatures infected by a mutated strain of the Cordyceps fungus. In the online multiplayer mode, up to eight players engage in cooperative and competitive gameplay.

Development of The Last of Us began in 2009, soon after the release of Naughty Dog's previous game, Uncharted 2: Among Thieves. The relationship between Joel and Ellie became the central focus of the game, with all other elements developed around it. Actors Troy Baker and Ashley Johnson portrayed Joel and Ellie respectively through voice and motion capture, and assisted creative director Neil Druckmann with the development of the characters and story. The original score was composed and performed by Gustavo Santaolalla.

Following its announcement in December 2011, The Last of Us was widely anticipated. Upon release, it received critical acclaim, with praise directed at its narrative, gameplay, visual and sound design, characterization, and depiction of female characters. The Last of Us became one of the best-selling games on the PlayStation 3, as well as one of the best-selling video games of all time. Selling over 1.3 million units in its first week and 17 million by April 2018, it won year-end accolades, including multiple Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications, critics, and game award ceremonies, making it one of the most awarded games in history, and is considered one of the greatest video games ever made.

After the game's release, Naughty Dog released several downloadable content additions. The Last of Us: Left Behind adds a single-player campaign following Ellie and her best friend Riley. An enhanced edition of the original game, The Last of Us Remastered, was released for the PlayStation 4 in July 2014. A sequel, The Last of Us Part II, was announced in December 2016.

Ty Dolla Sign

Tyrone William Griffin Jr. (born April 13, 1985), known professionally as Ty Dolla Sign (stylized as Ty Dolla $ign or Ty$), is an American singer, songwriter, rapper, and record producer. He first gained major recognition in 2010 for his guest feature on YG's "Toot It and Boot It", which he had written and produced for Def Jam Recordings. In the summer of 2013, he signed a record deal with Wiz Khalifa's Taylor Gang Records. In November 2015, he released his debut studio album, Free TC, which peaked at number 14 on the Billboard 200.

Ty Dolla Sign is known for his songs "Paranoid", "Or Nah", and "Blasé", as well as his writing contributions to "Loyal", "Post to Be", "FourFiveSeconds", and "Psycho", which was his first track to hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Aside from his solo music career, Ty Dolla Sign is also a member of production team D.R.U.G.S., alongside Chordz 3D, Buddah Shampoo, Nate 3D, James Koo, Fuego, and DJ Dahi.

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