Hymn to Liberty

The "Hymn to Liberty" or "Hymn to Freedom"[1] (Greek: Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν, romanizedÝmnos is tin Eleftherían, pronounced [ˈimnos is tin elefθeˈrian], also Greek: Ύμνος προς την Ελευθερίαν[3][4][5] Ýmnos pros tin Eleftherían pronounced [ˈim.nos pros tin elefθe'ri.an], lit. "Anthem to Liberty") is a poem written by Dionysios Solomos in 1823 that consists of 158 stanzas, which is used as the national anthem of Greece and Cyprus. It was set to music by Nikolaos Mantzaros, and is the longest national anthem in the world by length of text.[6] In 1865, the first three stanzas (and later the first two) officially became the national anthem of Greece and, from 1966, also that of Cyprus.

Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν
English: "Hymn to Liberty" or "Hymn to Freedom"
Ýmnos is tin Eleftherían
Ýmnos pros tin Eleftherían
Ymnos Eis Tin Eleftherian.Book cover.1825

National anthem of
 Greece
 Cyprus

Former national anthem of the Cretan State


Former royal anthem of  Greece
LyricsDionysios Solomos, 1823
MusicNikolaos Mantzaros, 1865
Adopted1865 (by Greece)[1]
1966 (by Cyprus)[2]
1908 (by the Cretan State)
Relinquished1913 (by the Cretan State)
Audio sample
"Hymn to Liberty" (instrumental)
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History

Solomos portrait 4
Dionysios Solomos, author of the lyrics

Dionysios Solomos wrote "Hymn to Liberty" in 1823 in Zakynthos and one year later was printed in Messolonghi. It was set to music in 1865 by the Corfiot operatic composer Nikolaos Mantzaros, who composed two choral versions, a long one for the whole poem and a short one for the first two stanzas; the latter is the one adopted as the national anthem of Greece. "Hymn to Liberty" was adopted as the national anthem of Cyprus by order of the Council of Ministers in 1966.[7]

Lyrics

Inspired by the Greek War of Independence, Solomos wrote the hymn to honor the struggle of Greeks for independence after centuries of Ottoman rule.

"Hymn to Liberty" recounts the misery of the Greeks under the Ottomans and their hope for freedom. He describes different events of the War, such as the execution of Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople, the reaction of the Great Powers, extensively the Siege of Tripolitsa and the Christian character of the struggle.

Greek original

Greek alphabet
Roman alphabet
IPA transcription

Σε γνωρίζω από την κόψη
Του σπαθιού την τρομερή,
Σε γνωρίζω από την όψη,
Που με βιά μετράει τη γη.

Απ’ τα κόκκαλα βγαλμένη
Των Ελλήνων τα ιερά,
Και σαν πρώτα ανδρειωμένη,
Χαίρε, ω χαίρε, ελευθεριά!
𝄆 Και σαν πρώτα ανδρειωμένη,
Χαίρε, ω χαίρε, ελευθεριά! 𝄇

Se gnorízo apó tin cópsi
Tu spathiú tin tromerí,
Se gnorízo apó tin ópsi,
Pu me viá metráei ti gi.

Ap’ ta cóccala vgalméni
Ton Ellínon ta ierá,
Cæ san próta andreioméni,
Chǽre, o chǽre, eleftheriá!
𝄆 Cæ san próta andreioméni,
Chǽre, o chǽre, eleftheriá! 𝄇

[s̠e̞ ɣno̞ˈɾiz̠o̞̯ɐpo̞ tiŋ ˈko̞ps̠i]
[tu s̠pɐˈθçu tin ˌtro̞me̞ˈɾi |]
[s̠e̞ ɣno̞ˈɾiz̠o̞̯ɐpo̞ tin ˈo̞ps̠i |]
[pu me̞ ˈvʝä me̞ˌträi̯ ti ˈʝi ‖]

[ɐp tɐ ˈko̞kɐˌlä vɣɐlˈme̞ɲi]
[to̞n e̞ˈlino̞n tɐ i̯e̞ˈɾä |]
[ˌce̞ s̠ɐm ˈpro̞tɐ ɐn̪ðri̯o̞ˈme̞ɲi |]
[ˌçe̞ɾe̞̯o̞ ˈçe̞ɾe̞ | e̞le̞fθe̞ɾˈʝä ‖]
𝄆 [ˌce̞ s̠ɐm ˈpro̞tɐ ɐn̪ðri̯o̞ˈme̞ɲi |]
[ˌçe̞ɾe̞̯o̞ ˈçe̞ɾe̞ | e̞le̞fθe̞ɾˈʝä ‖] 𝄇

English translations

Literal Poetic Rudyard Kipling (1918)
First verse

I recognize you by the fearsome sharpness,
of your sword,
I recognize you by your face
that hastefully defines the land (i.e. the land's borders).

I shall always recognize you
by the dreadful sword you hold,
as the Earth with searching vision
you survey with spirit bold.

We knew thee of old,
O, divinely restored,
By the lights of thine eyes,
And the light of thy Sword.

Second verse

From the sacred bones,
of the Hellenes arisen,
and valiant again as you once were,
Hail, o hail, Liberty!
𝄆 And valiant again as you once were,
Hail, o hail, Liberty! 𝄇

From the Greeks of old whose dying
brought to life and spirit free,
now with ancient valor rising
Let us hail you, oh Liberty!
𝄆 Now with ancient valor rising
Let us hail you, oh Liberty! 𝄇

𝄆 From the graves of our slain,
Shall thy valor prevail,
As we greet thee again,
Hail, Liberty! Hail!
𝄆 As we greet thee again,
Hail, Liberty! Hail! 𝄇

Uses

An adapted version was used during the short-lived Cretan State as the Cretan Anthem. The "Hymn to Liberty" had been the Greek royal anthem after 1864.

"Hymn to Liberty" has been the national anthem of Cyprus since 1966.[2]

"Hymn to Liberty" has been performed at every closing ceremony of the Olympic Games, to pay tribute to Greece as the birthplace of the Olympic Games. The version commonly played by military bands is an arrangement composed by Lieutenant Colonel Margaritis Kastellis (1907–1979), former director of the Greek Music Corps.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b Εθνικός Ύμνος [National Anthem] (in Greek). www.presidency.gr. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Presidency of the Republic of Cyprus - The National Anthem". Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  3. ^ Ηλίας Κανέλλης (25 September 2010). "Το μνημείο διατίθεται για διαδηλώσεις Η "χρήση" του Άγνωστου Στρατιώτη και... άλλες βέβηλες ιστορίες". Ta Nea. Ο «Ύμνος προς την Ελευθερίαν» του Διονυσίου Σολωμού είναι, πρωτίστως, ένα ποίημα μέσω του οποίου υμνήθηκε το έθνος-κράτος, σε περίοδο που οι εθνικές οντότητες ήταν ταυτόσημες της νεωτερικότητας.
  4. ^ Κωστούλα Τομαδάκη (22 November 2010). "Ο εθνικός ύμνος "ελεύθερος" στο Διαδίκτυο". To Pontiki. Το 1865, μετά την ένωση της Επτανήσου με την Ελλάδα, ο «Ύμνος προς την Ελευθερίαν» καθιερώθηκε ως εθνικός ύμνος της Ελλάδας.
  5. ^ Argolikos Archival Library of History and Culture (14 September 2012). "Εφημερίδα της Κυβερνήσεως – Το Ναύπλιον γενέθλιος πόλις της εφημερίδος της Κυβερνήσεως". Αργολική Αρχειακή Βιβλιοθήκη Ιστορίας & Πολιτισμού (Argolikos Archival Library of History and Culture. Ας σημειωθή χαρακτηριστικώς, ότι η περί ης ο λόγος εφημερίς προέτεινεν εις το φύλλον της 21ης Οκτωβρίου 1825 την καθιέρωσιν ως εθνικού ύμνου του ποιήματος του Δ. Σολωμού «Ύμνος προς την Ελευθερίαν», του οποίου εδημοσίευσεν ανάλυσιν υπό του Σπ. Τρικούπη.
  6. ^ "Greece: Hymn to Liberty". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  7. ^ "National Anthem". Archived from the original on 21 August 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  8. ^ "National Anthem". Hellenic Army Academy. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.

External links

Anthem of the 21st of April

The Anthem of the 21st of April (Greek: Ύμνος της 21ης Απριλίου) was the anthem of the ruling military regime during the Greek military junta of 1967–74, de facto used as an unofficial co-national anthem along with the Hymn to Liberty. The anthem glorifies the "national revolution" begun by the regime, which took power with the Coup d'état of 21 April 1967.

Antipatitis

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Battle of Andros (1825)

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Battle of Doliana

The Battle of Doliana took place during the Greek War of Independence on 18 May 1821.

Battle of Karpenisi

The Battle of Karpenisi took place near the town of Karpenisi (in Evrytania, central Greece) on the night of 8 August 1823 between units of the Greek revolutionary army and Ottoman troops.

Battle of Petra

The Battle of Petra was the final battle fought in the Greek War of Independence.

Battle of Vasilika

The Battle of Vasilika was fought between Greek revolutionaries and the Ottoman Empire during the Greek War of Independence on August 25, 1821, near Thermopylae. The Greek insurgents managed to destroy an Ottoman relief army on its way to the forces of Omer Vrioni in Attica, and captured the supplies and baggage.

800 Turks were killed and 220 captured. Greek trophies included 18 flags, 2 cannons, and 800 horses. The Turks retreated to Lamia, to the north of Thermopylae.This victory prevented the Ottoman army in Attica and Evia to enter the Peloponnese and deliver the Ottoman garrisons besieged by the Greeks.

Dionysios Solomos

Dionysios Solomos (; Greek: Διονύσιος Σολωμός [ði.oniˈsios soloˈmos]; 8 April 1798 – 9 February 1857) was a Greek poet from Zakynthos, but his grandfather was from Candia (Heraklion) and moved to Zakynthos after the conquest by the Othomans in 1669. He is best known for writing the Hymn to Liberty (Greek: Ὕμνος εις την Ἐλευθερίαν, Ýmnos eis tīn Eleutherían), of which the first two stanzas, set to music by Nikolaos Mantzaros, became the Greek and Cypriot national anthem in 1865. He was the central figure of the Heptanese School of poetry, and is considered the national poet of Greece—not only because he wrote the national anthem, but also because he contributed to the preservation of earlier poetic tradition and highlighted its usefulness to modern literature. Other notable poems include Ὁ Κρητικός (Τhe Cretan), Ἐλεύθεροι Πολιορκημένοι (The Free Besieged) and others. A characteristic of his work is that no poem except the Hymn to Liberty was completed, and almost nothing was published during his lifetime.

Eleftheria i thanatos

Eleftheria i thanatos (Greek: Ελευθερία ή θάνατος, pronounced [elefθeˈria ˈi ˈθanatos], "freedom or death") is the motto of Greece.

Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi

Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (French: La Grèce sur les ruines de Missolonghi) is an 1826 oil painting by French painter Eugène Delacroix, and now preserved at the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux. This painting was inspired by the Third Siege of Missolonghi by the Ottoman forces in 1826, during which many people of the city after the long-time siege (almost a year) decided to attempt a mass breakout (sortie) to escape famine and epidemics. The attempt resulted in a disaster, with the larger part of the Greeks slain.

Greek local statutes

The Greek Local Statutes were the local assemblies of Greece (the Charter of the Senate of Western Continental Greece, the Legal Order of Eastern Continental Greece, the Peloponnesian Senate Organization, the Provisional Regime of Crete, and the Military-Political Organization of the Island of Samos) during the Greek War of Independence who codified certain 'proto-constitutions' ratified by local assemblies with the aim of eventually establishing a centralized Parliament under a single constitution.

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Maniatikos

Maniatikos (Greek: Μανιάτικος), is a local Greek folk dance from Mani, Greece, with a 24 rhythm meter.

Margaritis Kastellis

Margaritis Kastellis (Castellis) (Greek: Μαργαρίτης Καστέλλης) (1907–1972

) was a Greek composer and army officer known for his work in military music. His arrangement and adaptation of the Hymn to Liberty for military band is still played Greece today. He was born in Chrysoupoli (a city in northern Greece) and died in Athens.

Second National Assembly at Astros

The Second National Assembly at Astros (Greek: Βʹ Εθνοσυνέλευση στο Άστρος) was the second Greek National Assembly, a national representative body of the Greeks who had rebelled against the Ottoman Empire.

It convened at Astros between 29 March and 18 April 1823 under the chairmanship of Petros Mavromichalis. Its most important task was the revision of the Constitution of Epidaurus, adopted in the First National Assembly. The new Constitution was voted on April 13, and was called the Epidaurus Law to stress its continuity with the one of 1822. It was legally more articulate as compared to its predecessor. It allowed a slight superiority to the Legislative power as opposed to the Executive, given the fact that the latter's veto power was circumcised from an absolute to a suspending one. The new Constitution also marked an improvements as far as the protection of human rights was concerned: property was protected, as was the honor and the security not only of Greeks but of all persons on Greek territory; it established the freedom of the press and abolished slavery. It also abolished local governments. However, the great disadvantage of the yearly term of the Administrative branches remained unaltered, a result of the ever-growing distrust between politicians and the military. The Assembly of Astros passed a new electoral law, according to which the right to vote was bestowed to men rather than to seniors, while the voting age went down from 30 to 25 years.

Theodoros Negris

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Third National Assembly at Troezen

The Third Greek National Assembly at Troezen (Greek: Γʹ Εθνοσυνέλευση της Τροιζήνας) was convened during the latter stages of the Greek Revolution.

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