Hunan (湖南) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed in South Central China; it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west, and Chongqing to the northwest. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous and the 10th most extensive province-level by area.
The name Hunan literally means "south of the lake"; Hu means "lake" while nan means "south.". The lake that is referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province; Vehicle license plates from Hunan are marked Xiāng (Chinese: 湘), after the Xiang River, which runs from south to north through Hunan and forms part of the largest drainage system for the province. Its capital and largest city is Changsha, which also abuts the Xiang River.
|• Chinese||湖南省 (Húnán Shěng)|
Map showing the location of Hunan Province
(and largest city)
|Divisions||14 prefectures, 122 counties, 2576 townships|
|• Secretary||Du Jiahao|
|• Governor||Xu Dazhe|
|• Total||210,000 km2 (80,000 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,115.2 m (6,939.6 ft)|
|• Density||320/km2 (830/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||13th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han – 90%|
Tujia – 4%
Miao – 3%
Dong – 1%
Yao – 1%
Other peoples – 1%
|• Languages and dialects||Chinese varieties: |
Xiang, Gan, Southwestern Mandarin, Xiangnan Tuhua, Waxiang, Hakka.
Xong, Tujia, Mien, Gam
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HN|
|GDP (2017 )||CNY 3.46 trillion|
USD 512.32 billion (9th)
|• per capita||CNY 50,563 |
USD 7,489 (16th)
|HDI (2014)||0.735 (high) (20th)|
"Hunan" in Chinese characters
|Xiang||ɣu˩˧ nia˩˧ (fu-lã)|
|Literal meaning||"South of the (Dongting) Lake"|
Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia, Dong and Yao peoples. The province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, and then the Han dynasty. At this time, and for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains. The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was especially prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south.
Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River. It was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought, particularly in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was also on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China. The land produced grain so abundantly that it fed many parts of China with its surpluses. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings. Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions. The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850. The rebellion spread into Hunan and then further eastward along the Yangzi River valley. Ultimately, it was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864.
Hunan was relatively quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the Communist's Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927. It was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, and established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war. They defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched Operation Ichigo, a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou (Yuehan Railway). Hunan was relatively unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more as the Nationalists retreated southward.
As Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976.
In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were also from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi; General Secretaries Ren Bishi and Hu Yaobang; Marshals Peng Dehuai, He Long, and Luo Ronghuan; Wang Zhen, one of the Eight Elders; Xiang Jingyu, the first female member of the party's central committee; Senior General Huang Kecheng; and veteran diplomat Lin Boqu. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji.
Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres (81,800 square miles), making it the 10th largest provincial-level division. The east, south and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, and the Luoxiao Mountains to the east. Mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the province, and plains less than 20%. At 2115.2 meters above sea level, the highest point in Hunan province is Lingfeng (酃峰).
The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan. The center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River.
Lake Dongting is the largest lake in the province and the second largest freshwater lake of China.
The Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure prominently in Chinese poetry and paintings, particularly during the Song dynasty when they were associated with officials who had been unjustly dismissed.
Changsha (which means "long sands") was an active ceramics district during the Tang dynasty, its tea bowls, ewers and other products mass-produced and shipped to China's coastal cities for export abroad. An Arab dhow dated to the 830s and today known as the Belitung Shipwreck was discovered off the small island of Belitung, Indonesia with more than 60,000 pieces in its cargo. The salvaged cargo is today housed in nearby Singapore.
Hunan's climate is subtropical, and, under the Köppen climate classification, is classified as being humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), with short, cool, damp winters, very hot and humid summers, and plenty of rainfall. January temperatures average 3 to 8 °C (37 to 46 °F) while July temperatures average around 27 to 30 °C (81 to 86 °F). Average annual precipitation is 1,200 to 1,700 millimetres (47 to 67 in).
|Administrative divisions of Hunan|
|№||Division code||Division||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Divisions|
|Districts||Counties||Aut. counties||CL cities|
|430000||Hunan Province||210000.00||65,683,722||Changsha city||36||62||7||17|
|1||430100||Changsha city||11,819.46||7,044,118||Yuelu District||6||1||2|
|13||430200||Zhuzhou city||11,262.20||3,855,609||Tianyuan District||5||3||1|
|8||430300||Xiangtan city||5,006.46||2,748,552||Yuetang District||2||1||2|
|4||430400||Hengyang city||15,302.78||7,141,462||Zhengxiang District||5||5||2|
|7||430500||Shaoyang city||20,829.63||7,071,826||Daxiang District||3||7||1||1|
|11||430600||Yueyang city||14,897.88||5,477,911||Yueyanglou District||3||4||2|
|2||430700||Changde city||18,177.18||5,747,218||Wuling District||2||6||1|
|12||430800||Zhangjiajie city||9,516.03||1,476,521||Yongding District||2||2|
|9||430900||Yiyang city||12,325.16||4,313,084||Heshan District||2||3||1|
|3||431000||Chenzhou city||19,317.33||4,581,778||Beihu District||2||8||1|
|10||431100||Yongzhou city||22,255.31||5,180,235||Lengshuitan District||2||8||1|
|5||431200||Huaihua city||27,562.72||4,741,948||Hecheng District||1||5||5||1|
|6||431300||Loudi city||8,107.61||3,785,627||Louxing District||1||2||2|
|14||433100||Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture||15,462.30||2,547,833||Jishou city||7||1|
The fourteen prefecture-level divisions of Hunan are subdivided into 122 county-level divisions (35 districts, 17 county-level cities, 63 counties, 7 autonomous counties). Those are in turn divided into 2587 township-level divisions (1098 towns, 1158 townships, 98 ethnic townships, 225 subdistricts, and eight district public offices). At the year end of 2017, the total population is 68.6 million.
The politics of Hunan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.
The Governor of Hunan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hunan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hunan Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Hunan CPC Party Chief".
As of the mid 19th century, Hunan exported rhubarb, musk, honey, tobacco, hemp, and birds. The Lake Dongting area is an important center of ramie production, and Hunan is also an important center of tea cultivation. Aside from agricultural products, in recent years Hunan has grown to become an important center for steel, machinery and electronics production, especially as China's manufacturing sector moves away from coastal provinces such as Guangdong and Zhejiang.
Hunan is also well known for a few international makers of construction equipments such as concrete pumps, cranes, etc. These companies include Sany Group, Zoomlion and Sunward. Sany is one of the major players in the world. Liuyang is the major maker of fireworks in the world. 
As of 2016, its nominal GDP was USD 475 billion (CNY 3.16 trillion), the per capita GDP was USD 6,983 (CNY 46,382).
|Historical GDP of Hunan Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008)|
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017)
|year||GDP||GDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
|GDP in millions||real
1 foreign currency
|USD 1||Int'l$. 1|
The Changsha National Economic and Technology Development Zone was founded in 1992. It is located east of Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi) and the current area is 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi). Near the zone is National Highways G319 and G107 as well as Jingzhu Highway. Besides that, it is very close to the downtown and the railway station. The distance between the zone and the airport is 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone include high-tech industry, biology project technology and new material industry.
Approved by the State Council, Chenzhou Export processing Zone (CEPZ) was established in 2005 and is the only export processing zone in Hunan province. The scheduled production area of CEPZ covers 3km2. The industrial positioning of CEPZ is to concentrate on developing export-oriented hi-tech industries, including electronic information, precision machinery, and new-type materials. The zone has good infrastructure, and the enterprises inside could enjoy the preferential policies of tax-exemption, tax-guarantee and tax-refunding. By the end of the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan”, the CEPZ achieved a total export and import volume of over US$1 billion and provided more than 50,000 jobs. It aimed to be one of the first-class export processing zones in China.
Zhuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1992. Its total planned area is 35 km2 (14 sq mi). It is very close to National Highway G320. The major industries in the zone include biotechnology, food processing and heavy industry. In 2007, the park signed a cooperation contract with Beijing Automobile Industry, one of the largest auto makers in China, which will set up a manufacturing base in Zhuzhou HTP.
As of the 2000 census, the population of Hunan is 64,400,700 consisting of forty-one ethnic groups. Its population grew 6.17% (3,742,700) from its 1990 levels. According to the census, 89.79% (57,540,000) identified themselves as Han people, 10.21% (6,575,300) as minority groups. The minority groups are Tujia, Miao, Dong, Yao, Bai, Hui, Zhuang, Uyghurs and so on.
In Hunan, ethnic minority languages are spoken in the following prefectures.
Around 5,000 Uyghurs live around Taoyuan County and other parts of Changde. Hui and Uyghurs have intermarried in this area. In addition to eating pork, the Uygurs of Changde practice other Han Chinese customs, like ancestor worship at graves. Some Uyghurs from Xinjiang visit the Hunan Uyghurs out of curiosity or interest. Also, the Uyghurs of Hunan do not speak the Uyghur language, instead, they speak Chinese as their native language.
The predominant religions in Hunan are Chinese Buddhism, Taoist traditions and Chinese folk religions. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 20.19% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.77% of the population identifies as Christian. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 79.04% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.
Xiang Chinese (湘語) is the biggest native language to Hunan province, and it is also a group of Chinese dialects spoken in most parts of Hunan and in a few adjacent areas. In addition to Xiang Chinese, there are also some other Chinese varieties and some non-Chinese native languages, spoken in many places of Hunan province.
Nü shu is a writing system that was used exclusively among women in Jiangyong County and a few neighbor countryside places, in south Hunan. Local women read Nü shu with their native language - Xiangnan Tuhua, a very special local Chinese variety, which is not intelligible with any other Chinese.
Hunan's culture industry generated 87 billion yuan (US$11.76 billion) in economic value in 2007, a major contributor to the province's economic growth. The industry accounts for 7.5 percent of the region's GDP - 0.9 percentage points higher than the previous year.
Located in the south central part of the Chinese mainland, Hunan has long been known for its natural beauty. It is surrounded by mountains on the east, west, and south, and by the Yangtze River on the north. Its mixture of mountains and water makes it among the most beautiful provinces in China. For thousands of years, the region has been a major center of agriculture, growing rice, tea, and oranges. China's first all glass suspension bridge was also opened in Hunan, in Shiniuzhai National Geological Park.
Professional sports teams in Hunan include:
The Battle of West Hunan, also known as the Battle of Xuefeng Mountains and the Zhijiang Campaign, was the Japanese invasion of west Hunan and the subsequent Allied counterattack that occurred between 6 April and 7 June 1945, during the last months of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Japanese strategic aims for this campaign were to seize Chinese airfields and secure railroads in West Hunan, and to achieve a decisive victory that their depleted land forces needed.
This campaign, if successful, would also allow Japan to attack Sichuan and eventually the Chinese war time capital Chongqing. Although the Japanese were able to make initial headways, Chinese forces with air support from the Americans were able to turn the tide and forced the Japanese into a rout, recovering a substantial amount of lost ground.
This was the last major Japanese offensive, and the last of 22 major battles during the war to involve more than 100,000 troops. Concurrently, the Chinese managed to repel a Japanese offensive in Henan and Hubei and launched a successful attack on Japanese forces in Guangxi, turning the course of the war sharply in China's favor even as they prepared to launch a full-scale counterattack across South China.Changsha
Changsha (Chinese: 长沙, Changsha dialect: Tsanso) is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010 Census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population. It is part of the Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster or megalopolis.
Changsha is located in the Xiang River valley plain, bordering on Luoxiao Mountains on the east, Wuling Mountains on the west, edging in Dongting Lake on the north and bounded on the south by Hengshan Mountains. It has a monsoonal humid subtropical climate, with an average annual air temperature of 16.8 to 17.3 °C (62.2 to 63.1 °F) and an annual rainfall of 1,358.6 to 1,552.5 mm (53.49 to 61.12 in).Changsha has a history of more than 3,000 years. Changsha was the capital of Changsha State in the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), and the capital of the Chu State (907–951) in the Ten Kingdoms period. The lacquerware and Silk Texts recovered from Mawangdui (2nd century BC) there are an indication of the richness of local craft traditions. In 1904, Changsha was opened to foreign trade, and large numbers of Europeans and Americans settled there. Changsha was the site of Mao Zedong's conversion to communism. It was also the scene of major battles in the Sino-Japanese War (1931–1945) and was briefly occupied by the Japanese. Changsha is now an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation centre.Chenzhou
Chenzhou (Chinese: 郴州; pinyin: Chēnzhōu) is a prefecture-level city located in the south of Hunan province, China. Its administrative area covers 19,317 square kilometres (7,458 sq mi), 9.2% of the provincial area, and its total population reached 4,559,600 in 2001, 26% of them living in urban areas, 74% of them live in rural areas.Hengyang
Hengyang (simplified Chinese: 衡阳; traditional Chinese: 衡陽; pinyin: Héngyáng; Mandarin pronunciation: [xə̌ŋ.jǎŋ]) is the second largest city of Hunan Province, China. It straddles the Xiang River about 160 km (99 mi) south of the provincial capital of Changsha. Its built-up, metro area consisting of 4 out of the 5 urban districts was home to 1,075,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census.Hunan Broadcasting System
Hunan Broadcasting System (HBS) (simplified Chinese: 湖南广播电视台; traditional Chinese: 湖南廣播電視台; pinyin: Húnán Guǎngbò Diànshìtái) formerly known as Golden Eagle Broadcasting System (GBS), is China's second biggest television network after China Central Television (CCTV). The television network is owned by the Hunan provincial government. The network is based in Changsha in Hunan and Xining in Qinghai. On 20 May 2009, the television network expanded its service to Hong Kong and North America.Hunan Television
Hunan Television or Hunan TV (Chinese: 湖南卫视; pinyin: Húnán Wèishì) is a provincial satellite TV station. It launched in January 1997 and is currently China's second-most-watched channel, second only to CCTV-1, owned by China Central Television, although Hunan STV occasionally overtook CCTV-1 in ratings. Hunan TV's signal covers most of China, including Macau, Hong Kong, Taiwan and overseas as (Hunan STV World) in Americas, North America, Japan, Papua New Guinea,Australia, United States, Canada, Europe, Worldwide, Sweden ,
East Asia and other countries and regions landing. Since 28 September 2009, the channel broadcasts in high-definition.Hunan University
Hunan University (simplified Chinese: 湖南大学; traditional Chinese: 湖南大學; pinyin: Húnán Dàxué), in Changsha, Hunan province, is a member of Project 985 and Project 211, which are sponsored by the Ministry of Education of China aiming to become a world-class university. It is an elite university, with Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University status.Loudi
Loudi (simplified Chinese: 娄底; traditional Chinese: 婁底; pinyin: Lóudî) is a prefecture-level city located in central Hunan province, China. It is situated about 110 km (68 mi) southwest of the provincial capital of Changsha and is considered a small to medium size city within the province. According to the 2010 Census, the population of Loudi is of 3,785,627 inhabitants in an area of 8,117 km2 (3,134 sq mi). In 2007, the city is named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.Mango TV
Mango TV (芒果TV, Mángguǒ TV) is a Chinese Internet enterprise operated by mgtv.com Corporation. Mango TV was established on May 26, 2006 in Changsha, Hunan and later decided to use 'Mango TV(Internet TV, PC, Phone and Pad)' as its video platform branding title in 2008. Mango TV specializes in creating online videos and is an online platform providing all of the content that is presented in TV channels, and all other copyright works from Hunan Broadcasting System and Hunan Satellite TV. Its current headquarter is located in Golden Eagle Movie&TV Cultural City, Changsha, Hunan, China. Mango TV provides audience with all kinds of content including films, TV series, music, cartoons and entertainment.
On May 5, 2016, Mango TV was reported to have 39 million daily active users on its website, with the content from Hunan Satellite TV only accounting for 38% in all that Mango TV has produced.On May 9, 2018, the license which Hunan Broadcasting System got to broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest was taken away after it was revealed that Mango TV, which broadcast Eurovision 2018 for Chinese audiences, censored the Albanian and Irish performances, along with censoring any rainbow flags which were seen in the audience.Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong (; December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. His theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism.
Mao was the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan, Hunan. He had a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook early in his life, and was particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919. He later adopted Marxism–Leninism while working at Peking University, and became a founding member of the Communist Party of China (CPC), leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in 1927. During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the CPC, Mao helped to found the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies, and ultimately became head of the CPC during the Long March. Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), China's civil war resumed after Japan's surrender and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalist government, which withdrew to Taiwan.
On October 1, 1949, Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC), a single-party state controlled by the CPC. In the following years he solidified his control through land reforms and through a psychological victory in the Korean War, as well as through campaigns against landlords, people he termed "counter-revolutionaries", and other perceived enemies of the state. In 1957, he launched a campaign known as the Great Leap Forward that aimed to rapidly transform China's economy from agrarian to industrial. This campaign led to the deadliest famine in history and the deaths of 20–45 million people between 1958 and 1962. In 1966, Mao initiated the Cultural Revolution, a program to remove "counter-revolutionary" elements in Chinese society which lasted 10 years and was marked by violent class struggle, widespread destruction of cultural artifacts, and an unprecedented elevation of Mao's cult of personality. The program is now officially regarded as a "severe setback" for the PRC. In 1972, Mao welcomed American President Richard Nixon in Beijing, signalling the start of a policy of opening China to the world. After years of ill health, Mao suffered a series of heart attacks in 1976 and died at the age of 82. He was succeeded as paramount leader by Premier Hua Guofeng, who was quickly sidelined and replaced by Deng Xiaoping.
A controversial figure, Mao is regarded as one of the most important and influential individuals in modern world history. He is also known as a political intellect, theorist, military strategist, poet, and visionary. Supporters credit him with driving imperialism out of China, modernising the nation and building it into a world power, promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, as well as increasing life expectancy as China's population grew from around 550 million to over 900 million under his leadership. Conversely, his regime has been called autocratic and totalitarian, and condemned for bringing about mass repression and destroying religious and cultural artifacts and sites. It was additionally responsible for vast numbers of deaths with estimates ranging from 30 to 70 million victims through starvation, prison labour and mass executions.Mount Heng (Hunan)
Hengshan (also known as Mount Heng) (Chinese: 衡山; pinyin: Héng Shān), is a mountain in southcentral China's Hunan Province known as the southern mountain (Chinese: 南岳; pinyin: Nányuè) of the Five Great Mountains of China. Heng Shan is a mountain range 150 kilometres (93 mi) long with 72 peaks and lies at 27°18′6″N 112°41′5″E. The Huiyan Peak is the south end of the peaks, Yuelu Mountain in Changsha City is the north end, and the Zhurong Peak is the highest at 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) above sea level.
At the foot of the mountain stands the largest temple in southern China, the Grand Temple of Mount Heng (Nanyue Damiao), which is the largest group of ancient buildings in Hunan Province.
Other notable sites in the area include the Zhusheng Si Temple, an 8th-century Buddhist monastery and Zhurong Gong, a small stone temple.Operation Ichi-Go
Operation Ichi-Go (一号作戦 Ichi-gō Sakusen, lit. "Operation Number One") was a campaign of a series of major battles between the Imperial Japanese Army forces and the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, fought from April to December 1944. It consisted of three separate battles in the Chinese provinces of Henan, Hunan and Guangxi.
These battles were the Japanese Operation Kogo or Battle of Central Henan, Operation Togo 1 or the Battle of Changheng, and Operation Togo 2 and Togo 3, or the Battle of Guilin-Liuzhou, respectively. The two primary goals of Ichi-go were to open a land route to French Indochina, and capture air bases in southeast China from which American bombers were attacking the Japanese homeland and shipping.In Japanese the operation was also called Tairiku Datsū Sakusen (大陸打通作戦), or "Continent Cross-Through Operation", while the Chinese refer to it as the Battle of Henan-Hunan-Guangxi (simplified Chinese: 豫湘桂会战; traditional Chinese: 豫湘桂會戰; pinyin: Yù Xīang Guì Huìzhàn).Xiang Chinese
Xiang or Hsiang (Chinese: 湘; pinyin: xiāng; Mandarin pronunciation: [ɕi̯ɑ́ŋ]), also known as Hunanese (English: ), is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese, spoken mainly in Hunan province but also in northern Guangxi and parts of neighboring Guizhou and Hubei provinces. Scholars divided Xiang into five subgroups, Chang-Yi, Lou-Shao, Hengzhou, Chen-Xu and Yong-Quan. Among those, Lou-shao, also known as Old Xiang, still exhibits the three-way distinction of Middle Chinese obstruents, preserving the voiced stops, fricatives, and affricates. Xiang has also been heavily influenced by Mandarin, which adjoins three of the four sides of the Xiang speaking territory, and Gan in Jiangxi Province, from where a large population immigrated to Hunan during the Ming Dynasty.Xiang-speaking Hunanese people have played an important role in Modern Chinese history, especially in those reformatory and revolutionary movements such as the Self-Strengthening Movement, Hundred Days' Reform, Xinhai Revolution and Chinese Communist Revolution. Some examples of Xiang speakers are Mao Zedong, Zuo Zongtang, Huang Xing and Ma Ying-jeou.Xiangtan
Xiangtan (Chinese: 湘潭; pinyin: Xiāngtán; Wade–Giles: Hsiang-tan) is a prefecture-level city in Hunan province, China. The hometowns of several founding leaders of the Chinese Communist Party, including Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, and Peng Dehuai, are in the Xiangtan prefecture, as well as the hometowns of Qing dynasty painter Qi Baishi, scholar-general Zeng Guofan, and tennis player Peng Shuai.Yiyang
Yiyang (simplified Chinese: 益阳; traditional Chinese: 益陽; pinyin: Yìyáng) is a prefecture-level city on the Zi River in Hunan province, China, straddling Lake Dongting and bordering Hubei to the north. According to the 2010 Census, Yiyang has a population of 4,313,084 inhabitants residing in an area of 12,144 km2 (4,689 sq mi). The previous census was in 2000 when it was recorded there were 4,309,143 inhabitants.Yongzhou
Yongzhou is a prefecture-level city in the south of Hunan province, People's Republic of China, located on the southern bank of the Xiang River, which is formed by the confluence of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers, and bordering Guangdong to the southeast and Guangxi to the southwest. With a history of 2000 years, Yongzhou is one of the four ancient counties in Hunan. Its total area is 22,441 square kilometres (8,665 sq mi), and it has a total population of nearly 5.8 million people.Yueyang
Yueyang, formerly known as Yuezhou or Yochow, is a prefecture-level city on the southern shores of Dongting Lake in the northeastern corner of Hunan Province in the People's Republic of China.
Yueyang has an administrative area of 14,896 km2 (5,751 sq mi) and the city proper, 304 km2 (117 sq mi). The population was 5,477,911 at the 2010 census whom 991,465 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made up of Yueyanglou District, Yunxi District and Junshan District.. Yueyang is the only international trade port city in Hunan and a famous port city in China, at the same time, Yueyang's comprehensive economic strength ranks second only to Changsha, the provincial capital.
The city's most famous attractions are the Yueyang Tower and Dongting Lake. The most famous food is Dongting lake silver fish (洞庭银鱼) .
In 2017, the city's permanent resident population was 573,330, an increase of 52,200 from the end of last year. The urban resident population was 3.2798 million, accounting for 57.21% of the total population.Zhangjiajie
Zhangjiajie (simplified Chinese: 张家界; traditional Chinese: 張家界; pinyin: Zhāngjiājiè) also known in Tujia language as Zhangx jif avlar (dzaȵ˩ ji˥ a ˩la˥) is a prefecture-level city in the northwestern part of Hunan province, People's Republic of China. It comprises the district of Yongding, Wulingyuan and counties of Cili and Sangzhi. Within it is located Wulingyuan Scenic Area which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992 as well as an AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration.Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou (Chinese: 株洲; pinyin: Zhūzhōu), formerly Jianning, is a prefecture-level city of Hunan Province, China, straddling the Xiang River southeast of the provincial capital, Changsha, and bordering Jiangxi province to the east. It is part of the "Changzhutan Golden Triangle" (comprising the cities of Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan). The city has jurisdiction over 5 counties (Yanling, Chaling, Youxian, Liling, Zhuzhou) and four districts (Hetang, Lusong, Shifeng and Tianyuan, a high-tech industrial development zone), and covers an area of 11,420 km2 (4,410 sq mi).
As of the 2010 census, Zhuzhou had 3,855,609 inhabitants, of whom 1,055,373 lived in the built-up area (4 urban districts). With Xiangtan areas adjoining Zhuzhou due to be agglomerated in a few years' time, the joint built-up area will be home to 2,933,O69 inhabitants.
Zhuzhou is located in a subtropical monsoon climate zone and with its abundant mineral and organic resources has one of the highest agricultural yields in Hunan province.
|IPA||ɣu˩˧ nia˩˧ (fu-lã)|
|Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Hunan Province||湖南省||Húnán Shěng||fu12 nan12 sǝn2|
|Changsha city||长沙市||Chángshā Shì||c̣an2 sa11 ṣî32|
|Zhuzhou city||株洲市||Zhūzhōu Shì||ćy11 c̣ôu11 ṣî32|
|Xiangtan city||湘潭市||Xiāngtán Shì||? ? ṣî32|
|Hengyang city||衡阳市||Héngyáng Shì||xǝn12 ian12 ṣî32|
|Shaoyang city||邵阳市||Shàoyáng Shì||? ian12 ṣî32|
|Yueyang city||岳阳市||Yuèyáng Shì||io4 ian12 ṣî32|
|Changde city||常德市||Chángdé Shì||? tô4 ṣî32|
|Zhangjiajie city||张家界市||Zhāngjiājiè Shì||? ćia11 kai31 ṣî32|
|Yiyang city||益阳市||Yìyáng Shì||i4 ian12 ṣî32|
|Chenzhou city||郴州市||Chēnzhōu Shì||? c̣ôu11 ṣî32|
|Yongzhou city||永州市||Yǒngzhōu Shì||yn2 c̣ôu11 ṣî32|
|Huaihua city||怀化市||Huáihuà Shì||fai12 fa31 ṣî32|
|Loudi city||娄底市||Lóudǐ Shì||? ti2 ṣî32|
|Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture||湘西自治州||Xiāngxī Zìzhìzhōu||? si11 ci31 c̣î31 c̣ôu11|
|Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities|
|#||City||Urban area||District area||City proper||Census date|
|(1)||Changsha (new district)[a]||230,136||523,660||see Changsha||2010-11-01|
|(3)||Zhuzhou (new district)[b]||94,326||383,598||see Zhuzhou||2010-11-01|
|25||Jishou||212,328||302,065||part of Xiangxi Prefecture||2010-11-01|
Places adjacent to Hunan
|Special administrative regions|