Hybodus ("humped tooth") is an extinct genus of Chondrichthyans. First appearing towards the end of the Permian period, and disappearing during the Late Cretaceous, during the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods the hybodonts were especially successful and could be found in shallow seas across the world. For reasons that are not fully understood, the hybodonts became extinct near the end of the Late Cretaceous period.

Temporal range: Late Permian-Late Cretaceous, 260–66.0 Ma
Hybodus fraasi (fossil)
Hybodus fraasi in the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Order: Hybodontiformes
Family: Hybodontidae
Genus: Hybodus
Agassiz, 1837

See text for species.


Hybodus NT
Restoration of H. fraasi
Hybodus hauffianus
Hybodus hauffianus

Hybodus species grew to about 2 metres (6.6 ft) in length, and are believed to have been opportunist predators. It was not very big, but had the classic streamlined shark shape, complete with two dorsal fins that would have helped it steer with precision. The mouth was not large, and rather than ruthlessly hunt large prey, Hybodus, was capable of eating a wide range of foods. They had several distinct features that made them stand apart from other primitive sharks. Firstly, they had two different types of teeth, suggesting a wide diet. The sharper teeth would have been used to catch slippery prey, while the flatter teeth probably helped them crush shelled creatures. Secondly, they had a bony blade on their dorsal fin that probably served a defensive function. The males also possessed claspers, specialized organs that directly insert sperm into the female, and which are still present in modern sharks.[1]

The youngest Hybodus fossils come from the Dinosaur Park Formation. They date from 68.6 to 66 million years ago.[2]

The first fossilized teeth from Hybodus were found in England around 1845. Since then teeth (and dorsal spines) have been recovered from around the world.


Several Hybodus species, including H. butleri, H. rajkovichi, and H. montanensis, were later reassigned to Meristodonoides.[3]

  • Hybodus houtienensis
  • Hybodus obtusus
  • Hybodus fraasi
  • Hybodus basani


  1. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-84028-152-1.
  2. ^ Neuman, A.G. & Brinkman, D.B. (2005). "Fishes of the fluvial beds". In Currie, P.J. & Koppelhus, E.B. (eds.). Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 167–185. ISBN 978-0-253-34595-0.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  3. ^ Underwood, Charlie J.; Cumbaa, Stephen L. (July 2010). "Chondrichthyans from a Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous) bonebed, Saskatchewan, Canada". Palaeontology. 53 (4): 903–944. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2010.00969.x.


  • Haines, Tim; Paul Chambers (2006). The Complete Guide to Prehistoric Life. Canada: Firefly Books. p. 89.
  • Diffily, Deborah; Karen Carr (2004). Jurassic Shark. HarperCollins Publishers.
Antlers Formation

The Antlers Formation is a stratum which ranges from Arkansas through southern Oklahoma into northeastern Texas. The stratum is 150 m (490 ft) thick consisting of silty to sandy mudstone and fine to coarse grained sandstone that is poorly to moderately sorted. The stratum is cemented with clay and calcium carbonate. In places the sandstone may be conglomeratic or ferruginous (rich in iron oxides).

Based on correlation with the Trinity Group of Texas, the Antlers Formation is estimated to be late Aptian-early Albian. This age range is supported by the presence of two dinosaurs that are also known from the Cloverly Formation, Deinonychus and Tenontosaurus.

Cedar Mountain Formation

The Cedar Mountain Formation is the name given to a distinctive sedimentary geologic formation in eastern Utah. The formation was named for Cedar Mountain in northern Emery County, Utah, where William Lee Stokes first studied the exposures in 1944.

Hasle Formation

The Hasle Formation is a geologic formation on the island on Bornholm, Denmark. It is of early to late Pliensbachian age. Vertebrate fossils have been uncovered from this formation.


Hybodontidae is an extinct family of sharks, first appearing in the Mississippian period, and disappearing during the Miocene.


Hybodontiformes, also called hybodonts, are an extinct subset of Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates and rays) which existed from the Devonian to the Miocene. They form the group of sharks closest to neoselachians, the clade of modern sharks and rays. Hybodonts were named and are distinguished based on their conical tooth shape. They comprised the main group of Jurassic sharks in Europe and North America. They survived into the Late Cretaceous before going extinct, possibly due to competition from other sharks, though forms like Miosynechodus endured as recently as the Miocene. Lonchidion was one of the last hybodonts — its distinctive serrated fine spines occur in freshwater deposits from Wyoming alongside the fossils of the last dinosaurs, including Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops. Hybodontiformes are identified in the fossil record predominantly based on distinct teeth and fin spines. They were known to live in both fresh and salt water environments.


The Keuper is a lithostratigraphic unit (a sequence of rock strata) in the subsurface of large parts of west and central Europe. The Keuper consists of dolomite, shales or claystones and evaporites that were deposited during the Middle and Late Triassic epochs (about 220 million years ago). The Keuper lies on top of the Muschelkalk and under the predominantly Lower Jurassic Lias or other Early Jurassic strata.

The Keuper together with the Muschelkalk and the Buntsandstein, all 3, form the Germanic Trias Group, a characteristic sequence of rock strata that gave the Triassic its name..

Levett Landon Boscawen Ibbetson

Captain Levett Landon Boscawen Ibbetson (1799 – 8 September 1869) was an English 19th century geologist, inventor, organiser and soldier. He is particularly associated with early developments in photography. He was a member of the London Electrical Society and later a Fellow of the Royal Society (elected 6 June 1850).From his London home (46 Margaret Street, near Cavendish Square), Ibbetson corresponded with William Henry Fox Talbot in 1842, having spent some years trying to produce a lithograph from an original daguerrotype, writing "I have been going on with experiments in the Callotype & have had some very good results as to depth of Colour." Ten years later, in 1852, Ibbetson exhibited work produced using the Talbot calotype process, called Le Premier Livre Imprimè par le Soleil, at a London Society of Arts exhibition. This book, originally published in 1840, was an album of contact prints of ferns, grasses and flowers and used "the independently invented process of Friedrich Gerber of Berne, published in January 1839, when Ibbetson was residing in Berne."An enthusiastic geologist, one of Ibbetson's finds on the Isle of Wight, the fossilised remains of a Hybodus, was sent to Sir Philip Malpas de Grey Egerton, and was discussed in the Proceedings of the Geological Society in 1845.During the 1840s, Ibbetson was also engaged in various geological surveys associated with the expansion of the British railway system, during which work he corresponded with eminent geologist Henry Thomas De la Beche.He wrote a book, with contributions from Edwin Lankester, published around 1852, entitled Notes on the geology and chemical composition of the various strata in the Isle of Wight ... With a map in relief. With Professor Edward Forbes, he produced a description of the geology between Blackgang Chine and Atherfield Point, in the Isle of Wight, for the Geological Society.In 1851, Levett Ibbetson helped manage the Great Exhibition. At this event, public toilets were relatively novel, and Ibbetson was given the task of writing an 'Official Report On The Waiting Rooms and Washing Places in the Exhibition Building' - during which he recorded "The largest receipt from the Waiting Rooms was on Wednesday, 8 October 1851 when 11,171 persons made use of them".Ibbetson died at Biebrich in Prussia, where he had lived for several years. Some years earlier he presented a valuable collection of fossils to the Museum of Practical Geology in London. His illustration of a fossil, "Transverse section of madrepore" in The Westminster Review of September 1840 is credited with being the first example of the use of limelight to shorten exposure times when making daguerreotypes.

Capt. Levett Landon Boscawen Ibbetson was the father of Major Henry Levett Boscawen Ibbetson of the 77th (East Middlesex) Regiment of Foot of the British Army. Capt. Levett Landon Boscawen Ibbetson was the son of Sophy and Major Levett Ibbetson, a native of Bushey, Hertfordshire, where his father the Right Rev. Dr. James Ibbetson, D.D. (1717–1781), was the rector of Bushey, the Archdeacon of St Albans and Prebend of Lincoln as well as an author. Major Levett, his son, was a soldier in the 28th (North Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot of the British Army. Major Levett Ibbetson lived at West Teignmouth, Devon, England.

List of creatures by Impossible Pictures

The following is a complete list of prehistoric creatures from the universe of the Walking with... series documentary, science fiction and fantasy television programmes, companion books and also any spin-off merchandise. Most of the shows produced by Impossible Pictures with BBC Worldwide and Discovery Channel in association with ProSieben and France 3 and created by Tim Haines and Jasper James. They used visual effects teams such as Framestore, The Mill and Jellyfish Pictures to bring back extinct creatures to life.

List of prehistoric cartilaginous fish genera

This list of prehistoric cartilaginous fish genera is an attempt to create a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the class chondrichthyes and are known from the fossil record. This list excludes purely vernacular terms, genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomina dubia), or were not formally published (nomina nuda), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered to be cartilaginous fish. It includes all commonly accepted genera.

This list currently contains 804 generic names.

Extinct genera are marked by a dagger (†).

Extant taxon genera are bolded.

List of the Mesozoic life of Delaware

This list of the Mesozoic life of Delaware contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Delaware and are between 252.17 and 66 million years of age.

List of the Paleozoic life of Kansas

This list of the Paleozoic life of Kansas contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Kansas and are between 541 and 252.17 million years of age.

List of the prehistoric life of Georgia (U.S. state)

This list of the prehistoric life of Georgia (U.S. state) contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Georgia (U.S. state).

List of the prehistoric life of Minnesota

This list of the prehistoric life of Minnesota contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Minnesota.

List of the prehistoric life of Oklahoma

This list of the prehistoric life of Oklahoma contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Oklahoma.

Lists of prehistoric fish

Prehistoric fish are early fish that are known only from fossil records. They are the earliest known vertebrates, and include the first and extinct fish that lived through the Cambrian to the Quaternary. The study of prehistoric fish is called paleoichthyology. A few living forms, such as the coelacanth are also referred to as prehistoric fish, or even living fossils, due to their current rarity and similarity to extinct forms. Fish which have become recently extinct are not usually referred to as prehistoric fish.

McCoy Brook Formation

The McCoy Brook Formation is a geological formation dating to roughly between 200 and 190 million years ago and covering the Hettangian to Sinemurian stages. The McCoy Brook Formation is found in outcrops around the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia.


Meristodonoides is an extinct genus of cartilaginous fish. The type species is M. rajkovichi, which was originally a species in the genus Hybodus. The species, along with other Hybodus species such as H. butleri and H. montanensis, was reassigned to Meristodonoides by Charlie J. Underwood and Stephen L. Cumbaa in 2010.

Walking with Dinosaurs

Walking with Dinosaurs is a six-part documentary television miniseries created by Tim Haines and produced by BBC Natural History Unit. The series first aired on the BBC in the United Kingdom in 1999 with narration by Kenneth Branagh. The series was subsequently aired in North America on the Discovery Channel in 2000, with Avery Brooks replacing Branagh. The programme explores ancient life of the Mesozoic Era, portraying dinosaurs and their contemporaries in the style of a traditional nature documentary.

Developed by Haines and producer Jasper James, Walking with Dinosaurs recreated extinct species through the combined use of computer-generated imagery and animatronics that were incorporated with live action footage shot at various locations. The Guinness Book of World Records reported that the series was the most expensive documentary series per minute ever produced. A re-edited version of Walking with Dinosaurs aired on Discovery Kids for the first season of Prehistoric Planet. It was made more appropriate for children by removing most of the graphic content and trimming down some footage to fit the run time.

The series received critical acclaim, winning two BAFTA Awards, three Emmy Awards and a Peabody Award in 2000. Walking with Dinosaurs began a franchise that was followed by two additional miniseries, several television specials, spin-offs, a live-theatrical show, and a feature film of the same name.

Wessex Formation

The Wessex Formation is a fossil-rich English geological formation that dates from the Berriasian to Barremian stages (about 145–125 million years ago) of the Early Cretaceous. It forms part of the Wealden Group and underlies the younger Vectis Formation and overlies the Durlston Formation. The dominant lithology of this unit is mudstone with some interbedded sandstones.


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