IEC 60320 Appliance couplers for household and similar general purposes is a set of standards from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specifying non-locking appliance and interconnection couplers for connecting power supply cords to electrical appliances of voltage not exceeding 250 V (a.c.) and rated current not exceeding 16 A. Different types of connector (distinguished by shape and size) are specified for different combinations of current, temperature and earthing requirements. Unlike IEC 60309 connectors, they are not coded for voltage; users must ensure that the voltage rating of the equipment is compatible with the mains supply.
The first edition of IEC 320 (later renumbered IEC 60320) was published in 1970.
Appliance couplers enable the use of standard inlets and country-specific cord sets which allow manufacturers to produce the same appliance for many markets, where only the cord set has to be changed for a particular market. Interconnection couplers allow a power supply from a piece of equipment or an appliance to be made available to other equipment or appliances. Couplers described under these standards have standardized current and temperature ratings.
The parts of the couplers are defined in the standard as follows.
Although the terms "male" and "female" are sometimes applied to these connectors, the terms are not used in the standards themselves. Gender references for connectors actually refer only to the contacts, not the complete connectors. "Male" refers to a pin contact and "female" to a socket contact. "Connectors" and "appliance outlets" are fitted with socket contacts, and "appliance inlets" and "plug connectors" are fitted with pin contacts.
Each type of coupler is identified by a standard sheet number. For appliance couplers this consists of the letter "C" followed by a number, where the standard sheet for the appliance inlet is 1 higher than the sheet for the corresponding cable connector. Many types of coupler also have common names. The most common ones are IEC connector for the common C13 and C14, the figure-8 connector for C7 and C8, and cloverleaf connector or Mickey Mouse connector for the C5/C6. Kettle plug is a colloquial term used for the high-temperature C16 appliance inlet (and sometimes, wrongly, for the mating C15 connector). "Kettle plug" is sometimes mistakenly used to refer to regular temperature-rated C13 and C14 connectors, which should not be used with heating appliances.
Detachable appliance couplers are used in office equipment, measuring instruments, IT environments, and medical devices, among many types of equipment for worldwide distribution. Each appliance's power system must be adapted to the different plugs used in different regions. An appliance with a permanently-attached plug for use in one country cannot be readily sold in another which uses an incompatible wall socket; this requires keeping track of variations throughout the product's life cycle from assembly and testing to shipping and repairs.
Instead, a country-specific power supply cord can be included in the product packaging, so that model variations are minimized and factory testing is simplified. A cord which is fitted with non-rewireable (usually moulded) connectors at both ends is termed a cord set. Appliance manufacturing may be simplified by mounting an appliance coupler directly on the printed circuit board. Assembly and handling of an appliance is easier if the power cord can be removed without much effort.
Appliances can be used in another country easily, with a simple change of the power supply cord (including a connector and a country-specific plug). The power supply cord can be replaced easily if damaged, because it is a standardized part that can be unplugged and re-inserted. Safety hazards, maintenance expenditure and repairs are minimized.
IEC 60320 is divided into several parts:
The standards define the mechanical, electrical and thermal requirements and safety goals of power couplers. The standard scope is limited to appliance couplers with a rated voltage not exceeding 250 V (a.c.) at 50 Hz or 60 Hz, and a rated current not exceeding 16 A. Further sub-parts of IEC 60320 focus on special topics such as protection ratings and appliance specific requirements.
Selection of a coupler depends in part on the IEC appliance classes. The shape and dimensions of appliance inlets and connectors are coordinated so that a connector with lower current rating, temperature rating, or polarization cannot be inserted into an appliance inlet that requires higher ratings. (i.e. a Protection Class II connector cannot mate with a Class I inlet which requires an earth); whereas connecting a Class I to a Class II appliance inlet is possible because it creates no safety hazard.
Pin temperature is measured where the pin projects from the engagement surface. The maximum permitted pin temperatures, are 70 °C, 120 °C, and 155 °C, respectively (the higher temperatures are not applicable to interconnection couplers). The pin temperature is determined by the design of the appliance, and its interior temperature, rather than by its ambient temperature. Typical applications with increased pin temperatures include appliances with heating coils such as ovens or electric grills. It is generally possible to use a connector with a higher rated temperature with a lower rated appliance inlet, but the keying feature of the inlet prevents use of a connector with a lower temperature rating.
Connectors are also classified according to the method of connecting the cord, either as rewirable connectors or non-rewirable connectors.
In addition the standards define further general criteria such as withdrawal forces, testing procedures, the minimum number of insertion cycles, and the number of flexings of cords.
IEC 60320-1 defines a cord set as an "assembly consisting of one cable or cord fitted with one plug and one connector, intended for the connection of an electrical appliance or equipment to the electrical supply". It also defines an interconnection cord set as an "assembly consisting of one cable or cord fitted with one plug connector and one connector, intended for the interconnection between two electrical appliances".
In addition to the connections within the standards, as mentioned, there are possible combinations between appliance couplers and IEC interconnection couplers. Fitted with a flexible cord, the components become interconnection cords to be used for connecting appliances or for extending other interconnection cords or power supply cords.
Given the 120 V (±5%) mains supply used in the United States and Canada, these higher ratings permit devices with C6 and C8 inputs to draw more than 114 V × 2.5 A = 285 W from the mains, and devices with C14 inputs to draw more than 1140 W from the mains.
This is exploited by high-powered computer power supplies, up to 1200 W output, and even some particularly efficient 1500 W output models to use the more popular C14 input on products sold worldwide.
Although less common, power bricks with C6 and C8 inputs and ratings up to 300 W also exist.
The dimensions and tolerances for connectors and appliance inlets are given in standard sheets, which are dimensioned drawings showing the features required for safety and interchangeability.
|Connector||Appliance inlet||Diagram||Pin spacing,
|Earth contact||Appliance class||Rewirable
|Max. pin temp.
|Remarks and example uses|
|C1||C2||6.6||No||II||No||0.2||70||Not polarized. Electric shaver.|
|C3||C4||10||No||II||2.5||70||Polarized; similar connector to C5/C6 but with a key ridge instead of an earthing conductor, withdrawn from standard.|
|Yes||I||No||2.5||70||Many small switched-mode power supplies used for laptops. Commonly referred to as a Clover-leaf or Mickey Mouse connector due to its shape.|
|C7||C8||8.6||No||II||No||2.5||70||Not polarized. Domestic Audio, video, radio equipment and double insulated power supplies. C8 inlet is 10 mm deep, C8A and C8B inlets are 15.5 mm deep. Commonly referred to as "figure 8" or "infinity" in the UK. There is a similar polarized connector having one squared side, (see outline below), but this is not part of the standard.|
|C9||C10||10||No||II||No||6||70||Not polarized. This kind of coupler is used by Roland Corporation for a couple of synthesizer and drum computer models (for example: TR-909) and by Revox for many older models of their HiFi equipment (for example, A76, A77, A78, B77, B225). Was also used heavily on Marantz Hifi equipment in the 1980s and 1990s|
|C11||C12||10||No||II||10||70||Polarized, similar to C9 with a slot in the connector, withdrawn from standard.|
|Yes||I||Yes||10||70||Very common on personal computers and peripherals. Commonly but incorrectly referred to as a "kettle cord", but kettles actually require the C15/C16.|
|Yes||I||Yes||10||120||For use in high temperature settings (for example, electric kettle, computer networking closets). Also used in Cisco Catalyst series switches, Cisco MDS9500 series rack-mounted SAN switches, HP Procurve switches, Dell PowerConnect switches and early Xbox 360 power supplies.|
|Yes||I||Yes||10||155||For use in very high temperature settings, such as some stage lighting instruments. Similar to C15/C16, but the top is narrowed to exclude the C15 cord connector.|
|C17||C18||14||No||II||No||10||70||Xbox power supply  some vacuum cleaners, CPAP machines, audio equipment, televisions, medical devices .|
|Yes||I||Yes||16||70||Common on Enterprise-class servers, UPSs, datacenter rack-mounted power distribution units and other equipment that draws too much current for C13/C14 type to be used.|
|Yes||I||Yes||16||155||High-temperature variant of C19/C20|
|C23||C24||13||No||II||No||16||70||Ungrounded variant of C19/C20|
The C1 coupler and C2 inlet were commonly used for mains-powered electric shavers. These have largely been supplanted by cordless shavers with rechargeable batteries or corded shavers which use an AC adapter.
This coupler is sometimes colloquially called a cloverleaf coupler or "Mickey Mouse" (because the cross section looks like the silhouette of the Disney character).
The C6 inlet is used on laptop power supplies and portable projectors, as well as on some desktop computers and recent LCD televisions from LG.
Commonly known as a figure-8, infinity or shotgun connector due to the shape of its cross-section, or less commonly, a Telefunken connector after its originator. This coupler is often used for small cassette recorders, battery/mains operated radios, battery chargers, some full size audio-visual equipment, laptop computer power supplies, video game consoles, and similar double-insulated appliances.
A C8B inlet type is defined by the standard, for use by dual-voltage appliances; it has three pins, and can hold a C7 connector in either of two positions, allowing the user to select voltage by choosing the position the connector is inserted.
A similar but polarized connector has been made, but is not part of the standard. Sometimes called C7P, it is asymmetrical, with one side squared off. Unpolarized C7 connectors can be inserted into the polarized inlets; however, doing so might be a safety risk if the device is designed for polarized power. Although not specified by IEC 60320, and not clear if any formal written standard exists, the most common wiring appears to connect the squared side to the neutral, and the rounded to the hot line. Note: Clause 9.5 was added to IEC 60320-1:2015, this requires that "It shall not be possible to engage a part of a non-standard appliance coupler with a complementary part of an appliance coupler complying with the standard sheets in any part of IEC 60320."
Apple uses a modified version of this connector, with the receptacle having a proprietary pin that secures the adapter in place and provides grounding. The cabled adapter provides grounding through a slide-in connector, while the angled AC adapter ("duckhead") does not provide grounding.
Most desktop computers use the C14 inlet to attach the power cord to the power supply, as do many instrument amplifiers, monitors, printers and other peripherals. A power cord with a suitable power plug (for the locality where the appliance is being used) on one end and a C13 connector (connecting to the appliance) on the other is commonly called an IEC cord. IEC cords are used to power many pieces of electronic equipment, including computers, instrument amplifiers, professional audio equipment and virtually all professional video equipment.
There are also a variety of splitter blocks, splitter cables, and similar devices available. These are usually un-fused (with the exception of C13 cords attached to BS 1363 plugs, which are always fused).
These cables are sometimes incorrectly referred to as a "kettle cord" or "kettle lead", but the C13/14 connectors are only rated for 70 °C; a device such as a kettle requires the C15/16 connector, rated for 120 °C.
The C13 connector and C14 inlet are commonly found on computers, servers, routers, and switches. Power cord sets utilizing a C13 connector and a C14 plug are commonplace in data centers to provide power from a PDU (Power Distribution Unit) to a server. These data centre power cables are now offered in many colors which can be confusing to people unfamiliar with data centers. Colored power cables are used to color code installations.
Some electric kettles and similar hot household appliances like home stills use a supply cord with a C15 connector, and a matching C16 inlet on the appliance; their temperature rating is 120 °C rather than the 70 °C of the similar C13/C14 combination. The official designation in Europe for the C15/C16 coupler is a 'hot condition' coupler.
These are similar in form to the C13/C14 coupler, except with a ridge opposite the earth in the C16 inlet (preventing a C13 fitting), and a corresponding valley in the C15 connector (which doesn't prevent it fitting a C14 inlet). For example, an electric kettle cord can be used to power a computer, but an unmodified computer cord cannot be used to power a kettle.
There is some public confusion between C13/C14 and C15/C16 couplers, and it is not uncommon for C13/C14 to be incorrectly referred to as "kettle plug" or "kettle lead" (or some local equivalent).
In European countries the C15/C16 coupler has replaced and made obsolete the formerly common types of national appliance coupler in many applications.
There is also a C15A/C16A coupler, with an even higher (155 °C) temperature rating.
Similar to C13/C14 coupler, but unearthed. A C18 inlet will accept a C13 connector but a C14 inlet will not accept a C17 connector.
The IBM Wheelwriter series of electronic typewriters are one common application. Three wire cords with C13 connectors, which are easier to find, are sometimes used in place of the two wire cords for replacement. In this case, the ground wire will not be connected.
The C17/C18 coupler is often used in audio applications where a floating ground is maintained to eliminate hum caused by ground loops. Other common applications are the power supplies of Xbox 360 game consoles, replacing the C15/C16 coupler employed initially, and large CRT televisions manufactured by RCA in the early 1990s.
Earthed, 16 A, polarized. This coupler is used for some IT applications where higher currents are required, as for instance, on high-power workstations and servers, uninterruptible power supplies, power distribution units, large network routers, switches, blade enclosures, and similar equipment. This connector can also be found on high current medical equipment. It is rectangular and has pins parallel to the long axis of the coupler face.
C3, C4, C11 and C12 standard sheets are no longer listed in the standard.
Standard sheet C25 shows retaining device dimensions. Sheet C26 shows detail dimensions for pillar-type terminals, where the end of the screw bears on a wire directly or through a pressure plate. Sheet 27 shows details for screw terminals, where the wire is held by wrapping it around the head of a screw.
Interconnection couplers are similar to appliance couplers, but the appliance outlet is built into a piece of equipment, while the plug connector is attached to a cord. They are identified by letters, not numbers, with one letter identifying the plug connector, and the alphabetical next letter identifying the mating appliance outlet. For example, an E plug fits into an F outlet.
The dimensions and tolerances for plug connectors and appliance outlets are given in standard sheets, which are dimensioned drawings showing the features required for safety and interchangeability.
|Plug connector||Appliance outlet||Drawing||Pin spacing,
|Earth contact||Appliance class||Rewirable
|Remarks and example uses|
|Yes||I||No||2.5||Commonly referred to as a Clover-leaf or Mickey Mouse connector due to its shape.|
|C||D||8.6||No||II||No||2.5||Not polarized. Commonly referred to as a "figure of 8" or "figure 8".|
|Yes||I||Yes||10||Very common for power distribution on computer and instrument equipment racks, used to be common as a means of connecting power from a PC to a monitor.|
|G||H||14||No||II||No||10||Ungrounded variant of E/F|
|Yes||I||Yes||16||Common on Enterprise-class servers and datacenter rack-mounted power distribution units.|
|K||L||13||No||II||Yes||16||Ungrounded variant of I/J|
Cables with a C13 connector at one end and a type E plug connector at the other are commonly available. They have a variety of common uses including connecting power between older PCs and their monitors, extending existing power cords, connecting to type F outlets strips (commonly used with rack-mount gear to save space and for international standardization) and connecting computer equipment to the output of a uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Type J outlets are used in a similar way.
An appliance plug is a three-conductor power connector originally developed for kettles, toasters and similar small appliances. It was common in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden.
It has largely been made obsolete and replaced by IEC 60320 C15 and C16 connectors, or proprietary connectors to base plates for cordless kettles. It still occurs on some traditional ceramic electric jugs. It is also used for some laboratory water stills.
On some models of the classical ceramic electric jug, the appliance plug prevents the lid from being raised while the connector is inserted. This is important as during operation of these jugs, the water it contains is connected to the electric mains and is an electric shock risk.
Appliance plugs were also used to supply power to electric toasters, electric coffee percolators, electric frypans, and many other appliances. An appliance plug is to some degree heat resistant, but the maximum working temperature varied from manufacturer to manufacturer and even from batch to batch.
The mains connectors of the appliance plug are two rounded sockets that accept two rounded pins from the appliance. They are unpolarised. The third connection, earth, is a large metal contact on each side of the plug body which makes contact with the sides of the plug receptacle, grounding the appliance body. Some appliances using these connectors incorporate a spring and plunger mechanism with a temperature-sensitive release system; if the temperature rises significantly above a preset limit - for example, if a kettle boils dry - the spring is released and (if all goes well) the plunger pushes the plug and socket apart. It must then be allowed to cool and reset manually by forcing the connector back into the appliance.
A plug of same design but probably different dimensions was in use in former USSR for powering electric kettles and electric samovars.C13
C13 or C-13 may be:
French Defence, Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings code
C13 White Lead (Painting) Convention, 1921
C13 grenade, the Canadian Forces designation for a M67 grenade
Autovia C-13, a highway in Catalonia in Spain
Caterpillar C13 Engine, an engine by Caterpillar Inc.
HMS C13, a 1906 British C class submarine
IEC 60320 C13, a polarised, three pole plug used in electric power cables
LNER Class C13, a 4-4-2T steam locomotive of 1907, built for suburban passenger services around London
OTO Melara C13
Sauber C13, a 1994 racing car
Caldwell 13 (NGC 457, the Owl Cluster or ET Cluster), an open star cluster in the constellation Cassiopeia
The 13th centuryand also :
in music, a chord with the structure 1 - 3 - 5 - b7 - 9 - 13
Carbon-13, a natural stable isotope of carbon
Malignant neoplasm of hypopharynx ICD-10 code
An artist who makes music in the genre of Vaporwave named 【／／／ Ｃ１３ ／／／】who started in the year 2016 as a gaming content creator on YouTube but in 2017 shifted to "vlogs" and still stuck with gaming. In the year 2018, he changed his name from Casomonster13 to 【／／／ Ｃ１３ ／／／】 and started making Vaporwave. He privatized all previous content for a fresh start to his channel.C14
C14, C.XIV or C-14 may be:
Autovia C-14, a highway in Catalonia in Spain
Fokker C.XIV, a 1937 Dutch reconnaissance seaplane
HMS C14, a 1908 British C class submarine
LSWR C14 class, a London and South Western Railway locomotive
Ramal C-14, the Argentinian track of the Salta-Antofagasta railway, famous for the Tren a las Nubes
Sauber C14, a 1995 racing car
C14, well-known nationalists' network in Ukraine, also known as "Medobory-Firm"
The 14th century
C 14-class missile boat, a light missile boat of catamaran design
Carbon-14, a radioactive isotope of carbon
C-14 dating, a method for dating events
IEC 60320 C14, a polarised, three pole socket electrical connector
Boeing YC-14, an American experimental transport aircraft of the 1970s
Malignant neoplasm of other and ill-defined sites in the lip, oral cavity and pharynx ICD-10 code
C14 Timberwolf rifle, a Canadian .338 Lapua sniper rifle
Caldwell 14, the Double Cluster in the constellation Perseus
French Defence, Encyclopedia of Chess Openings code
C14, Kawasaki Councours 1400C15
C15 or C.XV may refer to:
Albatros C.XV, a 1918 German military reconnaissance aircraft
BSA C15, a unit-construction motorcycle manufactured by the Birmingham Small Arms Company between 1959 and 1967
Coronado C15, a sailboat
HMS C15, a 1908 British C class submarine
Sauber C15, a 1996 racing car
Citroën C15, a light van
IEC 60320 C15, a power connector
The 15th century (1401–1500)
McDonnell Douglas YC-15
Esophageal cancer ICD-10 code
Caldwell 15 (NGC 6826), a planetary nebula in the constellation Cygnus
A 15-minute Cassette tape, often used to store computer games
A synthetic chemerin-derived peptideC16
C16 may refer to:
HMS C16, a 1908 British C class submarine
Sauber C16, a 1997 racing car
IEC 60320 C16, an electrical connector used for electric kettles and other small appliances
C16, the ICD-10 code for stomach cancer
Caldwell 16 (NGC 7243), an open cluster in the constellation Lacerta
C16 (drug), a protein kinase inhibitor used in scientific research
C16 Close Area Suppression Weapon, the Heckler & Koch GMG's Canadian designation
The 16th century A.D.
Commodore 16, a home computer
Palmitic acid, a common saturated fatty acidC-16 may refer to:
C-16 highway (Spain), a highway in Catalonia
C-16: FBI, a 1997-98 American TV series
Bill C-16, a Canadian law regarding gender expression and gender identity
The Cessna 208 airliner, as designated in the U.S. Army
The French Defence, as coded in the Encyclopaedia of Chess OpeningsFigure 8
Figure 8 may refer to:
8 (number), in Arabic numeralsIEC connector (disambiguation)
IEC connectors are electrical power connectors specified by IEC standards.
IEC connector may also refer to:
IEC 60309, connectors primarily used for industrial purposes
IEC 60320, for use up to 250 V AC for electrical appliances
IEC 60906-1, 230 V AC connectors for domestic use
IEC 60906-2, 115 V AC connectors
IEC 60906-3, safety extra-low voltage connectors for domestic use
IEC 62196, connectors and charging modes for electric vehiclesLine filter
A line filter is the kind of electronic filter that is placed between an electronic equipment and a line external to it, to attenuate conducted radio frequencies -- RFI, also known as electromagnetic interference (EMI) -- between the line and the equipment.
In particular, an AC Line Filter is used between the AC power line and the equipment (SMPS or an Electronic Circuit).PlayStation 3 technical specifications
The PlayStation 3 technical specifications describe the various components of the PlayStation 3 (PS3) video game console.Power connector
Power connector may refer to:
AC power plugs and sockets, devices that allow electrically operated equipment to be connected to the primary alternating current (AC) power supply in a building
NEMA connector, the standard for much of the Americas and Japan for such plugs and sockets
Industrial power plug
DC connector, an electrical connector for supplying direct current (DC) power
Blade connector, commonly found in cars for quick connection of wiring to electrical components
IEC 60309 (BS 4343), so-called "Commando" plug and socket
IEC 60320, connectors for power supply cords to electrical appliances
Molex connector, four-pin hard disk drive (HDD) connectors, also used for powering CD-ROM drives, burners etc.
Berg connector, smaller four pin floppy disk drive (FDD) connectors, also used by some hard drives, and carrying the same power supplies as the HDD connectorsPower cord
A power cord, line cord, or mains cable is an electrical cable that temporarily connects an appliance to the mains electricity supply via a wall socket or extension cord. The terms are generally used for cables using a power plug to connect to a single-phase alternating current power source at the local line voltage—(generally 100 to 240 volts, depending on the location). The terms power cable, mains lead, flex or kettle lead are also used. A lamp cord (also known as a zip cord) is a light-weight, ungrounded, single-insulated two-wire cord used for small loads such as a table or floor lamp.
A cord set includes connectors molded to the cord at each end (see Appliance coupler). Cord sets are detachable from both the power supply and the electrical equipment, and consist of a flexible cord with electrical connectors at either end, one male, and one female. One end of the cord set is attached to a molded electrical plug; the other is typically a molded electrical receptacle to prevent the possibility of having an exposed live prong or pin which would cause electric shock. The female connector attaches to the piece of equipment or appliance while the male plug connects to the electrical receptacle or outlet.Power entry module
A power entry module (PEM) is an electromechanical component used in electrical appliances, integrating the appliance inlet with other components such as:
a switch, possibly including integrated or remote bowden cable actuation;
a circuit breaker, possibly including overload, overcurrent, or undercurrent protection, as well as remote triggering;
an appliance fuse holder;
a voltage selector;
an electromagnetic interference line filter;
an appliance outlet.Advantages of a power entry module over individual components:
unitized, standardized product with pre-assembled individual components;
alternative designs with similar dimensions may be substituted without major re-engineering;
protected, pre-wired, tested, and certified power components.Power entry modules are used to save labor in manufacturing electrical and electronic equipment powered by an external source, such as the AC powerline. They are also quite compact, taking up a small amount of space on the equipment’s chassis, or printed circuit board.
Power entry modules frequently allow connections to the equipment circuitry using quick connect tab terminals, also known as blade connectors. An AC inlet connector allows use of a separate, detachable AC line cord that has the type of wall plug favored by the locality. IEC 60320 AC inlet connectors typically used can handle either 120 or 250 volts.
Since most power entry modules connect to the AC powerline, they are subject to safety standards set by Underwriters Laboratories (UL), the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), Verband der Elektrotechnik, Elektronik und Informationstechnik (VDE), and many other safety standards agencies such as the BSI Group (BSI). Power entry module manufacturers take on the responsibility of producing power entry module products in such a way that they meet the standards of one or more of these safety standard agencies, so that equipment manufacturers using them need not take responsibility for the internal details of safety certification. Power entry module manufacturers also pay independent testing labs to test their products against the safety standards, so that the products can carry the safety agency’s approval mark.
Typical AC power entry modules often have dielectric strengths of 2000 volts or more, and can handle currents of up to 10 to 20 amperes at 250 volts maximum. Exceeding the ratings can cause unsafe operation and must be avoided.
Medical devices can and do take advantage of power entry modules. Power entry modules are available with electromagnetic interference filters with very low leakage current ratings, even those suitable for direct patient contact in accordance with UL 544 and IEC 60601-1. Shock-safe fuseholders have also been integrated into power entry modules. These devices require a tool to remove the fuse for replacement.
DC (Direct current) power entry modules have been less common, but are finding popularity with equipment manufacturers, especially those that supply equipment in both AC- and DC-powered versions. The DC-powered versions of such equipment are frequently used in telephone exchange applications.
Power entry modules are also available rated as water resistant at IP65, with seal protection at the panel opening, around the fuse holders when provided, and between the inlet housing and connector pins.