Hyūga Province

Hyūga Province (日向国 Hyūga no kuni) was an old province of Japan on the east coast of Kyūshū, corresponding to the modern Miyazaki Prefecture.[1] It was sometimes called Nisshū (日州) or Kōshū (向州). Hyūga bordered on Bungo, Higo, Ōsumi, and Satsuma Province.

The ancient capital was near Saito.

Provinces of Japan-Hyuga
Map of Japanese provinces (1868) with Hyūga Province highlighted

History

In the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki, Hyūga is called Kumaso Province (熊曽国 Kumaso no kuni) of Tsukushi-no-shima (Kyushu), along the provinces of Tsukushi, Toyo and Hi.

In the 3rd month of the 6th year of the Wadō era (713), the land of Hyūga was administratively separated from Ōsumi Province (大隈国). In that same year, Empress Genmei's Daijō-kan continued to organize other cadastral changes in the provincial map of the Nara period.[2]

During the Sengoku period, the area was often divided into a northern fief around Agata castle (near modern Nobeoka), and a southern fief around Obi castle, near modern Nichinan. The southern fief was held by the Shimazu clan of nearby Satsuma for much of the period. The Itō clan held control of Hyuga until it was conquered by the Shimazu in 1578.

Historical districts

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Hyūga" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 365, p. 365, at Google Books.
  2. ^ Titsingh, Isaac.. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 64., p. 64, at Google Books

References

  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon (Nihon Ōdai Ichiran). Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691.

Other websites

Media related to Hyuga Province at Wikimedia Commons

Akizuki Satsuo

Akizuki Satsuo (秋月 左都夫, February 24, 1858 – June 25, 1945) was a diplomat and government official of the upper third rank (正三位, shōsanmi) in the Imperial Household Ministry. He was born in Hyūga Province.

He was the third of four sons. His father, Akizuki Taneyo (秋月 種節) was an elder of the Takanabe Domain. His younger brother, Suzuki Masaya (鈴木 馬左也), was an official in the Ministry of Agricultural and Trade Affairs, and contributed to the growth of the Sumitomo Zaibatsu. Makino Nobuaki (牧野 伸顕) was his brother-in-law.

He graduated from the Han school called Meirindō (明倫堂) founded by Akizuki Taneshige (秋月 種茂). He attended Kagoshima Medical School, but dropped out. He graduated from the Japanese Ministry of Justice Law School.

He worked in the Ministry of Justice for a time, but then became a diplomat. He worked as a diplomat to Sweden, the Japanese ambassador to Belgium, and the ambassador extraordinary to Austria-Hungary, before leaving office in 1914. He worked as a plenipotentiary advisor at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.

During his time as ambassador to Belgium, in 1908, he observed a British Boy Scout event. He reported his findings to others, which spread word of the Boy Scout movement to Japan.He was an editorial advisor for (and later president of) the Asahi Shimbun newspaper, worked as the head of the Keijō Nippō (京城日報) newspaper, and was also deputy leader of the Association for the Accession of the True Emperor in Greater Japan (大日本皇道立教会, Dainippon Honkō Dōritsu Kyōkai). Together with the politician Furushima Kazuo (古島 一雄), he put much effort into the foundation of Sōka Kyoiku Gakkai (創価教育学会), "The Value-Creating Education Society", the former incarnation of Soka Gakkai. He later become the member of the lay organisation and praticising Nichiren Buddhism.

Bizen Province

Bizen Province (備前国, Bizen-no kuni) was a province of Japan on the Inland Sea side of Honshū, in what is today the southeastern part of Okayama Prefecture. It was sometimes called Bishū (備州), with Bitchū and Bingo Provinces. Bizen borders Mimasaka, Harima, and Bitchū Provinces.

Bizen's original center was in the modern city of Okayama. From an early time Bizen was one of Japan's main centers for sword smithing.

Hyūga

Hyūga may refer to:

Hyūga, Miyazaki, a city in Japan

Hyūga Province, an old province of Japan

Japanese battleship Hyūga, a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Hyūga class helicopter destroyer, a helicopter carrier of the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force

JDS Hyūga (DDH-181), the lead ship of the class

Hyūga Station, a train station in Chiba Prefecture, Japan

Itō Yoshisuke

Itō Yoshisuke (伊東 義祐, 1512 – August 29, 1585) was a Japanese daimyō of the Sengoku period. In his lifetime, he was the head of the Itō clan.He was defeated by Shimazu Yoshihiro in the 1572 Battle of Kizaki.Ito capitulated to the advancing Shimazu clan in 1576 and sought refuge with the Otomo clan.Yoshisuke, who was the descendant of Itō Suketsune. He inherited Agata Domain in Hyūga Province in 1584.

Itō clan

The Itō clan (伊東氏, Itō-shi) are a Japanese clan that claimed descent from Fujiwara Korekimi (727–789) and Kudō Ietsugu.Itō Suketoki (the son of Kudō Suketsune), was famous for his involvement in the incident involving the Soga brothers. The family became a moderate power both in influence and ability by the latter Sengoku period of Feudal Japan.

After the death of Sukeie in 1181, Sukechika inherited Kawazu Domain in Izu Province. When his uncle Suketsugu neared death, he made Sukechika the guardian of his son Suketsune, who became the head of the Itō Domain in Izu.In the Muromachi period and the Sengoku period,

Yoshisuke, who was the descendant of Suketsune, inherited Agata Domain in Hyūga Province in 1584

Suketaka (1541–1600), who was the son of Yoshisuke, supported Toyotomi Hideyoshi after the death of Oda Nobunaga; and he was granted land in Kawachi Province. After the Kyushu Campaign in 1587, the lands were merged into Hyuga Province and Obi Domain (50,000 koku)

Sukeyoshi (1588–1636), who was the son of Suketaka, fought at the Battle of Sekigahara. His descendants remaining at Obi until the Meiji Restoration.

A cadet branch of the clan were heads of Okada Domain (10,000 koku) in Bitchū Province from 1615 until 1868The Itō family's most serious rivals in this period were the Shimazu. The Shimazu clan, which had unified Satsuma Province and Ōsumi Province under their control, began to clash with the Itō in 1570. The Itō were finally defeated by the Shimazu in 1578. Yoshisuke, the family head, went to Kyoto by way of Iyo Province, and sought help from Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The family's old lands were restored in 1587, following Toyotomi Hideyoshi's invasion of Kyushu and defeat of the Shimazu clan. By the Edo period, the Itō retained their holdings, which came to be known as the Obi Domain.

Count Itō Sukeyuki, the Meiji era admiral, was a descendant of this family.

Kimotsuki Kanetsugu

Kimotsuki Kanetsugu (肝付 兼続, 1511 – December 26, 1566) was the sixteenth head of the Kimotsuki family and the son of Kimotsuki Kaneoki. Kanetsugu was a skilled and smart leader but his domain happened to be next to that of the most powerful clan in Kyūshū, Shimazu clan and Kimotsuki family would be crushed by them.

He killed his uncle Kimotsuki Kaneshu to become the head of the clan after his father, Kaneoki, died.

Kanetsugu believed that maintaining a good relationship with the neighboring Shimazu clan was essential to the clan's survival and had the eldest daughter of Shimazu Tadayoshi as his wife as well as having his sister marry Shimazu Takahisa. On the other hand, he moved to unify Ōsumi Province and captured Takaoka Castle in 1538 to capture the majority of the province. On 1533, he had his son Kimotsuki Yoshikane take over the clan and retired but still held onto most of the actual power.

In 1561, the relationship between his clan and Shimazu collapsed and Kanetsugu allied with Itō clan of Hyūga Province to counter Shimazu. In the same year, he repelled invading Shimazu troops with much success and killed the younger brother of Takahisa, Shimazu Tadamasa. Knowing that there was no turning back, Kanetsugu tried to divorce his wife who was of Shimazu clan, but she did not agree and declined the offer.

In 1562, Kanetsugu and his troops captured Shibushi district to hold the largest domain. In 1566, Shimazu clan massed its army and invaded again capturing Kōyama Castle as well as most of Kimotsuki's domains. The desperate Kanetsugu committed suicide near Shibushi area where he had a small castle to which he had retired.

Kumaso Province

Kumaso Province or Land of Kumaso (熊曽国, Kumaso no kuni) was the name of Hyūga Province on the island of Kyushu in the Kojiki. Its boundaries are within Miyazaki Prefecture.

Kusuko Incident

The Kusuko Incident (薬子の変, Kusuko no Hen), also known as the Retired Emperor Heizei Incident (平城太上天皇の変, Heizei-Daijō-tennō no Hen), occurred in the early Heian period. In 810, Emperor Saga and ex-Emperor Heizei stood in opposition, but Saga's side quickly raised enough troops to resolve the confrontation, making Heizei become a monk. Heizei's lover the Naishi-no-kami (内侍) Fujiwara no Kusuko and her older brother the sangi Fujiwara no Nakanari were punished for the incident.

The incident was originally viewed as having been precipitated by Kusuko herself, and thus was called the "Kusuko Incident". In recent years, the view that the incident was caused by the division of power between the emperor of Japan and retired emperor under the Ritsuryō system has taken root. Since 2003, some Japanese high school textbooks have begun to refer to the incident as the "Retired Emperor Heizei Incident".

List of Han

The List of Han or domains in the Tokugawa period (1603 – 1868) was changed from time to time during the Edo period. Han were feudal domains that formed the effective basis of administration in Tokugawa-era Japan. The Han are given according to their domain seat/castle town by modern region (-chihō, roughly comparable to ancient circuits, -dō) and ancient province (kuni/-shū, roughly comparable to modern prefectures, -to/-dō/-fu/-ken). Han usually comprised territories around/near the capital, but were beyond that in many cases disconnected and distributed over several provinces.

The han system was abolished by the Meiji government in 1871 when all remaining -han were transformed into -ken ("prefectures"). In several waves of mergers, splits and territorial transfers – the first major consolidation followed immediately in 1871/72 –, the prefectures were reorganized to encompass contiguous, compact territories, no longer resembling Edo period han, but in many cases territorially identical to provinces which had remained the most important primary geographical subdivision even during feudal times.

Miyazaki Prefecture

Miyazaki Prefecture (宮崎県, Miyazaki-ken) is a prefecture of Japan on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Miyazaki.

Shimazu Tadahisa

Shimazu Tadahisa (島津 忠久, died August 1, 1227) was the founder of the Shimazu samurai clan.

According to a record of his life, he was reportedly born in Sumiyoshi Taisha in Osaka. He was initially Koremune no Tadahisa (惟宗忠久) but after being given the territory of Shimazu, Hyūga Province to rule from by Minamoto no Yoritomo, he took the name of Shimazu.

Tadahisa was a son of the Shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147–1199) by the sister of Hiki Yoshikazu.

He married a daughter of Koremune Hironobu, descendant of the Hata clan, whose name Tadahisa at first took.

He received the domain of Shioda (Shinano province) in 1186 and was then named Shugo of Satsuma province. He sent Honda Sadachika to take possession of the province in his name and accompanied Yoritomo in his expedition to Mutsu in 1189. He went to Satsuma in 1196, subdued Hyūga and Ōsumi provinces, and built a castle in the domain of Shimazu (Hyūga) which name he also adopted. He is buried in Kamakura, near his father's tomb.

Siege of Takabaru

The Siege of Takabaru occurred in October 1576 when the forces of Shimazu Yoshihisa besieged and took the fortress of Takabaru, which belonged to the Itō clan. The Shimazu family had by the 1570s started its rise as the dominant power in Kyūshū and continued its expansion in Hyūga Province at the expense of Itō clan.

Takaki Kanehiro

Baron Takaki Kanehiro (高木 兼寛, 15 September 1849 – 12 April 1920) was a Japanese naval physician.

Takanabe Domain

The Takanabe Domain (高鍋藩, Takanabe-han) was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Hyūga Province in modern-day Miyazaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu.In the han system, Takanabe was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Tanba Province

Tanba Province (丹波国, Tanba no kuni) was an old province of Japan. The ambit of its borders encompassed both the central part of modern Kyōto Prefecture and the east-central part of Hyōgo Prefecture.

It and the neighbouring Tango Province were collectively known as Tanshū (丹州). Besides Tango, Tanba bordered on Harima, Ōmi, Settsu, Tajima, Wakasa, and Yamashiro Provinces.

The ancient provincial capital is believed to be in the area of modern Kameoka.

Tango Province

Tango Province (丹後国, Tango no Kuni) was an old province in the area that is today northern Kyoto Prefecture facing the Sea of Japan. Together with Tanba Province, Tango was sometimes called Tanshū (丹州). Tango bordered on Tajima, Tanba, and Wakasa provinces.

At various times both Maizuru and Miyazu were the capital and chief town of the province.

Uesugi Harunori

Uesugi Harunori (上杉 治憲, September 9, 1751 – April 2, 1822) was a Japanese daimyō, the 9th head of the Yonezawa domain (today's Yonezawa and Okitama region), and a descendant of Fujiwara no Yoshikado. Born in Edo, he was the second son of a daimyō of the Akizuki clan, who controlled part of Hyūga Province. His mother was a granddaughter of the fourth head of Yonezawa. His childhood names were "Matsusaburō" (松三郎) and "Naomatsu" (直松). He was adopted by Uesugi Shigesada, then daimyō of Yonezawa, and in 1767 he succeeded Shigesada. After retirement, he adopted the gō, or pen name, Yōzan (鷹山).

He was brought at age 16 to the Yonezawa area from a small fief in southern Kyūshū as an adopted son of the Uesugi clan.

Today, he is best remembered for his financial reforms, and he is often cited as an example of a good governor of a domain. Yonezawa had been in debt for roughly a hundred years when Harunori took over; Shigesada even considered returning the domain to the shogunate as a last resort. However, he was convinced by his father-in-law, the daimyō of Owari Province, to instead resign as daimyō. It was under these conditions that Harunori came to be daimyō of Yonezawa. He introduced strict disciplinary measures, and ordered the execution of several karō (advisors) who opposed his plans. As a result of various measures he took, Yonezawa became fairly prosperous, and did not suffer much from the famine which swept Japan in the Tenmei era (1781–1789). For instance the Uesugis chose to keep all their retainers but cut all salaries to one-sixth of their former level. Yozan also cut his own living expenses, wearing cotton clothes instead of silk and having his meals consist of one bowl of soup and one vegetable. He reduced his living allowance from 1500 ryō per year to 209 ryō and the number of maidservants from 50 to nine. He also set policies encouraging new industry such as weaving, pottery and papermaking and encouraged existing enterprises such as paraffin, raw silk and linen. Education was necessary to create the brilliant men required to enrich the country, and he reopened the clan school which had closed down due to financial constraints and invited scholars from Edo to teach. He also established a medical school to teach the latest medical knowledge from Holland. Another policy change ensured adequate water from the mountains for the rice fields by enlisting retainers and samurai to dig irrigation ditches and to repair dikes. Administrative reform and personnel promotion based on merit, not class, eliminated waste and simplified public offices. When Yōzan came to power, the total debt of the fief had reached the level of 200,000 ryō; by 1823 the entire amount of the debt had been repaid. In 1830, less than a decade after Harunori's death, Yonezawa was officially declared by the shogunate to be a paragon of a well-governed domain.

He revealed his views on governance and the role of a feudal lord in a letter to his son Haruhiro:

The state (国家, kokka) is inherited from one's ancestors and passed on to one's descendants; it should not be administered selfishly.The people belong to the state; they should not be administered selfishly.

The lord exists for the sake of the state and the people: the state and the people do not exist for the sake of the lord.

Additionally, his views on self-discipline are well known in Japanese culture:

If you put your mind to it, you can do it;If you do not, you cannot – that is true for all things.

When something cannot be done, you are the one to blame

For not putting your heart into it.

Wadō (era)

Wadō (和銅) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Keiun and before Reiki. This period spanned the years from January 708 through September 715. The reigning monarch was Empress Genmei.

Ōsumi Province

Ōsumi Province (大隅国, Ōsumi no Kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area that is today the eastern part of Kagoshima Prefecture. It was sometimes called Gūshū (隅州). Ōsumi bordered on Hyūga and Satsuma Provinces.

Osumi's ancient capital was near modern Kokubu. During the Sengoku and Edo periods, Ōsumi was controlled by the Shimazu clan of neighboring Satsuma and did not develop a major administrative center.

The Ōsumi region has developed its own distinct local dialect. Although Ōsumi is part of Kagoshima Prefecture today, this dialect is different from that spoken in the city of Kagoshima. There is a notable cultural pride in traditional poetry written in Ōsumi and Kagoshima dialects.

Japan's first satellite, Ōsumi, was named after the province.

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