IEC 62264 consists of the following parts detailed in separate IEC 62264 standard documents:
ANSI/ISA-95, or ISA-95 as it is more commonly referred, is an international standard from the International Society of Automation for developing an automated interface between enterprise and control systems. This standard has been developed for global manufacturers. It was developed to be applied in all industries, and in all sorts of processes, like batch processes, continuous and repetitive processes.
The objectives of ISA-95 are to provide consistent terminology that is a foundation for supplier and manufacturer communications, provide consistent information models, and to provide consistent operations models which is a foundation for clarifying application functionality and how information is to be used.
There are 5 parts of the ISA-95 standard.
ANSI/ISA-95.00.01-2000, Enterprise-Control System Integration Part 1: Models and Terminology consists of standard terminology and object models, which can be used to decide which information should be exchanged.
The models help define boundaries between the enterprise systems and the control systems. They help address questions like which tasks can be executed by which function and what information must be exchanged between applications. Here is a graphical representation of the Functional enterprise-control model.
Scheduling and control (Purdue)
Functional Data Flow Model
Operations Activity Models
Operations Elements: PO, MO, QO, IO
Operations Data Flow Model
Operations FlowsANSI/ISA-95.00.02-2001, Enterprise-Control System Integration Part 2: Object Model Attributes consists of attributes for every object that is defined in part 1. The objects and attributes of Part 2 can be used for the exchange of information between different systems, but these objects and attributes can also be used as the basis for relational databases.
ANSI/ISA-95.00.03-2005, Enterprise-Control System Integration, Part 3: Models of Manufacturing Operations Management focuses on the functions and activities at level 3 (Production / MES layer). It provides guidelines for describing and comparing the production levels of different sites in a standardized way.
ISA-95.04 Object Models & Attributes Part 4 of ISA-95: "Object models and attributes for Manufacturing Operations Management"
The SP95 committee is yet developing part 4 of ISA-95, which is entitled "Object Models and Attributes of Manufacturing Operations Management". This technical specification defines object models that determine which information is exchanged between MES activities (which are defined in part 3 by ISA-95). The models and attributes from part 4 are the basis for the design and the implementation of interface standards and make sure of a flexible lapse of the cooperation and information-exchange between the different MES activities.
ISA-95.05 B2M Transactions Part 5 of ISA-95: "Business to manufacturing transactions" Also part 5 of ISA-95 is yet in development. This technical specification defines operation between office and production automations-systems, which can be used together with the object models out part 1 & 2. The operations connect and organise the production objects and activities that are defined through earlier parts of the standard. Such operations take place on all levels within a business, but the focus of this technical specification lies on the interface between enterprise- and control systems. On the basis of models, the operation will be described and becomes the operation processing logically explained.
Within production areas activities are executed and information is passed back and forth. The standard provides reference models for production activities, quality activities, maintenance activities and inventory activities.B2MML
B2MML or Business To Manufacturing Markup Language is an XML implementation of the ANSI/ISA-95 family of standards (ISA-95), known internationally as IEC/ISO 62264. B2MML consists of a set of XML schemas written using the World Wide Web Consortium's XML Schema language (XSD) that implement the data models in the ISA-95 standard.
B2MML is meant to be a common data definition to link ERP and supply chain management systems with manufacturing systems such as Industrial Control Systems and Manufacturing Execution Systems.
B2MML is published by the Manufacturing Enterprise Solutions Association (MESA).Batch production
Batch production is a technique used in manufacturing, in which the object in question is created stage by stage over a series of workstations, and different batches of products are made. Together with job production (one-off production) and mass production (flow production or continuous production) it is one of the three main production methods.Batch production is most common in bakeries and in the manufacture of sports shoes, pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), purifying water, inks, paints and adhesives. In the manufacture of inks and paints, a technique called a colour-run is used. A colour-run is where one manufactures the lightest colour first, such as light yellow followed by the next increasingly darker colour such as orange, then red and so on until reaching black and then starts over again.Continuous production
Continuous production is a flow production method used to manufacture, produce, or process materials without interruption. Continuous production is called a continuous process or a continuous flow process because the materials, either dry bulk or fluids that are being processed are continuously in motion, undergoing chemical reactions or subject to mechanical or heat treatment. Continuous processing is contrasted with batch production.
Continuous usually means operating 24 hours per day, seven days per week with infrequent maintenance shutdowns, such as semi-annual or annual. Some chemical plants can operate for more than one or two years without a shutdown. Blast furnaces can run four to ten years without stopping.Distributed control system
A distributed control system (DCS) is a computerised control system for a process or plant usually with a large number of control loops, in which autonomous controllers are distributed throughout the system, but there is central operator supervisory control. This is in contrast to systems that use centralized controllers; either discrete controllers located at a central control room or within a central computer. The DCS concept increases reliability and reduces installation costs by localising control functions near the process plant, with remote monitoring and supervision.
Distributed control systems first emerged in large, high value, safety critical process industries, and were attractive because the DCS manufacturer would supply both the local control level and central supervisory equipment as an integrated package, thus reducing design integration risk. Today the functionality of SCADA and DCS systems are very similar, but DCS tends to be used on large continuous process plants where high reliability and security is important, and the control room is not geographically remote.Enterprise control
Enterprise control is the ability to combine control, intelligence and process management to enable business optimization that is inclusive of business and production operations. It combines the strength of both business processes and production operations processes. It is the deliberate act of synchronizing business strategy with operational execution in real-time to enable closed loop business control across an enterprise.Fiberize
Fiberization is a manufacturing process that has been used to make objects such as insulation, asphalt, and mineral wood. Optical fiber wiring is created using this method as well.ISA-88
S88, shorthand for ANSI/ISA-88, is a standard addressing batch process control. It is a design philosophy for describing equipment, and procedures. It is not a standard for software, it is equally applicable to manual processes. It was approved by the ISA in 1995 and updated in 2010. Its original version was adopted by the IEC in 1997 as IEC 61512-1.
The current parts of the S88 standard include:
ANSI/ISA-88.01-2010 Batch Control Part 1: Models and terminology
ANSI/ISA-88.00.02-2001 Batch Control Part 2: Data structures and guidelines for languages
ANSI/ISA-88.00.03-2003 Batch Control Part 3: General and site recipe models and representation
ANSI/ISA-88.00.04-2006 Batch Control Part 4: Batch Production Records
ISA-TR88.00.02-2008 Machine and Unit States: An Implementation Example of ISA-88S88 provides a consistent set of standards and terminology for batch control and defines the physical model, procedures, and recipes. The standard sought to address the following problems: lack of a universal model for batch control, difficulty in communicating user requirement, integration among batch automation suppliers, difficulty in batch control configuration.
The standard defines a process model which consists of a process which consists of an ordered set of process stages which consist of an ordered set of process operations which consist of an ordered set of process actions.
The physical model begins with the enterprise which may contain a site which may contain areas which may contain process cells which must contain a unit which may contain equipment modules which may contain control modules. Some of these levels may be excluded, but not the Unit.
The procedural control model consists of recipe procedures which consist of an ordered set of unit procedures which consist of an ordered set of operations which consist of an ordered set of phases. Some of these levels may be excluded.
Recipes can have the following types: general, site, master, control. The contents of the recipe include: header, formula, equipment requirements, procedure, and other information required to make the recipe.Job production
Job production, sometimes called jobbing or one-off production, involves producing custom work, such as a one-off product for a specific customer or a small batch of work in quantities usually less than those of mass-market products. Job production comprises of an operator or group of operators to work on a single job and complete it before proceeding to the next similar or different job. Together with batch production and mass production (flow production) it is one of the three main production methods.Job production can be classical craft production by small firms (making railings for a specific house, building/repairing a computer for a specific customer, making flower arrangements for a specific wedding etc.), but large firms use job production, too, and the products of job production are often interchangeable, such as machined parts made by a job shop. Examples include:
Designing and implementing an advertising campaign
Auditing the accounts of a large public limited company
Building a new factory
Installing machinery in a factory
Machining a batch of parts per a CAD drawing supplied by a customer
Building the Golden Gate bridgeFabrication shops and machine shops whose work is primarily of the job production type are often called job shops. The associated people or corporations are sometimes called jobbers.
Job production is, in essence, manufacturing on a contract basis, and thus it forms a subset of the larger field of contract manufacturing. But the latter field also includes, in addition to jobbing, a higher level of outsourcing in which a product-line-owning company entrusts its entire production to a contractor, rather than just outsourcing parts of it.Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, furniture, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users and consumers.
Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.
Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead.
The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing, Pfizer, and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Yamaha, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors.PackML
PackML (Packaging Machine Language) is an industry technical standard for the control of packaging machines, as an aspect of industrial automation.
The Manufacturing Automation Industry is broken down into three main categories; Continuous control, Batch control and Discrete control. The batch control industry and the packaging industry (discrete control of packaging machines) are the focus of a set of standards and guidelines that are similar but have differences driven by equipment functionality.The primary objective of PackML is to bring a common “look and feel” and operational consistency to all machines that make up a Packing Line (note: can be used for other types of discrete process) PackML provides:
Standard defined machine states and operational flow
Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) data
Root Cause Analysis (RCA) data
Flexible recipe schemes and common SCADA or MES inputsThese provisions are enabled by the “Line Types” definitions (“Guidelines for Packaging Machinery Automation v3.1 available on the OMAC website) created by the OMAC Packaging Workgroup, and leveraging the ISA-88 State Model concepts. PackML definitions are intended to make machines more serviceable and easier to redeploy. PackML concepts are also finding application in the other discrete control environments such as converting, assembled products, machine tools, and robotics.In an effort to gain industry acceptance Procter & Gamble (P&G) developed a “PackML Implementation Guide” with a software template & help files that was provided royalty-free, non-exclusive licensed to OMAC. This “OMAC Implementation Guide” is available for download from the OMAC website. The guide is an implementation of ISA-TR88.00.02, borrows concepts from ISA-S88 Part 1 and embraces the ISA-S88 Part 5 draft concepts of the hierarchical model (Machine/Unit, Station/Equipment Module, Control Device/Control Module). The OMAC Implementation Guide provides PackML implementation guidelines, data structures and a minimum set of recommended PackTags (i.e. those typically needed for commercial MES packages). The implementation guideline provides a method to deliver State Control, Machine-to-Machine Communications and Machine-to-Information System Communications.
The PackML Implementation Guide is software (ladder-based) and is oriented towards Rockwell control systems. It is structured such that PackML “States” can directly drive “S88 Part 5 Equipment & Control Modules”. Many control suppliers (including Siemens, Bosch, Mitsubishi, B&R, ELAU, Beckhoff and others) have developed their own PackML software template. As control suppliers provide their implementations, links are posted on the OMAC web site.Process Window Index
Process Window Index (PWI) is a statistical measure that quantifies the robustness of a manufacturing process, e.g. one which involves heating and cooling, known as a thermal process. In manufacturing industry, PWI values are used to calibrate the heating and cooling of soldering jobs (known as a thermal profile) while baked in a reflow oven.
PWI measures how well a process fits into a user-defined process limit known as the specification limit. The specification limit is the tolerance allowed for the process and may be statistically determined. Industrially, these specification limits are known as the process window, and values that a plotted inside or outside this window are known as the process window index.
Using PWI values, processes can be accurately measured, analyzed, compared, and tracked at the same level of statistical process control and quality control available to other manufacturing processes.Programmable logic controller
A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.
PLCs were first developed in the automobile manufacturing industry to provide flexible, ruggedized and easily programmable controllers to replace hard-wired relays, timers and sequencers. Since then, they have been widely adopted as high-reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments. A PLC is an example of a "hard" real-time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result.Quality control system for paper, board and tissue machines
A quality control system (QCS) refers to a system used to measure and control the quality of moving sheet processes on-line as in the paper produced by a paper machine. Generally, a control system is concerned with measurement and control of one or multiple properties in time in a single dimension. A QCS is designed to continuously measure and control the material properties of the moving sheet in two dimensions: in the machine direction (MD) and the cross-machine direction (CD). The ultimate goal is maintaining a good and homogenous quality and meeting users' economic goals. A basic quality measurement system generally includes basis weight and moisture profile measurements and in addition average basis weight of the paper web and moisture control related to these variables. Caliper is also one of the basic measurements.Other commonly used continuous measurements include: ash content, color, brightness, smoothness and gloss, coat weight, formation], porosity, fiber orientation, and surface properties (topography).QCS is used in paper machines, board machines, tissue machines, pulp drying machines, and other plastic or metal film processes
In modern systems QCS applications can be embedded to distributed control systems.SCADA
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is a control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces for high-level process supervisory management, but uses other peripheral devices such as programmable logic controller (PLC) and discrete PID controllers to interface with the process plant or machinery.
The use of SCADA has been also considered for management and operations of project-driven-process in construction.Six Sigma
Six Sigma (6σ) is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was introduced by engineer Bill Smith while working at Motorola in 1980. Jack Welch made it central to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995. A six sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of all opportunities to produce some feature of a part are statistically expected to be free of defects.
Six Sigma strategies seek to improve the quality of the output of a process by identifying and removing the causes of defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, mainly empirical, statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization who are experts in these methods. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has specific value targets, for example: reduce process cycle time, reduce pollution, reduce costs, increase customer satisfaction, and increase profits.
The term Six Sigma (capitalized because it was written that way when registered as a Motorola trademark on December 28, 1993) originated from terminology associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield or the percentage of defect-free products it creates—specifically, within how many standard deviations of a normal distribution the fraction of defect-free outcomes corresponds to. Motorola set a goal of "six sigma" for all of its manufacturing.Theory of constraints
The theory of constraints (TOC) is a management paradigm that views any manageable system as being limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints. There is always at least one constraint, and TOC uses a focusing process to identify the constraint and restructure the rest of the organization around it. TOC adopts the common idiom "a chain is no stronger than its weakest link". This means that processes, organizations, etc., are vulnerable because the weakest person or part can always damage or break them or at least adversely affect the outcome.Total quality management
Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to "install and make permanent
climate where employees continuously improve their ability to provide on demand products and services that customers will find of particular value." "Total" emphasizes that departments in addition to production (for example sales and marketing, accounting and finance, engineering and design) are obligated to improve their operations; "management" emphasizes that executives are obligated to actively manage quality through funding, training, staffing, and goal setting. While there is no widely agreed-upon approach, TQM efforts typically draw heavily on the previously developed tools and techniques of quality control. TQM enjoyed widespread attention during the late 1980s and early 1990s before being overshadowed by ISO 9000, Lean manufacturing, and Six Sigma.Zero Defects
Zero Defects (or ZD) was a management-led program to eliminate defects in industrial production that enjoyed brief popularity in American industry from 1964 to the early 1970s. Quality expert Philip Crosby later incorporated it into his "Absolutes of Quality Management" and it enjoyed a renaissance in the American automobile industry—as a performance goal more than as a program—in the 1990s. Although applicable to any type of enterprise, it has been primarily adopted within supply chains wherever large volumes of components are being purchased (common items such as nuts and bolts are good examples).