# Hyperpower

A hyperpower is a state that dominates all other states in every domain (i.e. military, culture, economy)[1] and is considered to be a step higher than a superpower. The term often refers to the United States of America due to its status as the world's only current superpower; however, its possible status above that remains a topic of dispute.[2]

## History

The British journalist Peregrine Worsthorne coined the term in a Sunday Telegraph article published March 3, 1991.[3] After the end of the Cold War with the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, some political commentators felt that a new term was needed to describe the United States' position (Pax Americana) as the lone superpower.[4][5][6] French foreign minister Hubert Védrine popularized the term in 1998, because from France's position, the United States looked like a hyperpower, although the validity of classifying the United States in this way was disputed.[2]

The term has also been applied retroactively to dominant states of the past. In her book Day of Empire, American professor Amy Chua suggests that the Achaemenid Empire, the Tang dynasty, the Roman Empire, the Mongol Empire, the Dutch Empire, and the British Empire were successful examples of historical hegemons; the Spanish Monarchy, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and Third Reich were counters; and she reflects on assertions that the United States is a modern hyperpower. In a historical context, it is usually understood to mean a power that greatly exceeds any others in its political environment along several axes; Rome did not dominate Persia, Ancient India or China, but did dominate the entire Mediterranean area militarily, culturally, and economically.[7]

## References

1. ^ "Definition of 'hyperpower'". Collins Dictionary. Collins. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
2. ^ a b "To Paris, U.S. Looks Like a 'Hyperpower'". International Herald Tribune. The New York Times Company. February 5, 1999. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
3. ^ McFedries, Paul (February 25, 2002). "hyper-power". Word Spy. Logophilia Limited. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
4. ^ Nossal, Kim Richard (June 29, 1999). "Lonely Superpower or Unapologetic Hyperpower?". Saldanha, Western Cape: South African Political Studies Association. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
5. ^ Reiter, Erich; Hazdra, Peter (March 9, 2013). The Impact of Asian Powers on Global Developments. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 5. ISBN 9-783-6621-3172-5. Now though, some people, in whose opinion the term "superpower" does not denote the actual dominance of the USA incisively enough, use the term "hyperpower".
6. ^ Cohen, Eliot A. (July 1, 2004). "History and the Hyperpower". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
7. ^ Chua, Amy (January 6, 2009). Day of Empire: How Hyperpowers Rise to Global Dominance—and Why They Fall. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 9-780-3074-7245-8.
American Century

The American Century is a characterization of the period since the middle of the 20th century as being largely dominated by the United States in political, economic, and cultural terms. It is comparable to the description of the period 1815–1914 as Britain's Imperial Century. The United States' influence grew throughout the 20th century, but became especially dominant after the end of World War II, when only two superpowers remained, the United States and the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States remained the world's only superpower, and became the hegemon, or what some have termed a hyperpower.

Excession

Excession is a science fiction novel by Scottish writer Iain M. Banks. It is the fifth in the Culture series, a series of ten science fiction novels which feature a utopian fictional interstellar society called the Culture. It concerns the response of the Culture and other interstellar societies to an unprecedented alien artifact, the Excession of the title.

The book is largely about the response of the Culture's Minds (benevolent AIs with enormous intellectual and physical capabilities and distinctive personalities) to the Excession itself and the way in which another society, the Affront, whose systematic brutality horrifies the Culture, tries to use the Excession to increase its power. As in Banks' other Culture novels the main themes are the moral dilemmas that confront a hyperpower and how biological characters find ways to give their lives meaning in a post-scarcity society that is presided over by benign super-intelligent machines. The book features a large collection of Culture ship names, some of which give subtle clues about the roles these ships' Minds play in the story. In terms of style, the book is also notable for the way in which many important conversations between Minds resemble email messages complete with headers.

Hubert Védrine

Hubert Védrine (born 31 July 1947 in Saint-Silvain-Bellegarde, Creuse) is a French Socialist politician. He is an advisor at Moelis & Company.

Josh Freese

Joshua Ryan Freese (born December 25, 1972) is an American session drummer, multi-instrumentalist, songwriter, and composer. He is the older brother of musician Jason Freese.

He is a permanent member of The Vandals and Devo, having formerly played drums for Guns N' Roses from 1997 to 2000, A Perfect Circle from 1999 to 2012, Nine Inch Nails from 2005 to 2008, Weezer from 2009 to 2011, and Sublime with Rome from 2012 to 2017. He has appeared on over 400 records. In December 2010, Freese began touring with Paramore on their South American tour. In fall 2016 he returned to playing full-time with Sting whom he toured and recorded with in 2005.

M.A.C.H. 1

M.A.C.H. 1 directs here, for the Thunderbolts member formerly known as M.A.C.H. 1, see Abner JenkinsM.A.C.H. 1 was a comic strip that ran in the British science fiction comic 2000 AD. The strip was created by writer Pat Mills and illustrator Enio. It debuted in the first issue of 2000 AD, which was published in February 1977, and ran nearly continuously until issue 64, dated 13 May 1978.

Maritime power

A Maritime power is a nation with a very strong navy, which often is also a great power, or at least a regional power. A Maritime power is able to easily control their coast, and exert influence upon both nearby and far countries. A nation that dominates the world navally is known as a maritime superpower.

Pax Americana

Pax Americana (Latin for "American Peace", modeled after Pax Romana, Pax Britannica, and Pax Mongolica) is a term applied to the concept of relative peace in the Western Hemisphere and later the world beginning around the middle of the 20th century, thought to be caused by the preponderance of power enjoyed by the United States. Although the term finds its primary utility in the latter half of the 20th century, it has been used with different meanings and eras, such as the post-Civil War era in North America, and regionally in the Americas at the start of the 20th century.

Pax Americana is primarily used in its modern connotations to refer to the peace among great powers established after the end of World War II in 1945, also called the Long Peace. In this modern sense, it has come to indicate the military and economic position of the United States in relation to other nations. For example, the Marshall Plan, which spent \$13 billion to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, has been seen as "the launching of the pax americana".The Latin term derives from Pax Romana of the Roman Empire. The term is most notably associated with Pax Britannica (1815–1914) under the British Empire, which served as the global hegemon and constabulary from the late 18th century until the early 20th century.

Performance 2007 Tour

Two months before the release of their fifth full-length album, Year Zero, industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails began a new tour, officially called Performance 2007. The tour initially started off as a 'best-of' tour (since no songs from Year Zero were played at the first few days) but later transformed into a direct Year Zero support tour.

Prior to the beginning of the tour, Trent Reznor in an interview described it as an opportunity to play with the same line-up again, visiting some places the band did not play in before and revisiting music from all the different areas of Nine Inch Nails rather than focusing entirely on the new album.

The production on this tour was minimal so the heaviest setlist rotation in the band's history occurred, covering about 50 songs from all their albums.

Power tower

Power tower may refer to:

Power Tower, a thrill ride at Valleyfair and Cedar Point amusement parks in the USA

Power tower (power take-off), a type of mechanical power take-off (PTO)

Solar power tower, a type of solar power plant

Tetration, a mathematical operation also known as power tower, hyperpower, or superexponentiation

Transmission tower, usually a tall steel lattice tower supporting an overhead electric power line (aka electricity pylon, hydro tower, etc.)

Power tower (exercise), equipment can include pull up handles, dip bars, push up grips and captain's chair forearm pads

Power tower (Linz), an office building in Linz, Austria

Second Superpower

"Second Superpower" is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society as a world force comparable to or counterbalancing the United States of America. The term originates from a 2003 New York Times article which described world public opinion as one of two superpowers.The term has also been applied by scholars to the possibility that the People's Republic of China could emerge as a "second superpower," with global power and influence on par with the United States.

Superpower

A superpower is a state with a dominant position characterized by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale. This is done through the combined-means of economic, military, technological, and cultural strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence. Traditionally, superpowers are preeminent among the great powers.

The term was first applied post World War II to the United States and the Soviet Union. For the duration of the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union came to be generally regarded as the two remaining superpowers, dominating world affairs. At the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, only the United States appeared to be the world's superpower.Alice Lyman Miller defines a superpower as "a country that has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes, in more than one region of the globe at a time, and so may plausibly attain the status of global hegemony."

Superpower (disambiguation)

Superpower, a state with the ability to influence events and project power on a worldwide scale

Second Superpower, a term used to conceptualize a global civil society as a counterpoint to the United States of America

Energy superpower

Potential superpowersSuperpower may also refer to:

Superpower (ability), extraordinary powers mostly possessed by fictional characters, commonly in American comic books

Tetration, superpower or hyperpower is used as synonym of tetration.

Superpower collapse

Superpower collapse is the political collapse of a superpower nation state; the term is most often used to describe the dissolution of the Soviet Union but also can be applied to the loss of the British Empire's superpower status.

Tetration

In mathematics, tetration (or hyper-4) is iterated, or repeated, exponentiation. It is the next hyperoperation after exponentiation, but before pentation. The word was coined by Reuben Louis Goodstein from tetra- (four) and iteration. Tetration is used for the notation of very large numbers. The notation ${\displaystyle {^{n}a}}$ means ${\displaystyle {a^{a^{\cdot ^{\cdot ^{a}}}}}}$, which is the application of exponentiation ${\displaystyle n-1}$ times.

The first four hyperoperations are shown here, with tetration being the fourth of these (in this case, the unary operation succession, ${\displaystyle a'=a+1}$, is considered to be the zeroth operation).

Here, succession (a' = a + 1) is the most basic operation; addition (a + n) is a primary operation, though for natural numbers it can be thought of as a chained succession of n successors of a; multiplication (${\displaystyle a\times n}$) is also a primary operation, though for natural numbers it can be thought of as a chained addition involving n numbers a. Exponentiation (${\displaystyle a^{n}}$) can be thought of as a chained multiplication involving n numbers a, and analogously, tetration (${\displaystyle ^{n}a}$) can be thought of as a chained power involving n numbers a. Each of the operations above are defined by iterating the previous one; however, unlike the operations before it, tetration is not an elementary function.

The parameter a may be called the base-parameter in the following, while the parameter n in the following may be called the height-parameter (which is integral in the first approach but may be generalized to fractional, real and complex heights, see below). Tetration is read as "the nth tetration of a".

The Culture (series)

The Culture series is a science fiction series written by Scottish author Iain M. Banks. The stories centre on the Culture, a utopian, post-scarcity space society of humanoids, aliens, and very advanced artificial intelligences living in socialist habitats spread across the Milky Way galaxy. The main theme of the novels is the dilemmas that an idealistic hyperpower faces in dealing with civilizations that do not share its ideals, and whose behaviour it sometimes finds repulsive. In some of the stories, action takes place mainly in non-Culture environments, and the leading characters are often on the fringes of (or non-members of) the Culture, sometimes acting as agents of Culture (knowing and unknowing) in its plans to civilize the galaxy.

The Reign of the Superman

"The Reign of the Superman" (January 1933) is a short story written by Jerry Siegel and illustrated by Joe Shuster. It was the writer/artist duo's first published use of the name Superman, which they later applied to their archetypal fictional superhero. The title character of this story is a telepathic villain, rather than a physically powerful hero like the better-known character. (Although the name is hyphenated between syllables due to it being broken between pages on the story's opening spread, it is spelled Superman in the magazine's table of contents and in the story's text.)

World domination

World domination (also called global domination or world conquest or cosmocracy) is a hypothetical power structure, either achieved or aspired to, in which a single political authority holds the power over all or virtually all the inhabitants of the planet Earth. Various individuals or regimes have tried to achieve this goal throughout history, without ever attaining it.

The theme has been often used in works of fiction, particularly in political fiction, as well as in conspiracy theories (which may posit that some person or group has already secretly achieved this goal), particularly those fearing the development of a "New World Order" involving a world government of a totalitarian nature.

Year Zero (album)

Year Zero is the fifth studio album by American industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, released by Interscope Records on April 17, 2007. Conceived while touring in support of the band's previous album, With Teeth (2005), the album was recorded throughout late-2006, and was produced by frontman Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross. It was the band's last album for Interscope, following Reznor's departure the same year over a dispute of overseas pricing.

In contrast to the introspective style of songwriting featured on the band's previous work, the record is a concept album that criticizes contemporary policies of the United States government by presenting a dystopian vision of the year 2022. It was part of a larger Year Zero project, which included a remix album, an alternate reality game of the same name, as well a conceived television or film adaptation. The game expanded upon the album's storyline, using websites, pre-recorded phone messages, murals, among other media in promotion of the project. The album was promoted by two singles: "Survivalism" and "Capital G".

Year Zero received positive reviews from critics, who complimented its concept and production, as well as the accompanying alternate reality game. The album reached number two in the US, number six in the UK, and the top 10 in various other countries.

Year Zero Remixed

Year Zero Remixed (stylized as Y34RZ3R0R3M1X3D) is the third remix album by American industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, released on November 20, 2007 in the United States, and on November 26, 2007 in the United Kingdom. It features remixed versions of tracks from the band's previous studio album Year Zero; these remixes were created by various producers and recording artists.

This album was the last Nine Inch Nails album to be released by Interscope Records; it fulfilled the band's contractual commitments to the company, leaving Nine Inch Nails frontman Trent Reznor to proceed as a "totally free agent, free of any recording contract with any label".

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