Husk

Husk (or hull) in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed. It often refers to the leafy outer covering of an ear of maize (corn) as it grows on the plant. Literally, a husk or hull includes the protective outer covering of a seed, fruit, or vegetable. It can also refer to the exuvia of bugs or small animals left behind after moulting.

In cooking, hull can also refer to other waste parts of fruits and vegetables, notably the cap or sepal of a strawberry.

The husk of a legume and some similar fruits is called a pod.

Plantago-seed mucilage is often referred to as husk, or psyllium husk.

Crop plants of several species have been selected that have hulless seeds, including pumpkins, oats, and barley.

E8025-Milyanfan-corn-huskers
Corn being husked in the yard of a Dungan farmer in Kyrgyzstan
Pilon
Women in Cape Verde using multiple pestles in a large mortar

Husking and dehulling

Husking of corn is the process of removing its outer layers, leaving only the cob or seed rack of the corn. Dehulling is the process of removing the hulls (or chaff) from beans and other seeds. This is sometimes done using a machine known as a huller. To prepare the seeds to have oils extracted from them, they are cleaned to remove any foreign objects. Next, the seeds have their hulls, or outer coverings, or husk, removed. There are three different types of dehulling systems that can be used to process soybeans: Hot dehulling, warm dehulling and cold dehulling. Hot dehulling is the system offered in areas where beans are processed directly from the field. Warm dehulling is often used by processors who import their soybeans. Cold dehulling is used in plants that have existing drying and conditioning equipment, but need to add dehulling equipment to produce high protein meal. The different dehulling temperature options are for different types of production, beans and preparation equipment.

In third-world countries, husking and dehulling is still often done by hand using a large mortar and pestle. These are usually made of wood, and operated by one or more people.

The husk is biodegradable and may be composted.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ Cote, Wilfred (2013-12-01). Biomass Utilization. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781475708332. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12.
Cecil Husk

Cecil Husk (1847-1920) was a British professional singer and spiritualist medium.

Coconut

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only known living species of the genus Cocos. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull" after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.Coconuts are known for their versatility of uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. The inner flesh of the mature seed forms a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called "coconut milk" in the literature, and when immature, may be harvested for their potable "coconut water", also called "coconut juice".

Mature, ripe coconuts can be used as edible seeds, or processed for oil and plant milk from the flesh, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. Dried coconut flesh is called copra, and the oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking – frying in particular – as well as in soaps and cosmetics. The hard shells, fibrous husks and long pinnate leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. The coconut also has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals.

Corn kernel

Corn kernels are the fruits of corn (called maize in many countries). Maize is a grain, and the kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable or a source of starch. The kernel comprise endosperm, germ, pericarp, and tip cap.

One ear of corn contains roughly 800 kernels in 16 rows. Corn kernels are readily available in bulk throughout maize-producing areas. They have a number of uses, including food and biofuel. Corn consist of the husk, and the silk, often mistaken for the husk.

Corn on the cob

Corn on the cob is a culinary term used for a cooked ear of freshly picked maize from a cultivar of sweet corn. Sweet corn is the most common variety of maize eaten directly off the cob. The ear is picked while the endosperm is in the "milk stage" so that the kernels are still tender. Ears of corn are steamed or boiled, usually without their green husks, or roasted with them. The husk leaves are in any case removed before serving.

Corn on the cob is normally eaten while still warm. It is often seasoned with salt and buttered before serving. Some diners use specialized skewers, thrust into the ends of the cob, to hold the ear while eating without touching the hot and sticky kernels.

Within a day of corn being picked it starts converting sugar into starch, which results in reduction in the level of natural sweetness. Corn should be cooked and served the same day it has been harvested, as it takes only a single day for corn to lose up to 25% of its sweetness.

Fagaceae

Fagaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes beeches and oaks, and comprises eight genera with about 927 species. The Fagaceae are deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs, characterized by alternate simple leaves with pinnate venation, unisexual flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of cup-like (cupule) nuts. Their leaves are often lobed and both petioles and stipules are generally present. Leaf characteristics of Fagaceae can be very similar to those of Rosaceae and other rose motif families. Their fruits lack endosperm and lie in a scaly or spiny husk that may or may not enclose the entire nut, which may consist of one to seven seeds. In the oaks, genus Quercus, the fruit is a non-valved nut (usually containing one seed) called an acorn. The husk of the acorn in most oaks only forms a cup in which the nut sits. Other members of the family have fully enclosed nuts. Fagaceae is one of the most ecologically important woody plant families in the Northern Hemisphere, as oaks form the backbone of temperate forest in North America, Europe, and Asia and one of the most significant sources of wildlife fodder.

Several members of the Fagaceae have important economic uses. Many species of oak, chestnut, and beech (genera Quercus, Castanea, and Fagus, respectively) are commonly used as timber for floors, furniture, cabinets, and wine barrels. Cork for stopping wine bottles and myriad other uses is made from the bark of cork oak, Quercus suber. Chestnuts are the fruits from species of the genus Castanea. Numerous species from several genera are prominent ornamentals, and wood chips from the genus Fagus are often used in flavoring beers.

Hazelnut

The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana. It also is known as cobnut or filbert nut according to species. A cob is roughly spherical to oval, about 15–25 mm (0.59–0.98 in) long and 10–15 mm (0.39–0.59 in) in diameter, with an outer fibrous husk surrounding a smooth shell. A filbert is more elongated, being about twice as long as its diameter. The nut falls out of the husk when ripe, about 7 to 8 months after pollination. The kernel of the seed is edible and used raw or roasted, or ground into a paste. The seed has a thin, dark brown skin, which sometimes is removed before cooking.

Hazelnuts are used in confectionery to make praline, and also used in combination with chocolate for chocolate truffles and products such as Nutella and Frangelico liqueur. Hazelnut oil, pressed from hazelnuts, is strongly flavoured and used as a cooking oil. Turkey is the world's largest producer of hazelnuts.

Hazelnuts are rich in protein, monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, manganese, and numerous other essential nutrients (nutrition table below).

Husk (comics)

Husk (Paige Guthrie) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Guthrie is a superhero associated with the X-Men.

A mutant, Husk has the ability to remove one layer of skin - or "husk" - revealing an epidermis of a different composition beneath. She often changes into metal or stone form, but can shift into a variety of substances.

Husk is from a Kentucky coal mining family and is the younger sister of the X-Men's Cannonball. Unlike her brother, Husk is self-conscious of being seen as a "hick" (Jubilee often called her 'hayseed'). As a member of the X-Men's 1990s-era junior team Generation X, she established herself as an overachiever. She later joined the X-Men.

Integument

In biology, integument is the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind.It derives from integumentum, which is Latin for "a covering". In a transferred or figurative sense, it could mean a cloak or a disguise. In English "integument" is a fairly modern word, its origin having been traced back to the early seventeenth century. It can mean a material or layer with which anything is enclosed, clothed, or covered in the sense of "clad" or "coated", as with a skin or husk.

Lò trấu

The lò trấu ("rice husk stove") is a type of versatile fuel burning cook stove used in Vietnam since the 1950s. Lò trấu comes from lò (stove) and trấu (rice husk). A kitchen with this kind of stove is a bếp trấu, "husk kitchen."

Magimagi

Magimagi is a fibrous product made from coconut husk.The process of weaving the husk into the traditional look is very labor-intensive. The earliest record of the unique Magimagi design is listed in the Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition by Wilkes (Wilkes, 1845). Concerning the bures that were on the island Wilkes says, “The walls and roof of the mbure [bure] are constructed of canes about the size of a finger, and each one is wound round with sennit [Magimagi] as thick as cod-line, made from the cocoa-nut husk” (p. 119). The forefathers of the current inhabitants of the Vulaga islands used Magimagi in the construction of their houses and canoes. The unique weaved design is accomplished by Vulaga teams that are able to design many graphics into the look.

Magimagi coconut trees take about five years to bear fruit. The husks from the nuts are braided and woven into a strong, thin rope "as thick as a cod line". The Magimagi coconut only grows in the Lau group of island in the nation of Fiji Islands. This scarce natural resource is weaved into artistic beauty by the people of Vulaga who are the originators of this unique talent.

Physalis

Physalis (, , , , from φυσαλλίς phusallís "bladder") is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), which grow in warm temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Most of the species, of which there may be 75–90, are indigenous to the Americas. Cultivated species and weedy annuals have been introduced worldwide. A notable feature is the formation of a large papery husk derived from the calyx, which partly or fully encloses the fruit. The fruit is small and orange, similar in size, shape and structure to a small tomato (hence the name husk tomatoes).

At least 46 species are endemic to the country of Mexico.Many Physalis species are called groundcherries. One name for Physalis peruviana is Inca berry; another is Cape gooseberry, not to be confused with the true gooseberries, which are of the genus Ribes in the family Grossulariaceae. Other names used to refer to the fruit are poha berries, and simply golden berries.

Physalis peruviana

Physalis peruviana, a plant species of the genus Physalis in the nightshade family Solanaceae, has its origin in Peru. The plant and its fruit are commonly called Cape gooseberry, goldenberry, poha, and physalis, among numerous regional names. It has been cultivated in England since the late 18th century, and in South Africa in the Cape of Good Hope since at least the start of the 19th century. Widely introduced in the 20th century, P. peruviana is cultivated or grows wild across the world in temperate and tropical regions.P. peruviana is an economically useful crop as an exotic exported fruit, and is favored in breeding and cultivation programs in many countries.

Psyllium

Psyllium , or ispaghula , is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage.

Psyllium is mainly used as a dietary fibre to relieve symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea and occasionally as a food thickener. Research has shown lowering of blood cholesterol levels in people with elevated cholesterol, and lowering of blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes.The plants from which the seeds are extracted tolerate dry and cool climates and are mainly cultivated in northern India.

Red bean paste

Red bean paste (traditional Chinese: 豆沙/紅豆沙; simplified Chinese: 豆沙/红豆沙; Japanese: 餡こ or 小豆餡; Korean: 팥소) or red bean jam, also called adzuki bean paste, is a paste made of red beans (also called "adzuki beans"), used in East Asian cuisine. The paste is prepared by boiling the beans, then mashing or grinding them. At this stage, the paste can be sweetened or left as it is. The color of the paste is usually dark red, which comes from the husk of the beans. In Korean cuisine, the adzuki beans (often the black variety) can also be husked prior to cooking, resulting in a white paste. It is also possible to remove the husk by sieving after cooking, but before sweetening, resulting in a red paste that is smoother and more homogeneous.

Rice huller

A rice huller or rice husker is an agricultural machine used to automate the process of removing the chaff (the outer husks) of grains of rice. Throughout history, there have been numerous techniques to hull rice. Traditionally, it would be pounded using some form of mortar and pestle. An early simple machine to do this is a rice pounder. Later even more efficient machinery was developed to hull and polish rice. These machines are most widely developed and used throughout Asia where the most popular type is the Engelberg huller designed by German Brazilian engineer Evaristo Conrado Engelberg in Brazil and first patented in 1885.The Engelberg huller uses steel rollers to remove the husk. Other types of huller include the disk or cono huller which uses an abrasive rotating disk to first remove the husk before passing the grain to conical rollers which polish it, this is done repeatedly since other sides of circular side of rice are not husked. Rubber rollers may be used to reduce the amount of breakage of the grains, so increasing the yield of the best quality head rice, but the rubber rollers tend to require frequent replacement, which can be a significant drawback.

Rice hulls

Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice. In addition to protecting rice during the growing season, rice hulls can be put to use as building material, fertilizer, insulation material, or fuel. Rice hulls are part of the chaff of the rice.

Rune Husk

Rune Husk is a 2017 EP by of Montreal and has been said to sound like "Ziggy Stardust".

Tomatillo

The tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica and Physalis ixocarpa), also known as the Mexican husk tomato, is a plant of the nightshade family bearing small, spherical and green or green-purple fruit of the same name. Tomatillos originated in Mexico and were cultivated in the pre-Columbian era. A staple of Mexican cuisine, they are eaten raw or cooked in a variety of dishes, particularly salsa verde.

White rice

White rice is milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed. This alters the flavor, texture and appearance of the rice and helps prevent spoilage and extend its storage life. After milling, the rice is polished, resulting in a seed with a bright, white, shiny appearance.

The milling and polishing processes both remove nutrients. A diet based on unenriched white rice leaves many people vulnerable to the neurological disease beriberi, due to a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). White rice is often enriched with some of the nutrients stripped from it during its processing. Enrichment of white rice with B1, B3, and iron is required by law in the United States. As with all natural foods, the precise nutritional composition of rice varies slightly depending on the variety, soil conditions, environmental conditions and types of fertilizers.

Adopted over brown rice in the second half of the 19th century because it was favored by traders, white rice has led to a beriberi epidemic in Asia.At various times, starting in the 19th century, brown rice and wild rice have been advocated as more healthful alternatives. The bran in brown rice contains significant dietary fiber and the germ contains many vitamins and minerals.Typically, 100 grams of uncooked rice produces around 240 to 260 grams of cooked grains, the difference in weight being due to absorbed cooking water.

History
Types of barley
Agronomy
Trade
Parts of the plant
Basic preparations
As an ingredient
Associated human diseases
Related concepts
Types
Agronomy
Trade
Plant parts and their uses
Basic preparation
As an ingredient
Associated human diseases
Related concepts
Traditional biodegradable culinary wrappings, beddings, layering & dishware
Latin America
Asia
Africa
As dishware

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.