IBM Public License

The IBM Public License (IPL) is a free software / open-source software license written and sometimes used by IBM. It is approved by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) and described as an "open-source license" by the Open Source Initiative.

The IPL differs from the GNU General Public License (GPL), in that it places the liability on the publisher or distributor of the licensed software code. According to IBM, this is to facilitate commercial use of open-source software, without placing the contributor at a risk of liability. Proponents of the IPL note a clearer definition of responsibility for software code than that of the GPL.

The IPL is incompatible with the GPL because it contains restrictions not included in the GPL. According to the FSF, "This is a free software license. Unfortunately, it has a choice of law clause which makes it incompatible with the GNU GPL."[2]

The IPL differs from the GPL in the handling of patents, as IPL terminates the license upon patent disputes.

Examples of software projects licensed under the IPL include Postfix, OpenAFS, and the now-unmaintained Jikes compiler for Java.

IBM Public License
Latest version1.0
PublishedAugust 1999
DFSG compatibleYes [1]
FSF approvedYes [2]
OSI approvedYes
GPL compatibleNo [2]
Linking from code with a different licenseYes

See also

External links


  1. ^ The DFSG and Software Licenses - Debian Wiki
  2. ^ a b c "Various Licenses and Comments about Them - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation". 2016-07-08. Retrieved 2016-07-29.

Aglets is a Java-based mobile agent platform and library for building mobile agents based applications. An aglet is a Java agent which can autonomously and spontaneously move from one host to another carrying a piece of code with it. It can be programmed to execute at a remote host and show different behaviours at different hosts. Java based security implementations take care of authorised access to local resources at the remote hosts.

Aglets was originally developed by Mitsuru Oshima ("大島 満") and Danny Lange at the IBM Tokyo Research Laboratory. The original name of the project was AWB (Aglets WorkBench) and IBM was responsible for most of the 1.x release. However the project is now hosted at as an open source project, where it is distributed under the IBM Public License. In the beginning, the SourceForge releases had been only bug-fix ones, but 2.x series(most of which came from open source community only) had better security and thread management. It now includes a log4j based logging system and a few bug-fixes of the older versions.

Aglets is completely written in Java, thus allowing a high portability of both the agents and the platform. Aglets includes both a complete Java mobile agent platform, with a stand-alone server called Tahiti, and a library that allows developers to build mobile agents and to embed the Aglets technology in their applications.

No new releases of Aglets have been made since 2001, although an updated users manual was released in 2004. The future of the project is unclear.

Aspera (company)

Aspera is a data transport and streaming technology company that provides high speed data transfer solutions to send, share, stream and sync large files and data sets. Aspera belongs to the hybrid cloud business unit of IBM.

Cambridge Scientific Center

The IBM Cambridge Scientific Center was a company research laboratory established in February 1964 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Situated at 545 Technology Square (Tech Square), in the same building as MIT's Project MAC, it was later renamed the IBM Scientific Center. It is most notable for creating the CP-40 and the control program portions of CP/CMS, a virtual machine operating system developed for the IBM System/360-67.

Comparison of distributed file systems

In computing, a distributed file system (DFS) or network file system is any file system that allows access to files from multiple hosts sharing via a computer network. This makes it possible for multiple users on multiple machines to share files and storage resources.

Distributed file systems differ in their performance, mutability of content, handling of concurrent writes, handling of permanent or temporary loss of nodes or storage, and their policy of storing content.

Comparison of free and open-source software licenses

This is a comparison of published free software licenses and open-source licenses. The comparison only covers software licenses with a linked article for details, approved by at least one expert group at the FSF, the OSI, the Debian project or the Fedora project. For a list of licenses not specifically intended for software, see List of free content licenses.

Comparison of mail servers

This is a comparison of mail servers: mail transfer agents, mail delivery agents, and other computer software that provide e-mail services.

Unix based mail servers are built using a number of components because a Unix style environment is, by default, a toolbox operating system. A stock Unix-like server already has internal mail, more traditional ones also come with a full MTA already part of the standard installation. To allow the server to send external emails, an MTA such as Sendmail, Postfix, or Exim is required. Mail is read either through direct access (shell login) or mailbox protocols like POP and IMAP. Unix based MTA software largely acts as enhancement or replacement of the respective system's "native" MTA.

Windows servers do not natively implement email. Windows based MTAs therefore have to cover the whole set of email related functionality.

IBM Research

IBM Research is IBM's research and development division. It is the largest industrial research organization in the world, with twelve labs on six continents.IBM employees have garnered six Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, 20 inductees into the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame, 19 National Medals of Technology, five National Medals of Science and three Kavli Prizes.As of 2018, the company has generated more patents than any other business in each of 25 consecutive years, which is a record.

IBM Research – Africa

IBM Research – Africa is one of twelve research laboratories comprising IBM Research. Located at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa in Nairobi, it opened on November 7, 2013. It is the first commercial technology research facility on the African continent conducting both applied and far-reaching exploratory research.The lab is directed by Chief Scientist Osamuyimen Stewart, who oversees a research staff of 25.

IBM Research – Australia

IBM Research – Australia is a research and development laboratory established by IBM Research in 2009 in Melbourne. It is involved in social media, interactive content, healthcare analytics and services research, multimedia analytics, and genomics. The lab is headed by Vice President and Lab Director Joanna Batstone. It was to be the company’s first laboratory combining research and development in a single organisation.The opening of the Melbourne lab in 2011 received an injection of $22 million in Australian Federal Government funding and an undisclosed amount provided by the government of the state of Victoria.

IBM Research – Brazil

IBM Research – Brazil is one of twelve research laboratories comprising IBM Research, its first in South America. It was established in June 2010, with locations in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Research focuses on Industrial Technology and Science, Systems of Engagement and Insight, Social Data Analytics and Natural Resources Solutions.

The new lab, IBM's ninth at the time of opening and first in 12 years, underscores the growing importance of emerging markets and the globalization of innovation. In collaboration with Brazil's government, it will help IBM to develop technology systems around natural resource development and large-scale events such as the 2016 Summer Olympics.Engineer and associate lab director Ulisses Mello explains that IBM has four priority areas in Brazil: "The main area is related to natural resources management, involving oil and gas, mining and agricultural sectors. The second is the social data analytics segment that comprises the analysis of data generated from social networking sites [such as Twitter or Facebook], which can be applied, for example, to financial analysis. The third strategic area is nanotechnology applied to the development of the smarter devices for the intermittent production industry. This technology can be applied to, for example, blood testing or recovering oil from existing fields. And the last one is smarter cities."

IBM Research – Ireland

IBM Research – Ireland is one of IBM Research's twelve worldwide research laboratories, a first for the European Union and the only one which focuses on smarter technology for cities.

Opened in 2011 in Damastown Industrial Park, in the north-west of Dublin, Ireland, it conducts research on such critical resources as water, energy, and marine environments, as well transportation, city fabric, risk, and exascale computing.The Smarter Cities Technology Centre at IBM Research – Ireland represents an IDA Ireland - supported investment of up to EUR 66 million. As many as 200 new jobs are hoped to be created.

IBM Somers Office Complex

The IBM Somers Office Complex is a complex of five office buildings formerly owned and occupied by IBM in Somers, New York, United States. Situated on a 730-acre (3.0 km2) campus, I. M. Pei designed pyramid of glass structures house regional headquarters for the IBM corporation.Begun in 1984, the modernist 1,200,000-square-foot (110,000 m2) complex has been described as a "futuristic fortress".

New-collar worker

A new-collar worker is an individual who develops technical and soft skills needed to work in the contemporary technology industry through nontraditional education paths. The term was introduced by IBM CEO Ginni Rometty in late 2016 and refers to "middle-skill" occupations in technology, such as cybersecurity analysts, application developers and cloud computing specialists.


OpenAFS is an open-source implementation of the Andrew distributed file system (AFS). AFS was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University, and developed as a commercial product by the Transarc Corporation, which was subsequently acquired by IBM. At LinuxWorld on 15 August 2000, IBM announced their plans to release a version of their commercial AFS product under the IBM Public License. This became OpenAFS. Today, OpenAFS is actively developed for a wide range of operating system families including: AIX, Mac OS X, Darwin, HP-UX, Irix, Solaris, Linux, Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD.

Postfix (software)

Postfix is a free and open-source mail transfer agent (MTA) that routes and delivers electronic mail.

It is released under the IBM Public License 1.0 which is a free software license. Alternatively, starting with version 3.2.5, it is available under the Eclipse Public License 2.0 at the user's option.Originally written in 1997 by Wietse Venema at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center in New York, and first released in December 1998, Postfix continues as of 2019 to be actively developed by its creator and other contributors. The software is also known by its former names VMailer and IBM Secure Mailer.

In a December 2017 study performed by E-Soft, Inc., approximately 34% of the publicly reachable mail-servers on the Internet ran Postfix making it the second most popular mail server behind Exim.

The Coroner's Toolkit

The Coroner's Toolkit (or TCT) is a suite of free computer security programs by Dan Farmer and Wietse Venema for digital forensic analysis. The suite runs under several Unix-related operating systems: FreeBSD, OpenBSD, BSD/OS, SunOS/Solaris, Linux, and HP-UX. TCT is released under the terms of the IBM Public License.

Parts of TCT can be used to aid analysis of and data recovery from computer disasters.

TCT was superseded by The Sleuth Kit. Although TSK is only partially based on TCT, the authors of TCT have accepted it as official successor to TCT.

The Weather Company

The Weather Company is a weather forecasting and information technology company that owns and operates and Weather Underground. The Weather Company is a subsidiary of the Watson & Cloud Platform business unit of IBM.

Truven Health Analytics

Truven Health Analytics is a IBM Watson Health Company that provides healthcare data and analytics services. It provides information, analytic tools, benchmarks, research, and services to the healthcare industry, including hospitals, government agencies, employers, health plans, clinicians, pharmaceutical, biotech and medical device companies.

Formerly the Thomson Healthcare of Thomson Corporation, on April 23, 2012, Thomson Reuters agreed to sell this business to Veritas Capital for US$1.25 billion. On June 6, 2012, the sale of the healthcare division was finalized and the new company, Truven Health Analytics, became an independent organization solely focused on healthcare. Truven is a portmanteau of the words "trusted" and "proven". IBM Corporation acquired Truven on February 18, 2016, and merged with IBM's Watson Health unit.

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