IEC 62196 Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets – Conductive charging of electric vehicles, also known as CCS Combo, is a series of international standards that define requirements and tests for plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets for conductive charging of electric vehicles and is maintained by the technical subcommittee SC 23H “Plugs, Socket-outlets and Couplers for industrial and similar applications, and for Electric Vehicles” of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets according to this series of standards are used in EV supply equipment according to IEC 61851 series or IEC 62752 and in electric vehicles according to ISO 17409 or ISO 18246.
Most plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets according to this series of standards provide additional contacts that support specific functions that are relevant for charging of electric vehicles, e.g. power is not supplied unless a vehicle is connected and the vehicle is immobilized while still connected.
Several parts of this series of standards have been published as European standards (EN 62196 series) which in turn have been published as British standards (BS EN 62196 series). Similar requirements are contained in SAE J1772 which is widely applied in the US.
The following parts of IEC 62196 series have been published:
Additional parts of IEC 62196 are under preparation (as of July 2018):
IEC 62196-1 provides a general description of the interface between an electric vehicle and a charging station as well as general mechanical and electrical requirements and tests for plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets that are intended to be used for EV charging. It does not describe specific designs, which can be found in the other parts of the standard.
The first edition, IEC 62196-1:2003, was published in 2003. This edition was applicable to plugs, socket-outlets, connectors, inlets and cable assemblies for AC and DC charging of electric vehicles with rated voltages and rated currents as follows:
- AC: up to 690 V, up to 250 A
- DC: up to 600 V, up to 400 A.
Typical connectors and inlets that were built according to this edition of the standard used spring-loaded butt contacts and were made by Avcon and Maréchal Electric.
The second edition, IEC 62196-1:2011, was published in 2011. One significant change was the increase of the maximum voltage of connectors, inlets and cable assemblies for DC charging to 1500 V. The development of this edition was coordinated with the first edition of IEC 62196-2, which describes several configurations of pin-and-sleeve contacts for AC charging.
The third edition, IEC 62196-1:2014, was published in 2014. One significant addition was the general description of a “combined interface” as used by the Combined Charging System. The development of this edition was coordinated with the first edition of IEC 62196-3, which describes connectors and inlets for DC charging.
IEC 62196-2 extends IEC 62196-1 and describes specific designs of plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets that are intended to be used for AC charging of electric vehicles in the modes 1, 2 and 3 as described by IEC 61851-1. The specific designs are grouped into three configurations.
The designs are described with sufficient detail to allow compatibility between products of different manufacturers.
This configuration consists of a vehicle coupler (vehicle connector and vehicle inlet).
It features a round housing, which has a notch on the vehicle inlet for proper orientation, with five pin-and-sleeve contacts for two AC conductors, a protective conductor and two signal pins that are used for the control pilot function (according to IEC 61851-1 Annex A) and for proximity detection (using an auxiliary switch and no current coding, according to IEC 61851-1 Annex B). When inserted into the vehicle inlet, the connector is held in place by a mechanical latch, which is part of the connector.
IEC 62196-2 describes this configuration with an operating current up to 32 A, allowing a maximum current of 80 A only for applications in the US, where this higher operating current is also described by SAE J1772.
This configuration only supports single-phase charging. It is widely used in the US and Japan.
This configuration consists of a plug and socket-outlet that support charging in mode 3, as described in IEC 61851-1, and a vehicle coupler, consisting of vehicle connector and vehicle inlet, that supports charging in modes 2 and 3. (Within this configuration, IEC 62196-2 additionally describes a connector for mode 1 and an inlet for all modes 1, 2 and 3, but these are not used.)
Because the original design was made by the manufacturer Mennekes, it is colloquially known as the “Mennekes connector”.
It features a round housing, which is flattened on one side for proper orientation, with up to seven pin-and-sleeve contacts for up to four AC conductors, a protective conductor and two signal pins that are used for the control pilot function (according to IEC 61851-1 Annex A) and for simultaneous proximity detection and current coding (according to IEC 61851-1 Annex B). By design, the contacts can not be touched by the standardized test finger. Since the second edition of the standard, additional touch protection of the contacts can optionally be provided by shutters. When inserted into the inlet, the connector is held in place by the locking mechanism, which is attached to the inlet. The same concept is used by the socket-outlet to hold the plug in place.
IEC 62196-2 describes this configuration with operating currents up to 63 A, allowing a maximum current of 70 A only for single-phase applications.
Configuration type 2 differs from the first proposal by Mennekes that was presented in the German standard VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 that was published in 2009 and withdrawn in 2012, when the German version of IEC 62196-2:2011 became available. Pins and sleeves were swapped between the inlet and the connector and the dimensions were slightly changed.
Another similar but different design is described by the Chinese standard GB/T 20234.2.
Within the European Union, regulation requires all public AC charging stations to be equipped with a type 2 socket-outlet or a type 2 connector.
This configuration consists of three groups each comprising a plug, a socket-outlet and a vehicle coupler (vehicle connector and vehicle inlet).
Because the original design was made by the manufacturer Scame, it is colloquially known as the “Scame connector”.
It features an oval housing, which is flattened on one side for proper orientation, with up to seven pin-and-sleeve contacts for up to four AC conductors, a protective conductor and one or two signal pins that are used for simultaneous proximity detection and current coding (according to IEC 61851-1 Annex B) and, where present, for the control pilot function (according to IEC 61851-1 Annex A). Touch protection of the contacts is provided by shutters. When inserted into the vehicle inlet, the connector is held in place by the locking mechanism, which is attached to the vehicle inlet. The same concept is used by the socket-outlet to hold the plug in place.
IEC 62196-2 describes three different designs with different dimensions under this configuration that support:
- single-phase charging at up to 16 A, without control pilot contact,
- single-phase charging at up to 32 A,
- three-phase charging at up to 63 A.
The first edition, IEC 62196-2:2011, was published in 2011.
The second edition, IEC 62196-2:2016, was published in 2016. The most significant change was the introduction of optional shutters for configuration type 2.
IEC 62196-3 extends IEC 62196-1 and describes specific designs of vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets that are intended to be used for DC charging of electric vehicles in mode 4 as described by IEC 61851-1 and IEC 61851-23. The specific designs are grouped into several configurations.
The designs are described with sufficient detail to allow compatibility between products of different manufacturers.
The first edition, IEC 62196-3:2014, was published in 2014.
All configurations consist of a connector and inlet.
Configurations with the letters DD and EE were discussed during the work on the document but are not specified in the published version of IEC 62196-3:2014.
Configuration AA is colloquially known as the “Chademo connector”, because it was designed and is used by the Chademo organisation. The original design was first published in the Japanese standard JEVS G105-1993.
This coupler is intended to be used with DC charging stations that implement System A according to IEC 61851-23 and CAN-communication according to IEC 61851-24 Annex A. It is mostly used in Japan and in countries with many electric vehicles that were designed in Japan.
Configuration BB is intended to be used with DC charging stations that implement System B according to IEC 61851-23 and CAN communication according to IEC 61851-24 Annex B. It is mostly used in China, where the same technical solution is described by the standard GB/T 20234.3.
Configuration CC and DD are reserved for future use. Configuration EE is colloquially known as the “CCS1 connector” or “Combo1 connector”, because it is used within the Combined Charging System and extends the type 1 coupler.
Configuration EE is intended to be used with DC charging stations that implement System C according to IEC 61851-23 and PLC communication according to IEC 61851-24 Annex C and ISO 15118-3. It is mostly used in the US, where the same technical solution is described by the standard SAE J1772.
Configuration FF is colloquially known as the “CCS2 connector” or “Combo2 connector”, because it is used within the Combined Charging System and extends the type 2 coupler.
It is a global standard. Within the European Union, regulation requires all public DC charging stations to be equipped with a configuration FF connector. It is also used in USA, India...
This IEC technical specification will describe how vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets according to IEC 62196-3 can be used with cables with quite small conductor cross section if thermal management is applied. Thermal management uses thermal sensors and adjusts the current to limit the temperature rise of the cable assembly. This document is under preparation (as of July 2018) and the final version has not yet been published.
This IEC technical specification extends IEC 62196-1 and describes specific designs of plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets that are intended to be used for DC charging through circuits specified in IEC 61851-3 series. The maximum operating voltage is 120 V at a nominal current of up to 60 A. One typical application are light electric vehicles.
Preparation of this document is finished (as of July 2018) but the final version has not yet been published.
This IEC technical specification will extend IEC 62196-1 and describe specific designs of plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets that are intended to be used for DC charging through circuits that will be specified in IEC 61851-23-2. The maximum operating voltage is 120 V at a nominal current of up to 100 A. One typical application will be light electric vehicles.
This document is under preparation (as of July 2018) and the final version has not yet been published.
CHAdeMO is the trade name of a quick charging method for battery electric vehicles delivering up to 62.5 kW by 500 V, 125 A direct current via a special electrical connector.
A revised CHAdeMO 2.0 specification allows for up to 400 kW by 1000 V, 400 A direct current.It was proposed in 2010 as a global industry standard by an association of the same name formed by five major Japanese automakers and included in the IEC 62196 standard as configuration AA. Competing standards include the Combined Charging System—used by most German and US automakers—and the Tesla Supercharger.
CHAdeMO is an abbreviation of "CHArge de MOve", equivalent to "move using charge" or "move by charge" or "charge 'n' go", a reference to the fact that it's a fast charger. The name is derived from the Japanese phrase O cha demo ikaga desuka, translating to English as "How about a cup of tea?", referring to the time it would take to charge a car. CHAdeMO can charge low-range (120 km, or 75 mi) electric cars in less than half an hour. As of June 2018, CHAdeMO was advocating increased installation of the 400 kW ‘ultra-fast’ charging in the coming years.ChargePoint
ChargePoint (formerly Coulomb Technologies) is an electric vehicle infrastructure company based in Campbell, California. ChargePoint operates an open electric vehicle (EV) charging network and makes the technology used in it.Charging station
An electric vehicle charging station, also called EV charging station, electric recharging point, charging point, charge point, ECS (electronic charging station), and EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment), is an element in an infrastructure that supplies electric energy for the recharging of plug-in electric vehicles—including electric cars, neighborhood electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids.
For charging at home or work, some EVs have onboard converters that can plug into a standard electrical outlet or a high-capacity appliance outlet. Others either require or can use a charging station that provides electrical conversion, monitoring, or safety functionality. These stations are also needed when traveling, and many support faster charging at higher voltages and currents than are available from residential EVSEs. Public charging stations are typically on-street facilities provided by electric utility companies or located at retail shopping centers, restaurants and parking places, operated by a range of private companies.
Charging stations provide a range of heavy duty or special connectors that conform to the variety of standards. For common rapid charging and DC, the Combined Charging System (CCS) is becoming the universal standard. Others are CHAdeMO, and the Type 2 connector.Combined Charging System
The Combined Charging System (CCS) covers charging electric vehicles using the Combo 1 and Combo 2 connectors at up to 80 or 350 kilowatts. These two connectors are extensions of the Type 1 and Type 2 connectors, with two additional direct current (DC) contacts to allow high-power DC fast charging.
The Combined Charging System allows AC charging using the Type 1 and Type 2 connector depending on the geographical region. Since 2014 the European Union has required the provision of Type 2 or Combo 2 within the European electric vehicle network. This charging environment encompasses charging couplers, charging communication, charging stations, the electric vehicle and various functions for the charging process as e.g. load balancing and charge authorization.
Electric vehicles or electric vehicle supply equipment are CCS-capable if they support either AC or DC charging according to the standards listed by the CCS. Automobile manufactures that support CCS include: Jaguar, Volkswagen Group, Renault, General Motors, BMW, Daimler, Ford, FCA, Tesla, Kia and Hyundai.In the United States, BMW and VW claimed in April 2016 that the East Coast and West Coast corridors had "complete" CCS networks. Competing charging systems for high-power DC charging include CHAdeMO (Japanese), Guobiao recommended-standard 20234 (Chinese), and Tesla Supercharger (Tesla proprietary).Ecotricity
Ecotricity is an energy company based in Stroud, Gloucestershire, England specialising in selling green energy to consumers that it primarily generates from its 87.2 megawatt wind power portfolio – the company prefers the term windmill rather than wind turbine. It is built on the principle of heavily reinvesting its profit in building more of its own green energy generation.Electric vehicle battery
An electric-vehicle battery (EVB) or traction battery is a battery used to power the propulsion of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Vehicle batteries are usually a secondary (rechargeable) battery. Traction batteries are used in forklifts, electric golf carts, riding floor scrubbers, electric motorcycles, electric cars, trucks, vans, and other electric vehicles.
Electric-vehicle batteries differ from starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries because they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time. Deep-cycle batteries are used instead of SLI batteries for these applications. Traction batteries must be designed with a high ampere-hour capacity. Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratio, specific energy and energy density; smaller, lighter batteries reduce the weight of the vehicle and improve its performance. Compared to liquid fuels, most current battery technologies have much lower specific energy, and this often impacts the maximal all-electric range of the vehicles. However, metal-air batteries have high specific energy because the cathode is provided by the surrounding oxygen in the air. Rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles include lead–acid ("flooded", deep-cycle, and VRLA), NiCd, nickel–metal hydride, lithium-ion, Li-ion polymer, and, less commonly, zinc–air and molten-salt batteries. The most common battery type in modern electric cars are lithium-ion and Lithium polymer battery, because of their high energy density compared to their weight. The amount of electricity (i.e. electric charge) stored in batteries is measured in ampere hours or in coulombs, with the total energy often measured in watt hours.
The battery makes up a substantial cost of BEVs, which unlike for fossil-fueled cars, profoundly manifests itself as a price of range. As of 2018, the few electric cars with over 500 km of range such as the Tesla Model S are firmly in the luxury segment. Since the late 1990s, advances in battery technology have been driven by demands for portable electronics, like laptop computers and mobile phones. The BEV marketplace has reaped the benefits of these advances both in performance, energy density. The batteries can be discharged and recharged each day. According to Mitsubishi president Osamu Masuko, the battery cost for the Mitsubishi i-MiEV was cut in half between 2009 and 2011. The cost of electric-vehicle batteries was reduced by more than 35% from 2008 to 2014.The predicted market for automobile traction batteries is over $37 billion in 2020.In terms of operating costs, the price of electricity to run an EV is a small fraction of the cost of fuel for equivalent internal combustion engines, reflecting higher energy efficiency. The cost of replacing the batteries dominates the operating costs.Electric vehicle network
An electric vehicle network is an infrastructure system of charging stations and battery swap station to recharge electric vehicles. Many government, car manufacturers, and charging infrastructure providers sought to create networks. As of December 2016, Estonia remained the only country to have completed a nationwide public electric charging network. As of 2018 the largest fast-charging location was in Shanghai on the Tesla Supercharger network, with fifty charging stalls.IEC 60309
IEC 60309 (formerly IEC 309 and CEE 17, also published by CENELEC as EN 60309) is an international standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for "plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes". The maximum voltage allowed by the standard is 1000 V DC or AC; the maximum current, 800 A; and the maximum frequency, 500 Hz. The ambient temperature range is −25 °C to 40 °C.There is a range of plugs and sockets of different sizes with differing numbers of pins, depending on the current supplied and number of phases accommodated. The fittings are popular in open-air conditions, as they include IP44 weather-proofing. They are also sometimes used in situations where their special capabilities (such as high current rating or three-phase facilities) are not needed, to discourage potential users from connecting domestic appliances to the sockets, as 'normal' domestic plugs will not fit.
The cable connectors and sockets are keyed and colour-coded, according to the voltage range and frequency used; common colours for 50–60 Hz AC power are yellow for 100–130 volts, blue for 200–250 volts, and red for 380–480 volts. The blue fittings are often used for providing weather-proofed exterior sockets for outdoor apparatus. In camping situations, the large 32 A blue fittings provide power to static caravans, whilst the smaller blue 16 A version powers touring caravans and tents. The yellow fittings are used to provide transformer isolated 110 V supplies for UK construction sites to reduce the risk of electric shock, and this use spills over into uses of power tools outside of the construction site environment. The red three-phase versions are used for three-phase portable equipment.IEC 61851
IEC 61851 is an international standard for electric vehicle conductive charging systems, parts of which are currently still under development. IEC 61851 is one of the International Electrotechnical Commission's group of standards for electric road vehicles and electric industrial trucks, and is the responsibility of IEC Technical Committee 69 (TC69).IEC connector (disambiguation)
IEC connectors are electrical power connectors specified by IEC standards.
IEC connector may also refer to:
IEC 60309, connectors primarily used for industrial purposes
IEC 60320, for use up to 250 V AC for electrical appliances
IEC 60906-1, 230 V AC connectors for domestic use
IEC 60906-2, 115 V AC connectors
IEC 60906-3, safety extra-low voltage connectors for domestic use
IEC 62196, connectors and charging modes for electric vehiclesIEEE 1901
The IEEE Std 1901-2010 is a standard for high speed (up to 500 Mbit/s at the physical layer) communication devices via electric power lines, often called broadband over power lines (BPL). The standard uses transmission frequencies below 100 MHz. This standard is usable by all classes of BPL devices, including BPL devices used for the connection (<1500m to the premises) to Internet access services as well as BPL devices used within buildings for local area networks, smart energy applications, transportation platforms (vehicle), and other data distribution applications (<100m between devices).The IEEE Std 1901-2010 standard replaced a dozen previous powerline specifications. It includes a mandatory coexistence Inter-System Protocol (ISP). The IEEE 1901 ISP prevents interference when the different BPL implementations are operated within close proximity of one another.To handle multiple devices attempting to use the line at the same time, IEEE Std 1901-2010 supports TDMA, but CSMA/CA (also used in WiFi) is most commonly implemented by devices sold.The 1901 standard is mandatory to initiate SAE J1772 electric vehicle charging and the sole powerline protocol for IEEE 1905.1 heterogeneous networking. It was highly recommended in the IEEE P1909.1 smart grid standards because those are primarily for control of AC devices, which by definition always have AC power connections - thus no additional connections are required.Mennekes
Mennekes Elektrotechnik GmbH & Co. KG is a manufacturer of industrial plugs and connectors with headquarters in Kirchhundem in the Sauerland region, Germany.
The Mennekes company was founded in 1935 when Aloys Mennekes received the master craftsmen senior electrician certificate and set up his own business. Today Mennekes has over 1000 employees worldwide and generates a consolidated revenue of about €130 million. The company's headquarters is still in Kirchhundem in the south of Sauerland with additional factories in Neudorf/Erzgebirge (Sehmatal community), and Nanjing (China). Mennekes has 16 offices in Germany, 80 offices worldwide and a number of international co-operations. The owner and current managing director is Walter Mennekes, who is also board member of the Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie.The roots of the factory business live in the "Glühauf" invention (a wall-mounted lighter) made after World War II, which allowed to open the first manufacturing factory in 1948. Later in 1951 an aluminium casting metalworks was added, which functioned as foundation of a fabric that nowadays manufactures over 11,000 different products – including all standardized plugs and various industrial variants.Mode 3
Mode 3 may refer to:
Mode 3 (telephone), a method of line sharing in which the line passes through a mode 3 device to connect to other devices
Mode 3 (electric vehicle), a protocol for an electric vehicle charge cable for AC chargng where the vehicle and charging equipment handshake to verify integrity of the earth connection between them and pass the maximum current limit of the charging equipment to the vehicle according to IEC 62196.
A class of stone tools, the Mousterian industry
Mode 3 (knowledge), a sociological term for the production of knowledge; see models of knowledge in the entry on the Quadruple and quintuple innovation helix (Q2IH) framework.SAE J1772
SAE J1772 (IEC Type 1), also known as a "J plug", is a North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles maintained by the SAE International and has the formal title "SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler". It covers the general physical, electrical, communication protocol, and performance requirements for the electric vehicle conductive charge system and coupler. The intent is to define a common electric vehicle conductive charging system architecture including operational requirements and the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle inlet and mating connector.SAE J3068
SAE J3068 is a North American recommended practice published and maintained by SAE International. J3068 defines electrical connectors and a control protocol for electric vehicles. It has the formal title "SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J3068". J3068 defines a system of conductive power transfer to an electric vehicle using a coupler capable of transferring single-phase and three-phase AC power as well as DC power, and defines a digital communication system for control. J3068 also specifies requirements for the vehicle inlet, supply equipment connector, mating housings and contacts.Tesla Supercharger
A Tesla Supercharger is a 480-volt DC fast-charging station built by American vehicle manufacturer Tesla Inc. for their all-electric cars. The Tesla Supercharger network of fast-charging stations was introduced beginning in 2012. as of January 2019, the electric vehicle network consisted of 12,011 individual Supercharger stalls at 1,422 locations worldwide. Tesla Model S was the first car to be able to use the network, followed by the Tesla Model X and Tesla Model 3.
Each Supercharger stall pair has a connector to supply electrical power at up to 120 kW via a direct current connection to the 400-volt car battery pack. Since 2015, calculation of routes with Supercharger stops has been integrated with turn-by-turn navigation on Tesla's supported cars. Payment for electricity is performed automatically with a credit card on file, while some older Tesla vehicles have 100–400 kWh, or unlimited, inclusive charging credit.
By 2016 Tesla had taken steps to focus use of the network for making longer journeys. An idle fee is charged for continuing to occupy a Supercharger stall after charging has been completed. In late-2017 Tesla disallowed commercial, peer-to-peer ridesharing, taxi, and government usage of the public Supercharger network.
As of April 2017, Tesla had plans to expand the network to 15,000 stalls.Type 2
Type 2 or Type II may refer to:
Type II, a Japanese sub-machine gun
Type 2 12 cm Mortar, a Japanese weapon
Type 2 20 mm AA machine cannon, a Japanese weapon
Type 2 AT mine
Type 2 cannon, a 30 mm Japanese weapon
Type 2 encryption
Type II female genital mutilation
Type-2 Gumbel distribution
Type 2 Ho-I, a Japanese tank
Type 2 Ka-Mi, a Japanese tank
Type II keratin
Type II error used in statistics for a "false negative" error
Type II lattice
Type II string theory
Type II supernova
Type 2 sequence
Activin type 2 receptors
Atelosteogenesis, type II
British Railways Type 2 Diesel locomotives
Diabetes mellitus type 2
German Type II submarine
Glutaric acidemia type 2
Glycogen storage disease type II
Hyper-IgM syndrome type 2
Hyperfinite type II factor
IEC 62196 Type 2 connector type (alias Mennekes Type 2)
JDBC type 2 driver
Kawanishi H8K, Type 2 flying boat (code named Emily)
Motorola Type II
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2
Neurofibromatosis type II
Type I and type II errors
Type II civilization, an advanced civilization on the Kardashev scale.
Volkswagen Type 2 (T3)
Volkswagen Type 2Type 2 may also refer to
Compact Font Format
Dbx (noise reduction)
Second-degree atrioventricular block
Spinal muscular atrophy
Von Willebrand diseaseType 2 connector
The IEC 62196 Type 2 connector (commonly referred to as mennekes) is used for charging electric cars within Europe. The connector is circular in shape, with a flattened top edge and originally specified for charging battery electric vehicles at 3–50 kilowatts, with a plug modified by Tesla capable of outputting 120 kilowatts. Electric power is provided as single-phase or three-phase alternating current (AC), or direct current (DC). In January 2013, the IEC 62196 Type 2 connector was selected by the European Commission as official charging plug within the European Union. It has since been adopted as the recommended connector in some countries outside of Europe, including New Zealand.Released under the name SAE J3068 is three-phase AC connector for North America—with Local Interconnect Network (LIN) for control signaling based on IEC 61851-1 Edition 3 Annex D.The Guobiao standard GB/T 20234.2-2015 for AC-charging within the People's Republic of China specifies cables with Type 2-style male connectors on both ends, and a female inlet on vehicles—the opposite gender to the rest of the world, and with different control signalling.