Hyperlink cinema is a term coined by author Alissa Quart, who used the term in her review of the film Happy Endings (2005) for the film journal Film Comment in 2005. Film critic Roger Ebert popularized the term when reviewing the film Syriana in 2005. These films are not hypermedia and do not have actual hyperlinks, but are multilinear in a more metaphorical sense.
In describing Happy Endings, Quart considers captions acting as footnotes and split screen as elements of hyperlink cinema and notes the influence of the World Wide Web and multitasking. Playing with time and characters' personal history, plot twists, interwoven storylines between multiple characters, jumping between the beginning and end (flashback and flashforward) are also elements. Ebert further described hyperlink cinema as films where the characters or action reside in separate stories, but a connection or influence between those disparate stories is slowly revealed to the audience; illustrated in Mexican director Alejandro González Iñárritu's films Amores perros (2000), 21 Grams (2003), and Babel (2006).
Quart suggests that director Robert Altman created the structure for the genre and demonstrated its usefulness for combining interlocking stories in his films Nashville (1975) and Short Cuts (1993). However, Jean Renoir's 1939 The Rules of the Game first used a narrative structure based on multiple characters and predates Altman's Nashville by 36 years.
Quart also mentions the television series 24 and discusses Alan Rudolph's film Welcome to L.A. (1976) as an early prototype. Crash (2004) is an example of the genre , as are Steven Soderbergh's Traffic (2000), City of God (2002), Syriana (2005) Nine Lives (2005) and Odu Raja Odu (2018).
The hyperlink cinema narrative and story structure can be compared to social science's spatial analysis. As described by Edward Soja and Costis Hadjimichalis spatial analysis examines the "'horizontal experience' of human life, the spatial dimension of individual behavior and social relations, as opposed to the 'vertical experience' of history, tradition, and biography." English critic John Berger notes for the novel that "it is scarcely any longer possible to tell a straight story sequentially unfolding in time" for "we are too aware of what is continually traversing the story line laterally."
An academic analysis of hyperlink cinema appeared in the journal Critical Studies in Media Communication, and referred to the films as Global Network Films. Narine's study examines the films Traffic (2000), Amores perros (2000), 21 Grams (2003), Beyond Borders (2003), Crash (2004; released 2005), Syriana (2005), Babel (2006) and others, citing network theorist Manuel Castells and philosophers Michel Foucault and Slavoj Žižek. The study suggests that the films are network narratives that map the network society and the new connections citizens experience in the age of globalization.
Aaytha Ezhuthu (English: Three dots) is a 2004 Indian Tamil-language political thriller film written and directed by Mani Ratnam. It stars Suriya, Madhavan, Siddharth, Trisha Krishnan, Meera Jasmine, and Esha Deol in the lead roles, while Bharathiraja appears in another pivotal role. The title of the movie was taken from the name of a Tamil letter, ஃ – three dots corresponding to the film's three different personalities from completely different strata of society.
The film's score and soundtrack were composed by A. R. Rahman, while Ravi K. Chandran was the cinematographer and Sreekar Prasad was the editor. The film was simultaneously shot in Hindi as Yuva with an entirely different cast retaining Deol, while a dubbed version in Telugu, "Yuva" was also released. The film was produced by Ratnam's home banner, Madras Talkies and was released on 21 May 2004 to positive reviews from the audience, and it gained recognition over the years, becoming a classic and a cult film in Tamil cinema.Alissa Quart
Alissa Quart (born 1972) is an American nonfiction writer, critic, journalist, editor, and poet. Her nonfiction books are Republic of Outsiders: The Power of Amateurs, Dreamers and Rebels (2013), Hothouse Kids: The Dilemma of the Gifted Child (2007), Branded: The Buying and Selling of Teenagers (2003), and Squeezed: Why Our Families Can't Afford America (2018), and her poetry, Monetized (2015).
She was an editor at large for The Atavist, an award-winning nonfiction iPad and enhanced ebook publisher; her multimedia story with Maisie Crow, "The Last Clinic" was nominated for a National Magazine Award and a Documentary Emmy in 2014. She is editor-in-chief of the Economic Hardship Reporting Project, founded by Barbara Ehrenreich. Her articles and reviews have appeared in The Guardian,The Atlantic, the New York Times Sunday Review, The Nation, Newsweek, Mother Jones, and Marie Claire, and she has appeared on Nightline, 20/20, the Today Show, CNN, CBC, and C-Span. She coined the term hyperlink cinema in 2005 and popularized the term hipster sexism.
She teaches as an adjunct professor at Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism, and is a 2010 Nieman Fellowship recipient.Anthology film
An anthology film (also known as an omnibus film, package film, or portmanteau film) is a subgenre of films consisting of several different short films, often tied together by only a single theme, premise, or brief interlocking event (often a turning point). Sometimes each one is directed by a different director. These differ from "revue films" such as Paramount on Parade (1930)—which were common in Hollywood in the early sound film era to show off their stars and related vaudeville-style acts—composite films, and compilation films.
Sometimes there is a theme, such as a place (e.g. New York Stories, Paris, je t'aime), a person (e.g. Four Rooms), or a thing (e.g. Twenty Bucks, Coffee and Cigarettes), that is present in each story and serves to bind them together. Two of the earliest films to use the form were Edmund Goulding's Grand Hotel (1932), released by MGM with an all-star cast; and Paramount's If I Had a Million (also 1932), featuring segments helmed by a number of directors.Chapters (film)
Chapters is a 2012 Malayalam film written and directed by debutant director Sunil Ibrahim. The film features an ensemble cast consisting of Sreenivasan, Nivin Pauly, Hemanth Menon, Vijeesh, Dharmajan, Vineeth Kumar, Shine, Aju Varghese, Riya Saira, Rejith Menon, Gauthami Nair, K. P. A. C. Lalitha and Lena. In a narrative structure similar to hyperlink cinema, the film consists of four "chapters", each related to the other in some or the other way. The film has a unique plot which talks about people who unknowingly end up helping each other, in a series of events which take place precisely in two days and a night.
The film is produced by Shafeer Sait under the banner of Qurban Films in association with Campus Oaks and features music composed by Mejo Joseph, whilst cinematography is handled by Krish Kymal and the film is edited by V. Saajan. Campus Oaks is an entertainment company, conceptualised and driven by students of the 1995 batch of NSS Engineering College, Palakkad.The film was released on 7 December to positive reviews.Cinema of West Bengal
The cinema of West Bengal (Bengali: টলিউড, romanized: ṭôliuḍ), also known as Tollywood, refers to the Indian Bengali language film industry based in the Tollygunge region of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The origins of the nickname Tollywood, a portmanteau of the words Tollygunge and Hollywood, dates back to 1932. It was a historically important film industry, at one time the center of Indian film production. The Bengali film industry is known for producing many of Indian cinema's most critically acclaimed global Parallel Cinema and art films, with several of its filmmakers gaining prominence at the Indian National Film Awards as well as international acclaim. Since the late 20th century, the Bengali film industry has become smaller, overtaken by other regional industries such as Bollywood and South Indian cinema.
Ever since Satyajit Ray's Pather Panchali (1955) was awarded Best Human Document at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival, Bengali films frequently appeared in international fora and film festivals for the next several decades. This allowed Bengali filmmakers to reach a global audience. The most influential among them was Satyajit Ray, whose films became successful among European, American and Asian audiences. His work subsequently had a worldwide impact, with filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese, James Ivory, Abbas Kiarostami, Elia Kazan, François Truffaut, Carlos Saura, Isao Takahata, Wes Anderson and Danny Boyle being influenced by his cinematic style, and many others such as Akira Kurosawa praising his work.The "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy". Kanchenjungha (1962) introduced a narrative structure that resembles later hyperlink cinema. Ray's 1967 script for a film to be called The Alien, which was eventually cancelled, is widely believed to have been the inspiration for Steven Spielberg's E.T. (1982). Ira Sachs' Forty Shades of Blue (2005) was a loose remake of Charulata, and in Gregory Navas My Family (1995), the final scene is duplicated from the final scene of The World of Apu. Similar references to Ray films are found in recent works such as Sacred Evil (2006), the Elements trilogy of Deepa Mehta, and in films of Jean-Luc Godard.Another prominent Bengali filmmaker is Mrinal Sen, whose films have been well known for their Marxist views. During his career, Mrinal Sen's films have received awards from major film festivals, including Cannes, Berlin, Venice, Moscow, Karlovy Vary, Montreal, Chicago, and Cairo. Retrospectives of his films have been shown in major cities of the world. Another Bengali filmmaker, Ritwik Ghatak, began reaching a global audience long after his death; beginning in the 1990s, a project to restore Ghatak's films was undertaken, and international exhibitions (and subsequent DVD releases) have belatedly generated an increasingly global audience. Some of his films have strong similarities to later famous international films, such as Ajantrik (1958) resembling the Herbie films (1967–2005) and Bari Theke Paliye (1958) resembling François Truffaut's The 400 Blows (1959).
The cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who made his debut with Ray's The Apu Trilogy, also had an important influence on cinematography across the world. One of his most important techniques was bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He pioneered the technique while filming Aparajito (1956), the second part of The Apu Trilogy. Some of the experimental techniques which Satyajit Ray pioneered include photo-negative flashbacks and X-ray digressions while filming Pratidwandi (1972).City of God (2011 film)
City of God (Malayalam: സിറ്റി ഓഫ് ഗോഡ്) is a 2011 Indian crime thriller film directed by Lijo Jose Pellissery and written by Babu Janardhanan. It tells the story of Tamil migrant workers and a team of land mafia criminals in the city of Kochi. It stars Prithviraj, Indrajith, Rajeev Pillai, Rohini, Parvathy, Rima Kallingal and Swetha Menon.
The film uses the hyperlink cinema format as its narrative structure, a technique first used by Satyajit Ray in his Kanchenjungha (1962). City of God is not a remake and shares no resemblance to the 2002 Brazilian film of the same name, although both use non-linear narrative structure. The film was subsequently dubbed and released in Hindi under the same name by Wide Angle Media Pvt Ltd in 2014.
City of God was one of the first among the "New Generation" Malayalam movies, although the trend was just becoming recognised during 2011. Had it been released a little later, moviegoers and analysts feel the film would have better received at the box office.Contagion (2011 film)
Contagion is a 2011 American epidemic medical thriller film directed by Steven Soderbergh. The film features an ensemble cast that includes Marion Cotillard, Bryan Cranston, Matt Damon, Laurence Fishburne, Jude Law, Gwyneth Paltrow, Kate Winslet, and Jennifer Ehle. The plot of Contagion concerns the spread of a virus transmitted by fomites, attempts by medical researchers and public health officials to identify and contain the disease, the loss of social order in a pandemic, and finally the introduction of a vaccine to halt its spread. To follow several interacting plot lines, the film makes use of the multi-narrative "hyperlink cinema" style, popularized in several of Soderbergh's films.
Soderbergh and screenwriter Scott Z. Burns had collaborated on The Informant! (2009). Following that film's release, Burns brought up the idea of producing a medical thriller film depicting the rapid spread of a virus, which was inspired by various pandemics such as the 2003 SARS epidemic and the 2009 flu pandemic. To devise an accurate perception of a pandemic event, Burns consulted with representatives of the World Health Organization as well as noted medical experts such as W. Ian Lipkin and Lawrence "Larry" Brilliant. Principal photography started in Hong Kong in September 2010, and continued in Chicago, Atlanta, London, Geneva, and San Francisco until February 2011.
Contagion premiered at the 68th Venice Film Festival in Venice, Italy on September 3, 2011, and went on general release on September 9. The film was acclaimed by critics, who praised the narratives and the performances of various actors and actresses. It was also well received by scientists, who praised its accuracy. Commercially, the film was a box office success. Budgeted at $60 million, Contagion took $135 million in box office revenue during its theatrical run.Friday (2012 film)
Friday is a 2012 Malayalam drama thriller film directed by Lijin Jose and starring Manu, Fahadh Faasil,and Ann Augustineand based on the Tamil film "Engeyum Eppothum" by M.saravanan. Fahadh does the role of an auto rickshaw driver. The supporting cast includes Nedumudi Venu, Vijayaraghavan and Tini Tom. Produced by Sandra Thomas and Thomas Joseph Pattathanam under the banner of Innovative Film Concepts, the film is set and shot completely in Alappuzha. It released on 18 August 2012 to positive critical reviews. Carrying a tag of One Day-Many Stories; the film has a multi-narrative aspect and is woven in the format of a hyperlink cinema. Production Controller of Friday is Shibu G Suseelan.Happy Endings (film)
Happy Endings is a 2005 American dramedy film written and directed by Don Roos and starring Tom Arnold, Jesse Bradford, Bobby Cannavale, Steve Coogan, Laura Dern, Maggie Gyllenhaal, Lisa Kudrow and Jason Ritter.
The expression "happy ending" is a colloquial term for offering sexual release to a client at the end of a massage.List of apocalyptic films
This is a list of apocalyptic feature-length films. All films within this list feature either the end of the world, a prelude to such an end (such as a world taken over by a viral infection), and/or a post-apocalyptic setting.List of nonlinear narrative films
The following is a chronological list of nonlinear narrative films.Nine Lives (2005 film)
Nine Lives is a 2005 American drama film written and directed by Rodrigo García. The screenplay, an example of hyperlink cinema, relates nine short, loosely intertwined tales with nine different women at their cores. Their themes include parent-child relationships, fractured love, adultery, illness, and death. Similar to García's previous work, Things You Can Tell Just by Looking at Her, it is a series of overlapping vignettes, each one running about the same length and told in a single, unbroken take, featuring an ensemble cast.Opera film
An opera film is a recording of an opera on film.Potential Studios
Potential Studios is an Indian Film production company based at Chennai. This partnership company was founded in 2014, which is part of Potential Group of Companies. Their first movie is Maya (2015) followed by Maanagaram.Rock Paper Scissors (2013 film)
Rock Paper Scissors (French:Roche papier ciseaux) is a 2013 Canadian thriller film from Québec directed by Yan Lanouette Turgeon, which he co-wrote with André Gulluni. The third film to be produced by Camera Oscura (after Marc Bisaillon's well-received La vérité and La lâcheté), producer Christine Falco described it as a work of hyperlink cinema (film choral). Lanouette Turgeon's debut feature is the story of three men—Boucane (Samian), Lorenzo (Remo Girone), and Vincent (Roy Dupuis)—whose lives are brought together through a strange sequence of events.The film features music by composer and performer Ramachandra Borcar (also known as Ramasutra or DJ Ram).Titash Ekti Nadir Naam
Titas Ekti Nadir Naam (Bengali: তিতাস একটি নদীর নাম), or A River Called Titas, is a 1973 Bangladeshi film directed by Ritwik Ghatak. The movie was based on a novel by the same name, written by Adwaita Mallabarman. The movie explores the life of the fishermen on the bank of the Titas River in Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh.
Rosy Samad, Golam Mostafa, Kabori, Prabir Mitra, and Roushan Jamil acted in the main roles. The shooting of the movie took a toll on Ghatak's health, as he was suffering from tuberculosis at the time.
Alongside Satyajit Ray's Kanchenjungha (1962)
and Mrinal Sen's Calcutta 71 (1972), Titash Ekti Nadir Naam is one of the earliest films to resemble hyperlink cinema, featuring multiple characters in a collection of interconnected stories, predating Robert Altman's Nashville (1975).Vaanam
Vaanam (English: Sky) is a 2011 Indian Tamil drama film written and directed by Krish. It is a remake of his 2010 Telugu film Vedam. It features an ensemble cast of Silambarasan, Bharath, Anushka Shetty, Prakash Raj, Saranya and Sonia Agarwal. The score and soundtrack were composed by Yuvan Shankar Raja, while cinematography and editing were handled by Nirav Shah and Anthony Gonsalves, respectively.
Vaanam is a hyperlink cinema film, with the story revolving around the lives of five individuals from different walks of life, representing the five natural elements— aether, air, water, fire and earth—and illustrates how their fates intertwine on New Year's Eve at a hospital in Chennai. The film, jointly produced by Ganesh Janardhanan and R. Ganesh and distributed by Dayanidhi Azhagiri's Cloud Nine Movies, was released on 29 April 2011, and opened to critical universal acclaim upon release, and was successful at the box office. The movie was also dubbed in Telugu as Jeevana Vedam and in Hindi as Zindagi: Ek Sangharsh in 2012.Vedam (film)
Vedam (English: The Chant) is a 2010 Indian Telugu language drama film written and directed by Radhakrishna Jagarlamudi, starring Allu Arjun, Manoj Manchu, Anushka Shetty, Manoj Bajpayee, Saranya Ponvannan, Deeksha Seth, Lekha Washington, and Siya Gautham. Broadly falling into the Hyperlink cinema genre, the film was critically acclaimed, receiving several accolades including four Filmfare Awards (Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor and Best Actress) .Krish later remade the film in Tamil as Vaanam (2011), with Silambarasan, Bharath and Prakash Raj, while Anushka and Saranya reprised their roles.Yogi (2014 film)
Yogi (யோகி) (English: Master of Oneself) is a 2014 Independent Singaporean Hyperlink Tamil Comedic Action Thriller Short-Film written, shot and directed by Kevin William. Stanley Vincent composed the film's soundtrack and score with an additional score composed by Dinesh Menon. The film was jointly edited by Kevin William, Stanley Vincent & Dinesh Raj. Filmoholic Pictures and Aaryan Productions & Entertainment bankrolled the venture and purchased the theatrical rights for the film while Treasure Max Productions held the audio rights.
Yogi is a Hyperlink Cinema film, with the story revolving around the lives of 4 friends & an assassin, both coming from different walks of life and illustrates how their fates gets intertwined by a similar motive. The film had its own theatrical premiere in Golden Village cinemas (Yishun), on 5–6 December 2014, being the first ever local independent short film to hit the screens. The film opened to mostly positive reviews from critics and audience island-wide.
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