Hut

A hut is a primitive dwelling, which may be constructed of various local materials. Huts are a type of vernacular architecture because they are built of readily available materials such as wood, snow, ice, stone, grass, palm leaves, branches, hides, fabric, or mud using techniques passed down through the generations.

A hut is a shape of a lower quality than a house (durable, well-built dwelling) but higher quality than a shelter (place of refuge or safety) such as a tent and is used as temporary or seasonal shelter or in primitive societies as a permanent dwelling.[1]T

Huts exist in practically all nomadic cultures. Some huts are transportable and can stand most conditions of weather.

Petroglpyhs Tagar Culture
Drawings of petroglyphs from the Tagar Culture, 1st millennium BC in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
Terme di diocleziano, tombe a capanna, 01
Huts and a larger building in the form of burial urns at the museum at the Baths of Diocletian in Rome, Italy. Image: Sailko
Chozos de ganaderos, El Torno, Cáceres
Chozo in Extremadura, Spain.

Word

The term is often employed by people who consider non-primitive, but often the designs are based on traditions of local craftsmanship using sophisticated architectural techniques. The designs in tropical and sub-tropical areas favour high airflow configurations built from non-conducting materials, which allow heat dissipation. The term house or home is considered by some to be more appropriate.

In the Western world the word hut is often used for a wooden shed.

The term has also been adopted by climbers and backpackers to refer to a more solid and permanent structure offering refuge. These vary from simple bothies – which are little more than very basic shelters – to mountain huts that are far more luxurious and can even include facilities such as restaurants.

The word comes from the 1650s, from French hutte "cottage" (16c.), from Middle High German hütte "cottage, hut," probably from Proto-Germanic *hudjon-, related to the root of Old English hydan "to hide," from PIE *keudh-, from root (s)keu- (see hide (n.1)). Apparently first in English as a military word. Old Saxon hutta, Danish hytte, Swedish hytta, West Frisian and Middle Dutch hutte, Dutch hut are from High German. Ukrainian "hata" seems to be known from even earlier ages. Avestan or ancient Iranian origins presumably."[2] related to hide, a covering.

Modern use

Hut in Maharashtra
Hut in farm outside Indian village
Resting hut kambalakonda eco park Visakhapatnam
Hut in Kambalakonda eco park Visakhapatnam

Huts are used by shepherds when moving livestock between seasonal grazing areas such as mountainous and lowland pastures (transhumance).

They are also commonly used by backpackers and other travelers in rural areas.

Some displaced populations of people use huts throughout the world during a diaspora. For example, temporary collectors in the wilderness agricultural workers at plantations in the Amazon jungle.

Huts have been built for purposes other than as a dwelling such as storage, workshops, and teaching.

Types

  • Balok – A Siberian wilderness hut made of logs, usually communal, used by hunters, fishermen and travelers in the more distant parts of Siberia. Some baloks are mobile and mounted on sleds.
  • Barabara – An earth sheltered winter home of the Aleut people
  • Barracks – an old term for a temporary hut,[1] now more used as a term for military housing and a unique hay storage structure called a hay barrack.
  • Bothy – Originally a one-room hut for men farm workers in the United Kingdom, now a mountain hut for overnight hikers.
  • Burdei or bordei – a dugout or pit-house with a sod roof in Romania, Ukraine and Canada.
  • Cabana – an open shelter
  • Chozo also spelled chozo – Spanish for hut, term also used in Mexico.
  • Clochán – A dry stone hut in Ireland
  • Earth lodge – Native American dwelling
  • Hata - village house in Ukraine, Belarus and south-western Russia (parts of ancient Kyiv Rus)
  • Heartebeest Hut –hut used by South African Trekboer built of reeds, sometimes plastered with mud
  • HORSA hut - A prefabricated school building built to cope with additional demand from the Education Act 1944
  • Hytte – A cabin or hut in Norway
  • Igloo – A hut made of pieces of hard snow or ice
  • Kolba – Afghanistan
  • Laing hut - prefabricated lightweight timber wall sections bolted together, externally clad with plasterboard and felt. Designed 1940 for barrack accommodation[3]
  • Lodge is a general term for a hut or cabin such as a log cabin or cottage. Lodge is used to refer to a tipi, sweat lodge, and hunting, fishing, skiing, and safari lodge.
  • Mitato – A small, dry stone hut in Greece
  • Orri – A French dry stone and sod hut
  • Pratten hut - A prefabricated building generally used in schools for classrooms in the UK after World War 2.
  • Rondavel – Central and South Africa
  • Sheiling – Originally a temporary shelter or hut for shepherds, now may be a stone building. Common in Scotland.
  • Sod house – A pioneer house type on the American Plains where wood was scarce.
  • Tipi – Central North America tent
  • Tule hut – Coastal North America, West Coast, Northern California
  • Oca – Brazil
  • Quinzhee – A shelter made in a pile of snow
  • Yurt – Central and North Asia

Construction

Remains of Edicas’ mud hut, Karonga, north Malawi (4992504027)
Remains of a mud hut, with interior layers exposed. This hut was destroyed during a major earthquake.

Many huts are designed to be relatively quick and inexpensive to build. Construction often does not require specialized tools or knowledge.

Marketing usage

The term Hut is also used to name many commercial stores, companies, and concepts. The name implies a small, casual venue, often with a fun and friendly atmosphere. Examples include Pizza Hut and Sunglass Hut. Kiosks may be constructed to look like huts and are often found at parks, malls, beaches, or other public places, selling a variety of inexpensive food or goods. Luxury hotels in tropical areas where guests are assigned to occupy their own freestanding structure sometimes call the structure a "hut", though such huts typically bear little more than superficial resemblance to the traditional concept of a hut.

See also

  • Architecture of Africa
  • Bothy – simple shelter
  • Cabane en pierre sèche (French dry stone huts)
  • Lean-to – a type of shelter
  • Log cabin – small house built from logs
  • Mountain hut - building that provides food and shelter for hikers and mountaineers
  • Nissen hut – a prefabricated steel structure made from a semicircle of corrugated steel invented 1st quarter 20th century.
    • Jamesway hut – a variation of a Nissen hut
    • Romney hut – a variation of a Nissen hut
    • Quonset hut – a type of Nissen hut of lightweight prefabricated structure of corrugated steel having a semicircular cross section
  • Palloza – Spanish type of roundhouse
  • The Primitive Hut – concept in architectural theory
  • Roundhouse (dwelling) – a circular hut or house typically with a conical roof
  • Ukrainian Hata - a common name to a rural village house in Ukraine, Belarus and southern Russia
  • Vernacular architecture – traditional architecture in a particular area
  • Wilderness hut – rent-free, open dwelling place for temporary accommodation
  • Yurt

References

  1. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009
  2. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  3. ^ "Warwickshire County Council Museum: Laing hut". Retrieved 27 January 2016.
Abbot Pass hut

The Abbot Pass hut is an alpine hut located at an altitude of 2925 metres (9,598 feet) in Abbot Pass in the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, Canada. It is nestled between Mount Victoria and Mount Lefroy, straddling the continental divide, which, in this region, defines the boundary between Banff National Park in Alberta and Yoho National Park in British Columbia. While close to the border, the hut lies entirely in Banff National Park, and is the second-highest permanently habitable structure in Canada (after the Neil Colgan Hut). The hut is maintained by the Alpine Club of Canada.It was closed temporarily in the summer of 2018 pending a geotechnical evaluation of the slope which underlies the structure, after a hiker noticed erosion on its eastern side.

Australian Alps

The Australian Alps, an interim Australian bioregion, is the highest mountain range in Australia. This range is located in southeastern Australia, and it straddles eastern Victoria, southeastern New South Wales, and the Australian Capital Territory. The Australian Alps contain Australia's only peaks exceeding 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) in elevation above sea level. The Alps are the only bioregion on the Australian mainland in which deep snow falls annually. The Alps comprise an area of 1,232,981 hectares (3,046,760 acres).The Australian Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range, the series of mountains, hills, and highlands that runs about 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) from northern Queensland, through New South Wales, and into the northern part of Victoria. This chain of highlands divides the drainage of the rivers that flow to the east into the Tasman Sea from those that flow west into the drainage of the Murray–Darling basin (and thence to the Southern Ocean) or into inland waters, such as Lake Eyre, which lie below sea level, or else evaporate rapidly. The Great Dividing Range reaches its greatest heights in the Australian Alps.

The Australian Alps consist of two biogeographic subregions: the Snowy Mountains including the Brindabella Range, located in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory; and the Victorian Alps, located in Victoria. The latter region is also known as the "High Country", particularly within a cultural or historical context.

Baba Yaga

In Slavic folklore, Baba Yaga (UK: ; Russian: Баба Яга [ˈbabə jɪˈɡa]) is a supernatural being (or one of a trio of sisters of the same name) who appears as a deformed and/or ferocious-looking woman. In Russian fairytales Baba Yaga flies around in a mortar, wields a pestle, and dwells deep in the forest in a hut usually described as standing on chicken legs. Baba Yaga may help or hinder those that encounter or seek her out and may play a maternal role and has associations with forest wildlife. According to Vladimir Propp's folktale morphology, Baba Yaga commonly appears as either a donor, villain, or may be altogether ambiguous.

Andreas Johns identifies Baba Yaga as "one of the most memorable and distinctive figures in eastern European folklore," and observes that she is "enigmatic" and often exhibits "striking ambiguity." Johns summarizes Baba Yaga as "a many-faceted figure, capable of inspiring researchers to see her as a Cloud, Moon, Death, Winter, Snake, Bird, Pelican or Earth Goddess, totemic matriarchal ancestress, female initiator, phallic mother, or archetypal image".

Bletchley Park

Bletchley Park is a nineteenth-century mansion and estate near Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, constructed during the years following 1883 for the English financier and politician Sir Herbert Samuel Leon in the Victorian Gothic, Tudor, and Dutch Baroque styles, on the site of older buildings of the same name. It has received latter-day fame as the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II, although at the time of their operation this fact was a closely guarded secret. During the Second World War, the estate housed the British Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS), which regularly penetrated the secret communications of the Axis Powers – most importantly the German Enigma and Lorenz ciphers; among its most notable early personnel the GC&CS team of codebreakers included Alan Turing, Gordon Welchman, Hugh Alexander and Stuart Milner-Barry.

According to the official historian of British Intelligence, the "Ultra" intelligence produced at Bletchley shortened the war by two to four years, and without it the outcome of the war would have been uncertain. The team at Bletchley Park devised automatic machinery to help with decryption, culminating in the development of Colossus, the world's first programmable digital electronic computer. Codebreaking operations at Bletchley Park came to an end in 1946 and all information about the wartime operations was classified until the mid 1970s. After the war, the Post Office took over the site and used it as a management school, but by 1990 the huts in which the codebreakers worked were being considered for demolition and redevelopment, and the Bletchley Park Trust formed in 1991 to save large portions of the site from developers. More recently, Bletchley Park has been open to the public and houses interpretive exhibits and rebuilt huts as they would have appeared during their wartime operations, as well as The National Museum of Computing, established on the site which includes a rebuilt Colossus machine, and receives hundreds of thousands of visitors annually.

Discovery Hut

Discovery Hut was built by Robert Falcon Scott during the Discovery Expedition of 1901–1904 in 1902 and is located at Hut Point on Ross Island by McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Visitors to Antarctica, arriving at either the US Base at McMurdo or New Zealand's Scott Base are likely to encounter Discovery Hut as both are located on Hut Point. Discovery Hut is just 300m from McMurdo Base. The hut has been designated a Historic Site or Monument (HSM 18), following a proposal by New Zealand and the United Kingdom to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.Some confusion arises because Discovery Hut can technically be referred to as Scott's hut, in that his expedition built it, and it was his base ashore during the 1901–1904 expedition, but the title Scott's Hut popularly belongs to the building erected in 1911 at Cape Evans.

Ebrahim Hut Bazar

Ebrahim Hut Bazar (Persian: ابراهيم حوت بازار‎, also Romanized as Ebrāhīm Ḩūt Bāzār; also known as Ebrāhīm Bāzār, Hot Qādir Bakhsh, Ḩūt-e Ebrāhīm, and Hūt-e Qadīr Bakhsh) is a village in Polan Rural District, Polan District, Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 392, in 83 families.

Gazebo

A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes octagonal or turret-shaped, often built in a park, garden or spacious public area.

Hut Gat Jahli

Hut Gat Jahli (Persian: هوت گت جهلي‎, also Romanized as Hūt Gat Jahlī; also known as Hūt Gat and Hūtgat-e Pā’īn) is a village in Bahu Kalat Rural District, Dashtiari District, Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 702, in 123 families.

Igloo

An igloo (Inuit languages: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics ᐃᒡᓗ [iɣˈlu] (plural: igluit ᐃᒡᓗᐃᑦ [iɣluˈit])), also known as a snow house or snow hut, is a type of shelter built of snow, typically built when the snow is easy to compact.

Although igloos are stereotypically associated with all Inuit/Eskimo peoples, they were traditionally associated with people of Canada's Central Arctic and Greenland's Thule area. Other Inuit people tended to use snow to insulate their houses, which were constructed from whalebone and hides. Snow is used because the air pockets trapped in it make it an insulator. On the outside, temperatures may be as low as −45 °C (−49 °F), but on the inside the temperature may range from −7 to 16 °C (19 to 61 °F) when warmed by body heat alone.

Jabba the Hutt

Jabba Desilijic Tiure, commonly known as Jabba the Hutt, is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise created by George Lucas. He is a large, slug-like alien known as a Hutt who, like many others of his species, operates as a powerful crime lord within the galaxy.

In the original theatrical releases of the original Star Wars trilogy, Jabba the Hutt first appeared in Return of the Jedi (1983), though he is mentioned in Star Wars (1977) and The Empire Strikes Back (1980), and a previously deleted scene involving Jabba the Hutt was added to the 1997 theatrical re-release and subsequent home media releases of A New Hope. When first shot, this scene featured Declan Mulholland as a humanoid version of Jabba, which was digitally superimposed over with the character's monstrous current design when the footage was reincorporated into the film.

In the storyline context of the original trilogy, Jabba is introduced as the most powerful crime boss on Tatooine, who has placed a bounty on the head of heroic smuggler Han Solo and employs bounty hunters such as Greedo and Boba Fett to capture or kill him. When confronted at his home palace after managing to capture Solo, Jabba is seen surrounded by a large host of extraterrestrial acquaintances, such as various fellow criminals, entertainers such as the Max Rebo Band, and slave girls, one of which Princess Leia is briefly made before ultimately killing her captor in the midst of a climactic battle sequence. Jabba is portrayed as a cruel antagonist with a grim sense of humor, an insatiable appetite (as is typical of his species), and affinities for torture and other heinous activities.The character has incorporated prominently into Star Wars merchandising beginning with the marketing campaign corresponding with the theatrical release of Return of the Jedi. Besides the canonical films, Jabba the Hutt is additionally featured in various pieces of Star Wars Legends literature. Since his appearance in Return of the Jedi, Jabba the Hutt's image has been highly influential and recognizable in contemporary popular culture, commonly being used as a satirical literary device and/or political caricature to underscore negative qualities such as morbid obesity and corruption.

Jah Hut language

Jah Hut (Jah Het) is an Austroasiatic language spoken around the Krau river in peninsular Malaysia. The Jah Hut are one of the indigenous Orang Asli peoples.

Mountain hut

A mountain hut (also known as alpine hut, mountain shelter, mountain refuge, mountain lodge, and mountain hostel) is a building located high in the mountains, generally accessible only by foot, intended to provide food and shelter to mountaineers, climbers and hikers. Mountain huts are usually operated by an Alpine Club or some organisation dedicated to hiking or mountain recreation.

Mountain huts can provide a range of services, starting with shelter and simple sleeping berths. Some, particularly in remote areas, are not staffed, but others have staff which prepare meals and drinks and can provide other services, including providing lectures and selling clothing and small items. Mountain huts usually allow anybody to access their facilities, although some require reservations.

Modern hut systems date back a century and a half. The Swiss Alpine Club has built huts since 1863. In the United States, the Appalachian Mountain Club built its first hut at Madison Spring in New Hampshire in 1889.

Nissen hut

A Nissen hut is a prefabricated steel structure for military use, especially as barracks, made from a half-cylindrical skin of corrugated steel. Designed during the First World War by the engineer and inventor Major Peter Norman Nissen, it was used extensively during the Second World War.

Pizza Hut

Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise which was founded in 1958 by Dan and Frank Carney. The company is known for its Italian-American cuisine menu, including pizza and pasta, as well as side dishes and desserts. Pizza Hut has 18,431 restaurants worldwide as of December 31, 2018, making it the world's largest pizza chain in terms of locations. It is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc., one of the world's largest restaurant companies.

Quiggly hole

A quiggly hole, also known as a pit-house or simply as a quiggly or kekuli, is the remains of an earth lodge built by the First Nations people of the Interior of British Columbia and the Columbia Plateau in the U.S. The word quiggly comes from kick willy or keekwulee, the Chinook Jargon word for "beneath" or "under".

Quonset hut

A Quonset hut is a lightweight prefabricated structure of corrugated galvanized steel having a semicircular cross-section. The design was developed in the United States, based on the Nissen hut introduced by the British during World War I. Hundreds of thousands were produced during World War II and military surplus was sold to the public. The name comes from the site of their first manufacture at Quonset Point at the Davisville Naval Construction Battalion Center in Davisville, Rhode Island.

Software engineering

Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.Notable definitions of software engineering include:

"the systematic application of scientific and technological knowledge, methods, and experience to the design, implementation, testing, and documentation of software"—The Bureau of Labor Statistics—IEEE Systems and software engineering - Vocabulary

"The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software"—IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology

"an engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production"—Ian Sommerville

"the establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to economically obtain software that is reliable and works efficiently on real machines"—Fritz BauerThe term has also been used less formally:

as the informal contemporary term for the broad range of activities that were formerly called computer programming and systems analysis;

as the broad term for all aspects of the practice of computer programming, as opposed to the theory of computer programming, which is formally studied as a sub-discipline of computer science;

as the term embodying the advocacy of a specific approach to computer programming, one that urges that it be treated as an engineering discipline rather than an art or a craft, and advocates the codification of recommended practices.

Waputik Icefield

The Waputik Icefield is located on the Continental divide in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. It is developed on the heights of the Waputik Range in the Central Main Ranges.

The icefield is shared by Banff and Yoho National Parks and numerous outlet glaciers extend from the icefield. Runoff from the Waputik Icefield provides water for numerous lakes, streams and rivers including Hector Lake, and the Bow, Kicking Horse and Yoho Rivers. Runoff from the Daly Glacier feeds Takakkaw Falls.

The icefield encompasses 40 km² (15 miles²) and is located 20 km (12 mi) northwest of Lake Louise, on the west side of the Icefields Parkway.

The icefield is easily accessible by mountaineers in both the summer and winter. Both ski trips in the winter and glacier hiking trips in the summer often combine a traverse of this icefield with a trip across the Wapta Icefield directly to the north.

Yum! Brands

Yum! Brands, Inc., or Yum! and formerly Tricon Global Restaurants, Inc., is an American fast food company. A Fortune 500 corporation, Yum! operates the brands Taco Bell, KFC, Pizza Hut, and WingStreet worldwide, except in China, where the brands are operated by a separate company, Yum China. Prior to 2011, Yum! also owned Long John Silver's and A&W Restaurants.Based in Louisville, Kentucky, it is one of the world's largest fast food restaurant companies in terms of system units—with 48,124 restaurants (including 856 that are company-owned and 47,268 that are franchised) around the world in 145 countries.

Hut dwelling designs and semi-permanent human shelters
Traditional immobile
Traditional mobile
Open-air
Modern
Named huts
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