IEEE 1394

IEEE 1394 is an interface standard for a serial bus for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer. It was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Apple, which called it FireWire. The 1394 interface is also known by the brands i.LINK (Sony), and Lynx (Texas Instruments).

The copper cable it uses in its most common implementation can be up to 4.5 metres (15 ft) long. Power is also carried over this cable, allowing devices with moderate power requirements to operate without a separate power supply. FireWire is also available in Cat 5 and optical fiber versions.

The 1394 interface is comparable to USB, though USB requires a master controller and has greater market share.[2]

IEEE 1394 Interface
FireWire Logo
Type Serial
Designer Apple Inc. (1394a/b), IEEE P1394 Working Group
Designed 1986[1]
Manufacturer Various
Produced 1994–2013
Superseded by Thunderbolt and USB 3.0
Length 4.5 meters maximum
Width 1
Hot pluggable Yes
Daisy chain Yes, up to 63 devices
Audio signal No
Video signal No
Pins 4, 6, 9
Max. voltage 30 V
Max. current 1.5 A
Data signal Yes
Bitrate 400–3200 Mbit/s (50–400 MB/s)

History and development

Image-FireWire-46 Connector Pinout
The 6-conductor and 4-conductor alpha FireWire 400 socket
FireWire800 Stecker.jpeg
A 9-pin FireWire 800 connector
Ethernet plug grey
The alternative Ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c
FireWire cables
4-conductor (left) and 6-conductor (right) FireWire 400 alpha connectors
A PCI expansion card that contains two FireWire 400 connectors.

FireWire is Apple's name for the IEEE 1394 High Speed Serial Bus. It was initiated by Apple (in 1986[3]) and developed by the IEEE P1394 Working Group, largely driven by contributions from Apple, although major contributions were also made by engineers from Texas Instruments, Sony, Digital Equipment Corporation, IBM, and INMOS/SGS Thomson (now STMicroelectronics).

IEEE 1394 is a serial bus architecture for high-speed data transfer. FireWire is a serial bus, meaning that information is transferred one bit at a time. Parallel buses utilize a number of different physical connections, and as such are usually more costly and typically heavier.[4] IEEE 1394 fully supports both isochronous and asynchronous applications.

Apple intended FireWire to be a serial replacement for the parallel SCSI bus, while providing connectivity for digital audio and video equipment. Apple's development began in the late 1980s, later presented to the IEEE,[5] and was completed in January 1995. In 2007, IEEE 1394 was a composite of four documents: the original IEEE Std. 1394-1995, the IEEE Std. 1394a-2000 amendment, the IEEE Std. 1394b-2002 amendment, and the IEEE Std. 1394c-2006 amendment. On June 12, 2008, all these amendments as well as errata and some technical updates were incorporated into a superseding standard, IEEE Std. 1394-2008.[6]

Apple first included on-board FireWire in some of its 1999 Macintosh models (though it had been a build-to-order option on some models since 1997), and most Apple Macintosh computers manufactured in the years 2000 through 2011 included FireWire ports. However, in February 2011 Apple introduced the first commercially available computer with Thunderbolt. Apple released its last computers featuring FireWire late 2012. By 2014, Thunderbolt had become a standard feature across Apple's entire line of computers effectively becoming the spiritual successor to FireWire in the Apple ecosystem.

Sony's implementation of the system, i.LINK, used a smaller connector with only four signal conductors, omitting the two conductors that provide power for devices in favor of a separate power connector. This style was later added into the 1394a amendment.[5] This port is sometimes labeled S100 or S400 to indicate speed in Mbit/s.

The system was commonly used to connect data storage devices and DV (digital video) cameras, but was also popular in industrial systems for machine vision and professional audio systems. Many users preferred it over the more common USB 2.0 for its then greater effective speed and power distribution capabilities. Benchmarks show that the sustained data transfer rates are higher for FireWire than for USB 2.0, but lower than USB 3.0. Results are marked on Apple Mac OS X but more varied on Microsoft Windows.[7][8]

Intellectual property considerations

Implementation of IEEE 1394 [9] is said to require use of 261 issued international patents[10] held by 10[11] corporations. Use of these patents requires licensing; use without license generally constitutes patent infringement.[12] Companies holding IEEE 1394 IP formed a patent pool with MPEG LA, LLC as the license administrator, to whom they licensed patents. MPEG LA sublicenses these patents to providers of equipment implementing IEEE 1394. Under the typical patent pool license, a royalty of US$0.25 per unit is payable by the manufacturer upon the manufacture of each 1394 finished product;[12] no royalties are payable by users.

A person or company may review the actual 1394 Patent Portfolio License upon request to MPEG LA.[13] Implementors would thereby ordinarily reveal some interest to MPEG LA early in the design process. MPEG LA does not provide assurance of protection to licensees beyond its own patents. At least one formerly licensed patent is known to be removed from the pool,[10] and other hardware patents exist that reference 1394-related hardware[14][15][16] and software functions related to use in IEEE 1394.[17] In total, over 1770 patents issued in the 20 years (the WIPO minimum) preceding 2011[18] contain "IEEE 1394" in their titles alone, placing 1500 unavailable from MPEG LA.

The 1394 High Performance Serial Bus Trade Association (the "1394 TA") was formed to aid marketing of IEEE 1394. Its bylaws prohibit dealing with intellectual property issues.[19] The 1394 Trade Association operates on an individual no cost membership basis to further enhancements to 1394 standards. The Trade Association also is the library source for all 1394 documentation and standards available.

Technical specifications

FireWire can connect up to 63 peripherals in a tree or daisy-chain topology[20] (as opposed to Parallel SCSI's electrical bus topology). It allows peer-to-peer device communication — such as communication between a scanner and a printer — to take place without using system memory or the CPU. FireWire also supports multiple hosts per bus. It is designed to support plug and play and hot swapping. The copper cable it uses in its most common implementation can be up to 4.5 metres (15 ft) long and is more flexible than most parallel SCSI cables. In its six-conductor or nine-conductor variations, it can supply up to 45 watts of power per port at up to 30 volts, allowing moderate-consumption devices to operate without a separate power supply.

FireWire devices implement the ISO/IEC 13213 "configuration ROM" model for device configuration and identification, to provide plug-and-play capability. All FireWire devices are identified by an IEEE EUI-64 unique identifier in addition to well-known codes indicating the type of device and the protocols it supports.

FireWire devices are organized at the bus in a tree topology. Each device has a unique self-ID. One of the nodes is elected root node and always has the highest ID. The self-IDs are assigned during the self-ID process, which happens after each bus resets. The order in which the self-IDs are assigned is equivalent to traversing the tree depth-first, post-order.

FireWire is capable of safely operating critical systems due to the way multiple devices interact with the bus and how the bus allocates bandwidth to the devices. FireWire is capable of both asynchronous and isochronous transfer methods at once. Isochronous data transfers are transfers for devices that require continuous, guaranteed bandwidth.[4] In an aircraft, for instance, isochronous devices include control of the rudder, mouse operations and data from pressure sensors outside the aircraft. All these elements require constant, uninterrupted bandwidth. To support both elements, FireWire dedicates a certain percentage to isochronous data and the rest to asynchronous data. In IEEE 1394, 80% of the bus is reserved for isochronous cycles, leaving asynchronous data with a minimum of 20% of the bus.[21]

Encoding scheme

FireWire uses Data/Strobe encoding (D/S encoding).[22] In D/S encoding, two non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signals are used to transmit the data with high reliability. The NRZ signal sent is fed with the clock signal through an XOR gate, creating a strobe signal.[22] This strobe is then put through another XOR gate along with the data signal to reconstruct the clock.[22] This in turn acts as the bus's phase-locked loop for synchronization purposes.[22]


The process of the bus deciding which node gets to transmit data at what time is known as arbitration.[23] Each arbitration round lasts about 125 microseconds.[23] During the round, the root node (device nearest the processor) sends a cycle start packet.[23] All nodes requiring data transfer respond, with the closest node winning.[23] After the node is finished, the remaining nodes take turns in order. This repeats until all the devices have used their portion of the 125 microseconds, with isochronous transfers having priority.[23]

Standards and versions

The previous standards and its three published amendments are now incorporated into a superseding standard, IEEE 1394-2008.[6] The features individually added give a good history on the development path.

FireWire 400 (IEEE 1394-1995)

The original release of IEEE 1394-1995[24] specified what is now known as FireWire 400. It can transfer data between devices at 100, 200, or 400 Mbit/s half-duplex[25] data rates (the actual transfer rates are 98.304, 196.608, and 393.216 Mbit/s, i.e., 12.288, 24.576 and 49.152 megabytes per second respectively).[5] These different transfer modes are commonly referred to as S100, S200, and S400.

Cable length is limited to 4.5 metres (14.8 ft), although up to 16 cables can be daisy chained using active repeaters; external hubs or internal hubs are often present in FireWire equipment. The S400 standard limits any configuration's maximum cable length to 72 metres (236 ft). The 6-conductor connector is commonly found on desktop computers, and can supply the connected device with power.

The 6-conductor powered connector, now referred to as an alpha connector, adds power output to support external devices. Typically a device can pull about 7 to 8 watts from the port; however, the voltage varies significantly from different devices.[26] Voltage is specified as unregulated and should nominally be about 25 volts (range 24 to 30). Apple's implementation on laptops is typically related to battery power and can be as low as 9 V.[26]

Improvements (IEEE 1394a-2000)

An amendment, IEEE 1394a, was released in 2000,[27] which clarified and improved the original specification. It added support for asynchronous streaming, quicker bus reconfiguration, packet concatenation, and a power-saving suspend mode.

IEEE 1394a offers a couple of advantages over the original IEEE 1394-1995. 1394a is capable of arbitration accelerations, allowing the bus to accelerate arbitration cycles to improve efficiency. It also allows for arbitrated short bus reset, in which a node can be added or dropped without causing a big drop in isochronous transmission.[21]

1394a also standardized the 4-conductor alpha connector developed by Sony and trademarked as "i.LINK", already widely in use on consumer devices such as camcorders, most PC laptops, a number of PC desktops, and other small FireWire devices. The 4-conductor connector is fully data-compatible with 6-conductor alpha interfaces but lacks power connectors.

FireWire 800 port
FireWire 800 port (center)

FireWire 800 (IEEE 1394b-2002)

A 9-conductor bilingual connector

IEEE 1394b-2002[28] introduced FireWire 800 (Apple's name for the 9-conductor "S800 bilingual" version of the IEEE 1394b standard). This specification and corresponding products allow a transfer rate of 786.432 Mbit/s full-duplex via a new encoding scheme termed beta mode. It is backwards compatible with the slower rates and 6-conductor alpha connectors of FireWire 400. However, while the IEEE 1394a and IEEE 1394b standards are compatible, FireWire 800's connector, referred to as a beta connector, is different from FireWire 400's alpha connectors, making legacy cables incompatible. A bilingual cable allows the connection of older devices to the newer port. In 2003, Apple was the first to introduce commercial products with the new connector.

The full IEEE 1394b specification supports data rates up to 3200 Mbit/s (i.e., 400 megabytes/s) over beta-mode or optical connections up to 100 metres (330 ft) in length. Standard Category 5e unshielded twisted pair supports 100 metres (330 ft) at S100. The original 1394 and 1394a standards used data/strobe (D/S) encoding (renamed to alpha mode) with the cables, while 1394b added a data encoding scheme called 8B10B referred to as beta mode.

Beta mode is based on 8B/10B (from Gigabit Ethernet, also used for many other protocols). 8B/10B encoding involves expanding an 8 bit data word into 10 bits, with the extra bits after the 5th and 8th data bits.[29] The partitioned data is sent through a Running Disparity calculator function.[29] The Running Disparity calculator attempts to keep the number of 1s transmitted equal to 0s,[30] thereby assuring a DC-balanced signal. Then, the different partitions are sent through a 5B/6B encoder for the 5 bit partition and a 3B/4B encoder for the 3 bit partition. This gives the packet the ability to have at least two 1s, ensuring synchronization of the PLL at the receiving end to the correct bit boundaries for reliable transfer.[30] An additional function of the coding scheme is to support the arbitration for bus access and general bus control. This is possible due to the "surplus" symbols afforded by the 8B/10B expansion. (While 8-bit symbols can encode a maximum of 256 values, 10-bit symbols permit the encoding of up to 1024.) Symbols invalid for the current state of the receiving PHY indicate data errors.

FireWire S800T (IEEE 1394c-2006)

IEEE 1394c-2006 was published on June 8, 2007.[31] It provided a major technical improvement, namely new port specification that provides 800 Mbit/s over the same 8P8C (Ethernet) connectors with Category 5e cable, which is specified in IEEE 802.3 clause 40 (gigabit Ethernet over copper twisted pair) along with a corresponding automatic negotiation that allows the same port to connect to either IEEE Std 1394 or IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) devices.

Though the potential for a combined Ethernet and FireWire 8P8C port is intriguing, as of November 2008, no products or chipsets include this capability.

FireWire S1600 and S3200

In December 2007, the 1394 Trade Association announced that products would be available before the end of 2008 using the S1600 and S3200 modes that, for the most part, had already been defined in 1394b and were further clarified in IEEE Std. 1394-2008.[6] The 1.572864 Gbit/s and 3.145728 Gbit/s devices use the same 9-conductor beta connectors as the existing FireWire 800 and are fully compatible with existing S400 and S800 devices. It competes with USB 3.0.[32]

S1600 (Symwave[33]) and S3200 (Dap Technology[34]) development units have been made, however because of FPGA technology DapTechnology targeted S1600 implementations first with S3200 not becoming commercially available until 2012.

Steve Jobs declared FireWire dead in 2008.[35] As of 2012, there were few S1600 devices released, with a Sony camera being the only notable user.[36]

Future enhancements (including P1394d)

A project named IEEE P1394d was formed by the IEEE on March 9, 2009 to add single mode fiber as an additional transport medium to FireWire.[37] The project was withdrawn in 2013.[38]

Other future iterations of FireWire were expected to increase speed to 6.4 Gbit/s and additional connectors such as the small multimedia interface.[39]

Operating system support

Full support for IEEE 1394a and 1394b is available for Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD,[40] Linux,[41][42] Apple Mac OS 8.6 through Mac OS 9,[43] Mac OS X, NetBSD, and Haiku.

In Windows XP, a degradation in performance of 1394 devices may have occurred with installation of Service Pack 2. This was resolved in Hotfix 885222[44] and in SP3. Some FireWire hardware manufacturers also provide custom device drivers that replace the Microsoft OHCI host adapter driver stack, enabling S800-capable devices to run at full 800 Mbit/s transfer rates on older versions of Windows (XP SP2 w/o Hotfix 885222) and Windows Vista. At the time of its release, Microsoft Windows Vista supported only 1394a, with assurances that 1394b support would come in the next service pack.[45] Service Pack 1 for Microsoft Windows Vista has since been released, however the addition of 1394b support is not mentioned anywhere in the release documentation.[46][47][48] The 1394 bus driver was rewritten for Windows 7 to provide support for higher speeds and alternative media.[49] No driver is supplied with Windows 8, 8.1 or 10 but can be downloaded and installed.

In Linux, support was originally provided by libraw1394 making direct communication between user space and IEEE 1394 buses.[50] Subsequently a new kernel driver stack, nicknamed JuJu, has been implemented.[51]

Cable TV system support

Under FCC Code 47 CFR 76.640 section 4, subsections 1 and 2, Cable TV providers (in the US, with digital systems) must, upon request of a customer, have provided a high-definition capable cable box with a functional FireWire interface. This applied only to customers leasing high-definition capable cable boxes from their cable provider after April 1, 2004.[52] The interface can be used to display or record Cable TV, including HDTV programming.[53] In June 2010, the FCC issued an order that permitted set-top boxes to include IP-based interfaces in place of FireWire.[54][55]

Comparison with USB

While both technologies provide similar end results, there are fundamental differences between USB and FireWire. USB requires the presence of a bus master, typically a PC, which connects point to point with the USB slave. This allows for simpler (and lower-cost) peripherals, at the cost of lowered functionality of the bus. Intelligent hubs are required to connect multiple USB devices to a single USB bus master. By contrast, FireWire is essentially a peer-to-peer network (where any device may serve as the host or client), allowing multiple devices to be connected on one bus.[56]

The FireWire host interface supports DMA and memory-mapped devices, allowing data transfers to happen without loading the host CPU with interrupts and buffer-copy operations.[7][57] Additionally, FireWire features two data buses for each segment of the bus network, whereas, until USB 3.0, USB featured only one. This means that FireWire can have communication in both directions at the same time (full-duplex), whereas USB communication prior to 3.0 can only occur in one direction at any one time (half-duplex).

While USB 2.0 expanded into the fully backwards-compatible USB 3.0 and 3.1 (using the same main connector type), FireWire used a different connector between 400 and 800 implementations.

Common applications

Consumer automobiles

IDB-1394 Customer Convenience Port (CCP) was the automotive version of the 1394 standard.[58]

Consumer audio and video

IEEE 1394 was the High-Definition Audio-Video Network Alliance (HANA) standard connection interface for A/V (audio/visual) component communication and control.[59] HANA was dissolved in September 2009 and the 1394 Trade Association assumed control of all HANA-generated intellectual property.

Military and aerospace vehicles

SAE Aerospace standard AS5643 originally released in 2004 and reaffirmed in 2013 establishes IEEE-1394 standards as a military and aerospace databus network in those vehicles. AS5643 is utilized by several large programs, including the F-35 Lightning II, the X-47B UCAV aircraft, AGM-154 weapon and JPSS-1 polar satellite for NOAA. AS5643 combines existing 1394-2008 features like looped topology with additional features like transformer isolation and time synchronization, to create deterministic double and triple fault-tolerant data bus networks.[60][61][62]

General networking

FireWire can be used for ad-hoc (terminals only, no routers except where a FireWire hub is used) computer networks. Specifically, RFC 2734 specifies how to run IPv4 over the FireWire interface, and RFC 3146 specifies how to run IPv6.

Mac OS X, Linux, and FreeBSD include support for networking over FireWire.[63] Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me,[64] Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 include native support for IEEE 1394 networking.[65] Windows 2000 does not have native support but may work with third party drivers. A network can be set up between two computers using a single standard FireWire cable, or by multiple computers through use of a hub. This is similar to Ethernet networks with the major differences being transfer speed, conductor length, and the fact that standard FireWire cables can be used for point-to-point communication.

On December 4, 2004, Microsoft announced that it would discontinue support for IP networking over the FireWire interface in all future versions of Microsoft Windows.[66] Consequently, support for this feature is absent from Windows Vista and later Windows releases.[67][68] Microsoft rewrote their 1394 driver in Windows 7[69] but networking support for FireWire is not present. Unibrain offers free FireWire networking drivers for Windows called ubCore,[70] which support Windows Vista and later versions.

Some models of the PlayStation 2 console had an i.LINK-branded 1394 connector. This was used for networking until the release of an Ethernet adapter late in the console's lifespan, but very few software titles supported the feature.


IIDC (Instrumentation & Industrial Digital Camera) is the FireWire data format standard for live video, and is used by Apple's iSight A/V camera. The system was designed for machine vision systems[71] but is also used for other computer vision applications and for some webcams. Although they are easily confused since they both run over FireWire, IIDC is different from, and incompatible with, the ubiquitous AV/C (Audio Video Control) used to control camcorders and other consumer video devices.[72]


Digital Video (DV) is a standard protocol used by some digital camcorders. All DV cameras that recorded to tape media had a FireWire interface (usually a 4-conductor). All DV ports on camcorders only operate at the slower 100 Mbit/s speed of FireWire. This presents operational issues if the camcorder is daisy chained from a faster S400 device or via a common hub because any segment of a FireWire network cannot support multiple speed communication.[73]

Labelling of the port varied by manufacturer, with Sony using either its i.LINK trademark or the letters 'DV'. Many digital video recorders have a "DV-input" FireWire connector (usually an alpha connector) that can be used to record video directly from a DV camcorder ("computer-free"). The protocol also accommodates remote control (play, rewind, etc.) of connected devices, and can stream time code from a camera.

USB is unsuitable for transfer of the video data from tape because tape by its very nature does not support variable data rates. USB relies heavily on processor support and this was not guaranteed to service the USB port in time. The later move away from tape towards solid state memory or disc media (e.g., SD Cards, optical disks or hard drives) has facilitated moving to USB transfer because file based data can be moved in segments as required.

Frame grabbers

IEEE 1394 interface is commonly found in frame grabbers, devices that capture and digitize an analog video signal; however, IEEE 1394 is facing competition from the Gigabit Ethernet interface (citing speed and availability issues).[74]

iPod and iPhone synchronization and charging

iPods released prior to the iPod with Dock Connector used IEEE 1394a ports for syncing music and charging, but in 2003, the FireWire port in iPods was succeeded by Apple's dock connector and IEEE 1394 to 30-pin connector cables were made. Apple Inc. dropped support for FireWire cables starting with iPod nano (4th Generation),[75] iPod touch (2nd Generation), and iPhone 3G in favor of USB cables.

Security issues

Devices on a FireWire bus can communicate by direct memory access (DMA), where a device can use hardware to map internal memory to FireWire's "Physical Memory Space". The SBP-2 (Serial Bus Protocol 2) used by FireWire disk drives uses this capability to minimize interrupts and buffer copies. In SBP-2, the initiator (controlling device) sends a request by remotely writing a command into a specified area of the target's FireWire address space. This command usually includes buffer addresses in the initiator's FireWire Physical Address Space, which the target is supposed to use for moving I/O data to and from the initiator.[76]

On many implementations, particularly those like PCs and Macs using the popular OHCI, the mapping between the FireWire "Physical Memory Space" and device physical memory is done in hardware, without operating system intervention. While this enables high-speed and low-latency communication between data sources and sinks without unnecessary copying (such as between a video camera and a software video recording application, or between a disk drive and the application buffers), this can also be a security or media rights-restriction risk if untrustworthy devices are attached to the bus and initiate a DMA attack. One of the applications known to exploit this to gain unauthorized access to running Windows, Mac OS and Linux computers is the spyware FinFireWire.[77] For this reason, high-security installations typically either use newer machines that map a virtual memory space to the FireWire "Physical Memory Space" (such as a Power Mac G5, or any Sun workstation), disable relevant drivers at operating system level,[78] disable the OHCI hardware mapping between FireWire and device memory, physically disable the entire FireWire interface, or opt to not use FireWire or other hardware like PCMCIA, PC Card, ExpressCard or Thunderbolt, which expose DMA to external components.

An unsecured FireWire interface can be used to debug a machine whose operating system has crashed, and in some systems for remote-console operations. Windows natively supports this scenario of kernel debugging,[79] although newer Windows Insider Preview builds no longer include the ability out of the box.[80] On FreeBSD, the dcons driver provides both, using gdb as debugger. Under Linux, firescope[81] and fireproxy[82] exist.

See also


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Further reading

External links

Audio and video interfaces and connectors

Audio connectors and video connectors are electrical or optical connectors for carrying audio and video signals. Audio interfaces and video interfaces define physical parameters and interpretation of signals. For digital audio and digital video, this can be thought of as defining the physical layer, data link layer, and most or all of the application layer. For analog audio and analog video these functions are all represented in a single signal specification like NTSC or the direct speaker-driving signal of analog audio. Physical characteristics of the electrical or optical equipment includes the types and numbers of wires required, voltages, frequencies, optical intensity, and the physical design of the connectors. Any data link layer details define how application data is encapsulated (for example for synchronization or error-correction). Application layer details define the actual audio or video format being transmitted, often incorporating a codecs not specific to the interface, such as PCM, MPEG-2, or the DTS Coherent Acoustics codec. In some cases, the application layer is left open; for example, HDMI contains an Ethernet channel for general data transmission.

Some types of connectors are used by multiple hardware interfaces; for example, RCA connectors are defined both by the composite video and component video interfaces, but DVI is the only interface that uses the DVI connector. This means that in some cases not all components with physically compatible connectors will actually work together.

Some of these connectors, and other types of connectors, are also used at radio frequency (RF) to connect a radio or television receiver to an antenna or to a cable system; RF connector applications are not further described here. Analog A/V connectors often use shielded cables to inhibit radio frequency interference (RFI) and noise.

For efficiency and simplicity, the same codec or signal convention is used by the storage medium. For example, VHS tapes can store a magnetic representation of an NTSC signal, and the specification for Blu-ray Discs incorporates PCM, MPEG-2, and DTS. Some playback devices can re-encode audio or video so that the format used for storage does not have to be the same as the format transmitted over the A/V interface (which is helpful if a projector or monitor cannot handle a newer codec).

Canon EOS D2000

The Canon EOS D2000 (a Canon branded Kodak DCS 520) is a 2-megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera developed by Kodak on a Canon EOS-1N body. It was released in March 1998. It features a CCD sensor and can shoot at 3.5 frames per second. Many enthusiasts regard the D2000 as Canon's first truly usable Digital SLR. It was released in tandem with the Canon EOS D6000 (a rebranded Kodak DCS 560), a 6-megapixel model.

Like its predecessor, the EOS DCS 3, the D2000 uses an EOS-1N camera body with a Kodak digital back. However, the digital back was completely redesigned, being better integrated into the body, using a higher-resolution APS-C sized sensor, adding a second PCMCIA card slot, replacing the SCSI interface with an IEEE 1394 interface, and adding a color screen for viewing images that had been taken, a feature that was lacking from the DCS 3 and the higher-end DCS 1. Other incremental improvements such as a higher shooting rate and a swappable, rechargeable battery pack were included.

The D2000 was the last of the Kodak / Canon press cameras. It was sold by Kodak until at least as late as 2001. Canon's first home-grown professional digital SLR, the Canon EOS-1D, was released later the same year.

Conference XP

ConferenceXP is an open source videoconferencing platform designed to address the needs of academic distance learning / multi-institutional instruction and advanced collaboration scenarios. It is intended to be both a tool for end users and a platform for developing solutions for specific vertical applications as well as distributed applications. It supports advanced capabilities including: handwriting and 'ink' input through Tablet PCs; high definition video sharing up to 1080p; and desktop conferencing via USB and IEEE 1394 cameras. ConferenceXP was originally conceived in 2001 by the Microsoft Research Learning Science and Technology team and released under a shared source license.

In July 2007 Microsoft Research External Research and Programs announced the funding of the Center for Collaborative Technologies at the University of Washington for a duration of 3 years. The primary mission of the Center was to continue development and deployment support for ConferenceXP.

In December 2010, both Microsoft and the University of Washington assigned rights to the OuterCurve Foundation, and a new Open-source license was applied, the Apache License version 2.0. After the transition to open source, the University of Washington continues to support the main ConferenceXP Website, and the source code repository for the project, and will act as central point of contact for contributors to the project.

Continuum Fingerboard

The Continuum Fingerboard or Haken Continuum is a music performance controller and synthesizer developed by Lippold Haken, a professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois, and sold by Haken Audio, located in Champaign, Illinois.The Continuum Fingerboard was initially developed from 1983 to 1998 at the CERL Sound Group at the University of Illinois, to control sound-producing algorithms on the Platypus audio signal processor and the Kyma/Capybara workstation.In 1999, the first Continuum Fingerboard was commercially sold. Until 2008, the Continuum Fingerboard provided IEEE-1394 (FireWire) connections to control a Kyma sound design workstation, as well as MIDI connections to control a MIDI synthesizer module. More recently, the Continuum Fingerboard generates audio directly in addition to providing MIDI connections for MIDI modules, software synthesizers, and Kyma (the IEEE-1394 connection that was present on earlier models has been removed). An external control voltage generator permits control of analog modular synthesizers.


ExpressCard, initially called NEWCARD, is an interface to connect peripheral devices to a computer, usually a laptop computer. The ExpressCard technical standard specifies the design of slots built into the computer and of expansion cards to insert in the slots. The cards contain electronic circuits and sometimes connectors for external devices. The ExpressCard standard replaces the PC Card (also known as PCMCIA) standards.

ExpressCards can connect a variety of devices to a computer including mobile broadband modems (sometimes called connect cards), IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connectors, USB connectors, Ethernet network ports, Serial ATA storage devices, solid-state drives, external enclosures for desktop-size PCI Express graphics cards and other peripheral devices, wireless network interface controllers (NIC), TV tuner cards, Common Access Card (CAC) readers, and sound cards.

Frame grabber

A frame grabber is an electronic device that captures (i.e., "grabs") individual, digital still frames from an analog video signal or a digital video stream. It is usually employed as a component of a computer vision system, in which video frames are captured in digital form and then displayed, stored, transmitted, analyzed, or combinations of these.

Historically, frame grabber expansion cards were the predominant way to interface cameras to PCs. Other interface methods have emerged since then, with frame grabbers (and in some cases, cameras with built-in frame grabbers) connecting to computers via interfaces such as USB, Ethernet and IEEE 1394 ("FireWire"). Early frame grabbers typically had only enough memory to store a single digitized video frame, whereas many modern frame grabbers can store multiple frames.

Modern frame grabbers often are able to perform functions beyond capturing a single video input. For example, some devices capture audio in addition to video, and some devices provide, and concurrently capture frames from multiple video inputs. Other operations may be performed as well, such as deinterlacing, text or graphics overlay, image transformations (e.g., resizing, rotation, mirroring), and conversion to JPEG or other compressed image formats. To satisfy the technological demands of applications such as radar acquisition, manufacturing and remote guidance, some frame grabbers can capture images at high frame rates, high resolutions, or both.

HD Tach

HD Tach is a software program for Microsoft Windows (2000 or XP) that tests and graphs the sequential read, random access and interface burst speeds of attached storage devices (hard drive, flash drive, removable drive etc.). Drive technologies such as SCSI, IDE/ATA, IEEE 1394, USB, SATA and RAID are supported.

A prominent feature of the software was an included library of drive benchmarks, as well as the option to save your own drive's benchmarks locally or submit them to an online database. The company's website also had a forum with over 2000 user posts. On December 5, 2011, citing the lack of time to devote to the project, Simpli Software formally announced on its website that HD Tach had reached end-of-life and was no longer being supported. The domain has since expired.

The latest version of this application ( is not fully compatible with Windows Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8. However, HD Tach works in these operating systems by running it in Windows XP SP2 or SP3 compatibility mode. HD Tach 2.70 is the last version to work on Windows NT 4.0.

Host controller interface (USB, Firewire)

A host controller interface (HCI) is a register-level interface that enables a host controller for USB or IEEE 1394 hardware to communicate with a host controller driver in software. The driver software is typically provided with an operating system of a personal computer, but may also be implemented by application-specific devices such as a microcontroller.

On the expansion card or motherboard controller, this involves much custom logic, with digital logic engines in the motherboard's controller chip, plus analog circuitry managing the high-speed differential signals. On the software side, it requires a device driver (called a Host Controller Driver, or HCD).

IEC 61883

IEC 61883 Consumer Audio/Video Equipment - Digital Interface is a technical standard for a digital interface that is used by IEEE 1394 (FireWire) devices for audio and video equipment. The standard for these devices is maintained by the International Electrotechnical Commission. The first part was released in 1998; the current third edition is dated 2008.

Isochronous timing

A sequence of events is isochronous if the events occur regularly, or at equal time intervals. The term isochronous is used in several technical contexts, but usually refers to the primary subject maintaining a constant period or interval (the reciprocal of frequency), despite variations in other measurable factors in the same system. Isochronous timing is a characteristic of a repeating event whereas synchronous timing refers to the relationship between two or more events.

In dynamical systems theory, an oscillator is called isochronous if its frequency is independent of its amplitude.

In horology, a mechanical clock or watch is isochronous if it runs at the same rate regardless of changes in its drive force, so that it keeps correct time as its mainspring unwinds or chain length varies. Isochrony is important in timekeeping devices.

In electrical power generation, isochronous means that the frequency of the electricity generated is constant under varying load; there is zero generator droop. (See Synchronization (alternating current).)

In telecommunications, an isochronous signal is one where the time interval separating any two corresponding transitions is equal to the unit interval or to a multiple of the unit interval; but phase is arbitrary and potentially varying.

The term is also used in data transmission to describe cases in which corresponding significant instants of two or more sequential signals have a constant phase relationship.

Isochronous burst transmission is used when the information-bearer channel rate is higher than the input data signaling rate.

In the Universal Serial Bus used in computers, isochronous is one of the four data flow types for USB devices (the others being Control, Interrupt and Bulk). It is commonly used for streaming data types such as video or audio sources. Similarly, the IEEE 1394 interface standard, commonly called Firewire, includes support for isochronous streams of audio and video at known constant rates.

In particle accelerators an isochronous cyclotron is a cyclotron where the field strength increases with radius to compensate for relativistic increase in mass with speed.

An isochrone is a contour line of equal time, for instance, in geological layers, tree rings or wave fronts. An isochrone map or diagram shows such contours.

In linguistics, isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.

In neurology, isochronic tones are regular beats of a single tone used for brainwave entrainment.

LIO (SCSI target)

In computing, Linux-IO (LIO) Target is an open-source implementation of the SCSI target that has become the standard one included in the Linux kernel. Internally, LIO does not initiate sessions, but instead provides one or more Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs), waits for SCSI commands from a SCSI initiator, and performs required input/output data transfers. LIO supports common storage fabrics, including FCoE, Fibre Channel, IEEE 1394, iSCSI, iSCSI Extensions for RDMA (iSER), SCSI RDMA Protocol (SRP) and USB. It is included in most Linux distributions; native support for LIO in QEMU/KVM, libvirt, and OpenStack makes LIO also a storage option for cloud deployments.LIO is maintained by Datera, Inc., a Silicon Valley vendor of storage systems and software. On January 15, 2011, LIO SCSI target engine was merged into the Linux kernel mainline, in kernel version 2.6.38, which was released on March 14, 2011. Additional fabric modules have been merged into subsequent Linux releases.

A competing generic SCSI target module for Linux is SCST. For the narrower purpose providing a Linux iSCSI target, the older IET and STGT modules also enjoy industry support.

List of network protocol stacks

This is a list of protocol stack architectures. A protocol stack is a suite of complementary communications protocols in a computer network or a computer bus system.

M6 (cipher)

In cryptography, M6 is a block cipher proposed by Hitachi in 1997 for use in the IEEE 1394 FireWire standard. The design allows some freedom in choosing a few of the cipher's operations, so M6 is considered a family of ciphers.

The algorithm operates on blocks of 64 bits using a 10-round Feistel network

structure. The key size is 40 bits by default, but can be up to 64 bits. The key schedule is very simple, producing two 32-bit subkeys: the high 32 bits of the key, and the sum mod 232 of this and the low 32 bits.

Because its round function is based on rotation and addition, M6 was one of the first ciphers

attacked by mod n cryptanalysis. Mod 5, about 100 known plaintexts suffice to distinguish the output from a pseudorandom permutation. Mod 257, information about the secret key itself is revealed. One known plaintext reduces the complexity of a brute force attack to about 235 trial encryptions; "a few dozen" known plaintexts lowers this number to about 231. Due to its simple key schedule, M6 is also vulnerable to a slide attack, which requires more known plaintext but less computation.


MPEG LA, LLC is a firm based in Denver, Colorado that licenses patent pools covering essential patents required

for use of the MPEG-2, MPEG-4 Visual (Part 2), IEEE 1394, VC-1, ATSC, MVC, MPEG-2 Systems, AVC/H.264 and HEVC standards.

MPEG LA is not affiliated with MPEG, the Moving Picture Experts Group.

Plug and play

In computing, a plug and play (PnP) device or computer bus, is one with a specification that facilitates the discovery of a hardware component in a system without the need for physical device configuration or user intervention in resolving resource conflicts. The term "plug and play" has since been expanded to a wide variety of applications to which the same lack of user setup applies.Expansion devices are controlled and exchange data with the host system through defined memory or I/O space port addresses, direct memory access channels, interrupt request lines and other mechanisms, which must be uniquely associated with a particular device to operate. Some computers provided unique combinations of these resources to each slot of a motherboard or backplane. Other designs provided all resources to all slots, and each peripheral device had its own address decoding for the registers or memory blocks it needed to communicate with the host system. Since fixed assignments made expansion of a system difficult, devices used several manual methods for assigning addresses and other resources, such as hard-wired jumpers, pins that could be connected with wire or removable straps, or switches that could be set for particular addresses. As microprocessors made mass-market computers affordable, software configuration of I/O devices was advantageous to allow installation by non-specialist users. Early systems for software configuration of devices included the MSX standard, NuBus, Amiga Autoconfig, and IBM Microchannel. Initially all expansion cards for the IBM PC required physical selection of I/O configuration on the board with jumper straps or DIP switches, but increasingly ISA bus devices were arranged for software configuration. By 1995, Microsoft Windows included a comprehensive method of enumerating hardware at boot time and allocating resources, which was called the "Plug and Play" standard.Plug and play devices can have resources allocated at boot-time only, or may be hotplug systems such as USB and IEEE 1394 (FireWire).

Printer Working Group

The Printer Working Group charter is to develop standards that make printers, operating systems and applications work better.

In 1991, a consortium of printer and network manufacturers (Insight Development, Intel, LAN Systems, Lexmark and Texas Instruments) formed the Network Printing Alliance (NPA). Later members included QMS, Kyocera, GENICOM, Okidata, Unisys, Canon, IBM, Kodak, Adaptec, Tektronix, Digital Products, Pennant Systems, Extended Systems and NEC.

In 1993, the NPA was reformed as the Printer Working Group (PWG) and added HP, Compaq, Microsoft, Xerox, Xircom, Farpoint Communications, Zenith, Castelle, Fujitsu, 3M, Cirrus Logic, Amp, National Semiconductor and Ricoh.

In September 1999, the IEEE formalized an alliance with PWG as part of the IEEE Industry Standards and Technology Organization (IEEE-ISTO).

The PWG has supported the development of:

IEEE 1284 parallel port specification

IEEE 1284.1 TIPSI (Transport Independent Printer Systems Interface)

P1394 — printing protocols for IEEE 1394

IETF MIBs in the PRINTMIB working group

IETF Internet Printing Protocol in the IPP working group

Sony Vaio FW series

Sony Vaio FW is a discontinued series of notebook computers which were the first laptops ever to have a 1080p 16.4" 16:9 widescreen LCD. Higher end models in the series can support an integral Blu-ray Disc reader or writer. The laptop weighed 3.1 kg. The battery lasts up to 2 hours. In June 2009, the ATI Mobility Radeon HD 3650 was replaced by the ATI Mobility Radeon HD 4650 with the release of the FW 4xx series. Additionally, Sony also released a special model of this series apart from the signature series models (Model:VGN-FW590FFD). This model had a futuristic themed cover and came equipped with moderately high-end specifications for $1069.99 U.S. dollars. The VGN-FW590FFD model was also only available for purchase through Sony Style's website.

Processor: Intel Core 2 Duo

Color: Black, Chocolate Brown, Nebula, Silver

Memory: 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 GB of DDR2 SDRAM @ 800 MHz

Hard Drive: 160, 250, 320, 400, or 500 GB SATA Hard Disk Drive @ 5400 RPM, 320 GB SATA Hard Disk Drive @ 7,200 RPM, 128 GB Solid State Drive

Optical Disc Drive: CD/DVD reader/writer, Blu-ray Disc reader, or Blu-ray Disc reader/writer

Graphics: ATI Mobility Radeon HD 3470 w/256 MB of vRAM, ATI Mobility Radeon HD 4650 w/512 MB of vRAM, or ATI Mobility Radeon HD 4650 w/1 GB of vRAM

Display: 16.4" XBRITE-ECO w/1600×900 resolution, or 16.4" HiColor-FullHD w/1920×1080 resolution, or 16.4" XBRITE-FullHD w/1920×1080 resolution

Extras: SD and magic gate pro card reader, 3 USB 2.0 slots, i.LINK IEEE 1394 slot and a HDMI cable slot

Universal Audio Architecture

Universal Audio Architecture (UAA) is an initiative unveiled in 2002 by Microsoft to standardize the hardware and class driver architecture for audio devices in modern Microsoft Windows operating systems. Three classes of audio devices are supported by default: USB, IEEE 1394 (Firewire), and Intel High Definition Audio, which supports PCI and PCI Express.

Starting with Windows Vista, Microsoft requires all computer and audio device manufacturers to support Universal Audio Architecture in order to pass Windows Logo.


XDCAM is a series of products for digital recording using random access solid-state memory media, introduced by Sony in 2003. Four different product lines – the XDCAM SD, XDCAM HD, XDCAM EX and XDCAM HD422 – differ in types of encoder used, frame size, container type and in recording media.

None of the later products have made earlier product lines obsolete. Sony maintains that different formats within XDCAM family have been designed to meet different applications and budget constraints.The XDCAM range includes cameras and decks which act as drop-in replacements for traditional VTRs allowing XDCAM discs to be used within a traditional videotape-based workflow. These decks can also serve as random access computer hard drives for easy import of the video data files into non-linear editing systems (NLE) via FireWire (IEEE 1394) and Ethernet.

In September 2008, JVC announced its alliance with Sony to support the XDCAM EX format.

In August 2009, Convergent Design began shipping the nanoFlash Portable Recorder, which uses the Sony XDCAM HD422 codec.

In November 2012, VITEC began shipping the FS-T2001 Portable Recorder, which uses Sony XDCAM HD422 and XDCAM HD codec.

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