Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. While many subtropical climates tend to be located at or near coastal locations, in some cases they extend inland, most notably in China and the United States, where they exhibit more pronounced seasonal variations and sharper contrasts between summer and winter, as part of a gradient between the more tropical climates of the southern coasts of these countries and the more continental climates of China and the United States’ northern and central regions (localities around the Ohio and Yangtze rivers exhibiting continental influence from the north, compared to climates around the Gulf of Mexico and the South China Sea, which exhibit tropical influence due to their southern coastal positions).

Under the Köppen climate classification, Cfa and Cwa climates are either described as humid subtropical climates or mild temperate climates. This climate features mean temperatures in the coldest month between 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and 18 °C (64 °F) and mean temperatures in the warmest month 22 °C (72 °F) or higher. However, while some climatologists have opted to describe this climate type as a "humid subtropical climate",[1] Köppen himself never used this term. The humid subtropical climate classification was officially created under the Trewartha Climate classification.

The Trewartha system was a 1966 update of the Köppen climate classification, and sought to redefine middle latitude climates into smaller zones (the original Köppen system grouped all middle latitude climates into a single zone). Under the Trewartha climate classification, climates are termed humid subtropical when they have monthly mean air temperatures higher than 10 °C (50 °F) for eight or more months a year and at least one month with mean temperature below 18 °C (64.4 °F). Under the Trewartha system, humid subtropical climates typically occupy the southernmost portions of the temperate zone from 23.5 to 35.0 north and south latitude.[2]

Rainfall often shows a summer peak, especially where monsoons are well developed, as in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Other areas have a more uniform or varying rainfall cycles, but consistently lack any predictably dry summer months. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms that build up due to the intense surface heating and strong subtropical sun angle. Weak tropical lows that move in from adjacent warm tropical oceans, as well as infrequent tropical storms often contribute to summer seasonal rainfall peaks. Winter rainfall is often associated with large storms in the westerlies that have fronts that reach down into subtropical latitudes. However, many subtropical climates such as southeast Asia or Florida have very dry winters, with frequent brush fires and water shortages.

Koppen World Map Cwa Cfa
Warm temperate with hot summer climate zones of the world according to a modified Köppen climate classification that uses a threshold of 0 °C (32 °F) for the coldest month.
  Cfa
  Cwa

Africa

Durban, South Africa
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In Africa, humid subtropical climates are primarily found in the southern hemisphere of the continent. The Cwa climate is found over a large portion of the interior of the Middle and Eastern African regions. This area includes central Angola, northeastern Zimbabwe, the Niassa, Manica and Tete provinces of Mozambique, the southern Congo provinces, southwest Tanzania, and the majority of Malawi, and Zambia. Some lower portions of the Ethiopian Highlands also have this climate.

The climate is also found in the narrow coastal sections of southern and eastern South Africa, primarily in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape provinces. South Africa's version of this climate features heavy oceanic influences resulting in generally milder temperatures. This is particularly evident in its winters when temperatures do not drop as low as in many other regions within the humid subtropical category.

Asia

East Asia

In East and Southeast Asia, this climate type is found in the southeastern quarter of mainland China from Hong Kong north to Nanjing, the northern half of Taiwan, northern Myanmar, northern Vietnam, north through southern and central Japan (Kyushu, Shikoku and half of Honshu), and the extreme southern tip of South Korea around Busan. Cities near the equatorward boundary of this zone include Hong Kong, Hanoi and Taipei; while Qingdao and Tokyo are near the northern boundary.

The influence of the strong Siberian anticyclone in East Asia brings colder winter temperatures than the humid subtropical zones in North America, South America, and Australia. The 0 °C isotherm reaches as far south as the valleys of the Yellow and Wei, roughly latitude 34° N. At Hainan Island and in Taiwan, the climate transitions from subtropical into tropical. In most of this region, the winter monsoon is very well developed, as such eastern Asian humid subtropical zones have a strong winter dry season and heavy summer rainfall.

Only in inland areas below the Yangtze River and coastal areas between approximately the Huai River and the beginning of the coast of Guangdong is there sufficient winter rainfall to produce a Cfa climate; even in these areas, rainfall and streamflow display a highly pronounced summer peak, unlike other regions of this climate type. Drought can be severe and often catastrophic to agriculture in the Cwa zone.

Tokyo, Japan
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The only area where winter precipitation equals or even exceeds the summer rain is on the "San-in" (Sea of Japan), or western, coast of Japan, which during winter is on the windward side of the westerlies. The winter precipitation in these regions is usually produced by low-pressure systems off the east coast that develop in the onshore flow from the Siberian high. Summer rainfall comes from the East Asian Monsoon and from frequent typhoons. Annual rainfall is generally over 1,000 millimetres (39 in), and in areas below the Himalayas can be much higher still.

South Asia

Humid subtropical climates can also be found in South Asia, primarily along the Ganges River. However, the humid subtropical climates exhibited here differ markedly from those in East Asia (and for that matter a good portion of the globe). Winters here are typically mild, dry and relatively short. They also tend to be foggy. Summers tend to be long and very hot, starting from mid-April and peaking in May and early June with high temperatures often exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). They also tend to be extremely dry, complete with dust storms, traits usually associated with arid or semi-arid climates. During this period many native trees defoliate to save water. This is followed by the cooler monsoons, where the region experiences heavy rains on almost a daily basis. Average high temperatures decreases during the monsoon season but the humidity increases. This results in hot and humid conditions, similar to summers in other humid subtropical climates. Cities such as New Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur and Patna exhibit this atypical version of the climate in India. In Pakistan, the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, as well as the city of Swabi in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, feature this weather pattern.

In South Asia, humid subtropical climates generally border on continental climates as altitude increases, or on winter-rainfall climates in western areas of Pakistan and northwestern India (e.g. Peshawar in northwestern Pakistan or Srinagar in the Kashmir Valley in India, where the primary precipitation peak occurs in March, not July or August). Further east, in highland areas with lengthier monsoons such as Nepal, seasonal temperature variation is lower than in the lowlands.

Western Asia

Kutaisi, Georgia
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Although humid subtropical climates in Asia are mostly confined to the southeastern quarter of the continent, there are two narrow areas along the coast of the Caspian Sea and Black Sea with humid subtropical climates. Summers in these locations are cooler than typical humid subtropical climates and snowfall in winter is relatively common, but is usually of a short duration.

In Western Asia, the climate is prevalent in the Gilan and Māzandarān Provinces of Iran, in parts of the Caucasus, in Azerbaijan and in Georgia wedged between the Caspian and Black seas and coastal (Black Sea) Turkey, albeit having more oceanic influence.

Annual rainfall ranges from around 740 mm (29 inches) at Sari to over 2,000 mm (78 inches) at Bandar-e Anzali, and is heavy throughout the year, with a maximum in October or November when Bandar-e Anzali can average 400 millimetres (16 inches). Temperatures are generally moderate in comparison with other parts of Western Asia. During winter, the coastal areas can receive snowfall, which is usually of a short duration.

In Rasht, the average maximum in July is around 28 °C (82 °F) but with near-saturation humidity, whilst in January it is around 9 °C (48 °F). The heavy, evenly distributed rainfall extends north into the Caspian coastal strip of Azerbaijan up to its northern border but this climate in Azerbaijan is, however, a Cfb/Cfa (Oceanic climate/Humid subtropical climate) borderline case.[5]

Western Georgia (Batumi and Kutaisi) in the Kolkheti Lowland and the northeast coast of Turkey (Giresun), have a climate similar to that of Gilan and Mazandaran in Iran and very similar to that of southeastern and northern Azerbaijan. Temperatures range from 22 °C in summer to 5 °C in winter and rainfall is even heavier than in Caspian Iran, up to 2,300 millimetres per year in Hopa (Turkey). These climates are a Cfb/Cfa (Oceanic climate/Humid subtropical climate) borderline case.

North America

Houston, United States
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In North America, humid subtropical climates are found exclusively in the American Gulf and East Coast states, including the following states: the eastern half of Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. On the Florida peninsula, the humid subtropical climate gives way to the tropical climate of south Florida and the Florida Keys.

Under Köppen's climate classification, the climate can also be found in the Mid-Atlantic, primarily Virginia, the lower elevations of West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Washington, D.C., New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania, and far southern New York, specifically New York City and sections of Long Island. It can also be found in the Midwest, primarily in the central and southern portions of Kansas and Missouri, and far southern portions of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

In Mexico, there are small areas of Cfa and Cwa climates. The climate can be found in small areas scattered around the northeastern part of the country, in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. Other areas where the climate can be found is in the high elevations of Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Sierra Madre Oriental. Despite being located at higher elevations, these locations have summers that are too warm to qualify as a subtropical highland climate. Guadalajara's climate is a major example of this.

Outside of isolated sections of Mexico, the southernmost limits of this climate zone in North America lie just north of South Florida and around southern coastal Texas. Cities at the southernmost limits, such as Tampa and Orlando and along the Texas coast around Corpus Christi down toward Brownsville generally feature warm weather year-round and minimal temperature differences between seasons. In contrast, cities at the northernmost limits of the climate zone such as New York, Philadelphia, and Louisville feature hot, humid summers and chilly winters. These areas have average winter temperatures at the coldest limit of climates classed as humid subtropical.

Snowfall varies greatly in this climate zone. In locations at the southern limits of this zone and areas around the Gulf Coast, cities such as Orlando, Tampa, New Orleans, and Savannah rarely see snowfall, which occurs, at most, a few times per generation. In Southern cities farther north or inland, such as Atlanta, Birmingham, Charlotte, Dallas, Memphis, Nashville, and Raleigh, snow only occasionally falls and is usually three inches or less. However, for the majority of the winter here, temperatures remain above or well above freezing.[7][8][9]At the northernmost limits of this zone, cities such as New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore typically see snowfall during the winter, with occasional heavy snowstorms. Still, average temperatures during a typical winter hover just above freezing at these locations.[10][11][12][13] Precipitation is plentiful in the humid subtropical climate zone in North America – but with significant variations in terms of wettest/driest months and seasons. Much of the interior South, including Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern halves of Mississippi and Alabama, tends to have a winter or spring (not summer) precipitation maximum. Closer to the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, there is a summer maximum, with July or August usually the wettest month – as at Norfolk, Cape Hatteras and Jacksonville, North Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, Mobile, Alabama and New Orleans. A semblance of a monsoon pattern (dry winters/wet summers) is evident along the Atlantic coast from southern North Carolina (Wilmington, North Carolina area) south to Florida. The seasonal monsoon is much stronger on the Florida peninsula, as most locations in Florida have dry winters and wet summers.

In addition, areas in Texas that are slightly inland from the Gulf of Mexico, such as Austin and San Antonio that border the semi-arid climate zone, generally see a peak of precipitation in May, a drought-like nadir in mid-summer and a secondary, if not equal, precipitation peak in September or October. Areas further south along South Texas' Gulf Coast (Corpus Christi and Brownsville), which closely border tropical climate classification, typically have a strong September precipitation maximum, and a tendency toward dry conditions in winter with rain increasing in spring, with December or January often the driest months.

South America

Buenos Aires, Argentina
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Humid subtropical climates are found in a sizable portion of South America. The climate extends over a few states of southern Brazil, including Paraná, into sections of Paraguay, all of Uruguay, and the Río de la Plata region in Argentina. Major cities such as São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Porto Alegre, Montevideo and Campo Grande, have a humid subtropical climate, generally in the form of hot humid summers and mild to cool winters. These areas, which include the Pampas, generally feature a Cfa climate categorization.

The Cwa climate occurs in parts of tropical highlands of São Paulo state, Mato Grosso do Sul and near the Andean highland in northwestern Argentina. These highland areas feature summer temperatures that are warm enough to fall outside the subtropical highland climate category.

Australia

Brisbane, Queensland
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The humid subtropical climate zone predominantly lies in eastern Australia. The coastal strip from Mackay, Queensland to the southern coast of Sydney, where it transitions into the cooler and wet oceanic climates.[15][16]

From Newcastle, approx 200 kilometers northeast of Sydney, the Cfa zone would extend to inland New South Wales, excluding the highland regions (which have an oceanic climate), stretching towards Dubbo to the northwest and Wagga Wagga to the south, ending at the New South Wales/Victoria border (Albury–Wodonga).[17] To note, these places would have characteristics of the semi-arid and/or Mediterranean climates. Furthermore, the inland Cfa climates generally have drier summers, or at least summers with low humidity.[18]

Extreme heat is more often experienced in Sydney than in other large cities in Australia's Cfa zone, especially in the western suburbs, where highs over 40 °C are not uncommon. Frost is prevalent in the more inland areas of Sydney, such as Richmond. Average annual rainfall in the Sydney region ranges between 800 mm and 1200 mm.[19]

There is usually a distinct summer rainfall maximum that becomes more pronounced moving northwards. In Brisbane, the wettest month (February) receives five times the rainfall of the driest month (September). Temperatures are very warm to hot but are not excessive: the average maximum in February is usually around 29 °C (84 °F) and in July around 21 °C (70 °F). Frosts are extremely rare except at higher elevations, but temperatures over 35˚C (95˚F) are not common on the coast.

North of the Cfa climate zone there is a zone centred upon Rockhampton which extends north to the Köppen Cwa classified climate zone of the Atherton Tablelands region. This region has a very pronounced dry winter period with often negligible rainfall between June to October. Winter temperatures generally only fall slightly below 18°C, which would classify the region as a tropical savanna, or Aw, climate.

Annual rainfall within Australia's humid subtropical climate zone can reach as high as 2,000 mm (80 inches) in coastal locations and is generally 1,000 mm (40 inches) or above. The most intense 2-3 day rainfall periods that occur in this coastal zone however are the outcome of east coast lows forming to the north of a large high pressure system, there can be great variation in rainfall amounts from year to year as a result of these systems. As an example Lismore which lies in the centre of this zone, the annual rainfall can range from less than 550 mm (22 inches) in 1915 to more than 2,780 mm (110 inches) in 1950.[20]

Europe

Trieste, Italy
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In Central Europe, a small area of humid subtropical climates are located in transitional areas between the oceanic and continental climates in areas where higher summer temperature do not quite qualify it for inclusion in the Oceanic climate schema (but, in the Trewartha climate classification, this type of climate is included in that typical of the other areas of central-west Europe, classified as Do -the Temperate Oceanic climate-) and mild winters do not allow their inclusion into continental climates, such as Serbia.[22] Average summer temperatures in areas of Europe with this climate are generally not as hot as most other subtropical zones around the world.

The Po Valley, in Northern Italy, including major cities such as Milan, Turin, Bologna, and Verona, have a humid subtropical climate, featuring hot, humid summers with frequent thunderstorms; winters are foggy, damp and chilly, with sudden bursts of frost. Some parts of the valley have a mild continental climate. Places along the shores of Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como (Como and Verbania in Italy and Lugano in Switzerland) have a humid subtropical climate with a distinctive high amount of rainfall during summer. Budapest, Hungary is just warm enough to qualify, due to recent warming. At 46 degrees north, the city lies on the northern limit of the humid subtropical zone.

The coastal areas in the northern half of the Adriatic sea also fall within this climate zone. The cities include Trieste, Venice, and Rimini in Italy, Split in Croatia, Koper in Slovenia and Kotor in Montenegro. Other Southern European areas in the Cfa zone include the central valleys and coast of Catalonia of Girona and Barcelona in Spain, some on the north-east of Spain (Huesca), West Macedonia in Greece (Kozani), the Garonne Valley (Toulouse) and Rhone Valley (Avignon) in France. More recent data have included the most extreme south of Germany, being Balingen the limit of this climatic type, but with more oceanic characteristics.[23]

Along the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria (Varna), coast of Romania (Constanta and Mamaia), Sochi, Russia and Crimea, have summers too warm (>22 °C in the warmest month) to qualify as oceanic, no freezing month, and enough summer precipitation and sometimes humid conditions, where they would be fit to be classed under Cfa, though they closely border the humid continental zone. All these areas are subject to occasional, in some cases repeated snowfalls and freezes during winter.

In the Azores, some islands have this climate, with very mild and rainy winters (> 13 °C) and no snowfall, warm summers (> 21 or 22 °C) but with no dry season during the warmest period, which means that they can be classified neither as oceanic, nor as Mediterranean, but only as humid subtropical climate, as with Corvo Island.

In many other climate classification systems outside of the Köppen, most of these locations would not be included in the humid subtropical grouping. The higher summer precipitation and poleward flow of tropical air-masses in summer are not present in Europe, as it is in eastern Australia or the southern United States.

See also

References

  1. ^ Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather. "NWS JetStream MAX - Addition Köppen Climate Subdivisions". www.weather.gov.
  2. ^ Belda et al. "Climate classification revisited: from Köppen to Trewartha", Clim Res. Vol 59:1–13, 2014.
  3. ^ "Durban climate". www.saexplorer.co.za.
  4. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.dwd.de.
  5. ^ "azhydromet.com - This website is for sale! - ecology Resources and Information". www.azhydromet.com.
  6. ^ Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather. "Houston IAH Climate Data". www.weather.gov.
  7. ^ "Raleigh, North Carolina, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Intellicast | Weather Underground".
  9. ^ "Average Annual Snowfall Totals in Georgia - Current Results".
  10. ^ "Intellicast | Weather Underground".
  11. ^ "Average Annual Snowfall Totals in Virginia - Current Results".
  12. ^ "Average Annual Snowfall Totals in North Carolina - Current Results".
  13. ^ "Average Annual Snowfall Totals in Maryland - Current Results".
  14. ^ "Brisbane Regional Office". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  15. ^ Donohue, R. J., McVicar, T. R., and Roderick, M. L.: Climaterelated trends in Australian vegetation cover as inferred from satellite observations, 1981–2006, Glob. Change Biol., 15, 1025–39, 2009.
  16. ^ Gentilli, J. (Ed.): Climates of Australia and New Zealand, World Survey of Climatology, Vol. 13. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 405p, 1971.
  17. ^ R.L. Specht, Philip Rundel, W.E. Westman, P.C. Catling, Jonathan Majer, Penelope Greenslade (6 December 2012). Mediterranean-type Ecosystems: A data source book. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 95. ISBN 978-94-009-3099-5.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  18. ^ Stern, H., De Hoedt, G., and Ernst, J.: Objective classification of Australian climates, Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 49, 87–96, 2000.
  19. ^ Colls, K. & Whitaker, R. (2001) The Australian Weather Book. New Holland Publishers, Sydney.
  20. ^ "Monthly Rainfall - 058037 - Bureau of Meteorology". www.bom.gov.au.
  21. ^ "Application Control Violation". clima.meteoam.it.
  22. ^ "🌤 Weather, climate and best time to go to Serbia 🇷🇸". Besttravelmonths.com.
  23. ^ "Interactive Europe Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map". www.plantmaps.com. Retrieved 2019-03-06.
Bulgarian Black Sea Coast

The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast (Bulgarian: Черноморие, Chеrnomoriе) covers the entire eastern bound of Bulgaria stretching from the Romanian Black Sea resorts in the north to European Turkey in the south, along 378 km of coastline. White and golden sandy beaches occupy approximately 130 km of the 378 km long coast. The region is an important center of tourism during the summer season (May–October), drawing millions of foreign and local tourists alike and constituting one of the country's most popular tourist destinations. Prior to 1989 the Bulgarian Black Sea coast was internationally known as the Red Riviera. Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, however, its nickname has been changed to the Bulgarian Riviera.

The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with considerable maritime and continental influences. The area's average air temperature in the summer is about 28 °C, with the average water temperature at 26 °C. There are more than 240 hours of sunshine in May and September and more than 300 hours in July and August.

The Balkan Mountains cross the country reaching to the edge of the Black Sea at Cape Emine, dividing the coastline into a southern and northern part. Parts of Bulgaria's northern Black Sea Coast feature rocky headlands where the sea abuts cliffs up to 70 metres in height. The southern coast is known for its wide sandy beaches. The southernmost section is included in Strandzha Nature Park.

The two largest cities and main seaports on the Bulgarian Riviera are Varna (third largest in the country) and Burgas (fourth largest in the country). Varna is located on the northern part of the coast and Burgas is located on the southern coast. The two cities' international airports, Varna Airport and Burgas Airport, are the main hubs servicing the region. In addition, the Trakia motorway (A1) was completed in 2013, providing fast access between Burgas and Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, and Plovdiv, the second largest city. Hemus motorway (A2), scheduled to be completed after 2020, would make the trip from Sofia to Varna substantially easier and faster, while the Cherno More motorway (A5) is planned to connect Varna and Burgas. Major road I-9 runs along the Black Sea coast between the border with Romania, at the village of Durankulak, and the city of Burgas.

Climate of Illinois

The Climate of Illinois describes the weather conditions, and extremes, noted within the state of Illinois, United States, over time.

Because of its nearly 400 miles (640 km) length and mid-continental placement, Illinois has a widely varying climate. Most of Illinois has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with hot, humid summers and cool to cold winters. The southernmost part of the state, from about Carbondale southward, and the eastern suburbs of St. Louis, has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with more moderate winters. Average yearly precipitation for Illinois varies from 48 inches or 1,220 mm at the southern tip to 35 inches or 890 mm in the northern portion of the state. Normal annual snowfall exceeds 38 inches or 0.97 m in Chicago, while the southern portion of the state normally receives less than 14 inches or 0.36 m. The highest temperature recorded in Illinois was 117 °F (47.2 °C), recorded on July 14, 1954, at East St. Louis, while the lowest temperature was −38 °F (−38.9 °C), recorded on January 31, 2019, at Mt Carroll, Illinois.

Illinois averages around 50 days of thunderstorm activity a year which put it somewhat above average for number of thunderstorm days for the United States. Illinois is vulnerable to tornadoes with an average of 54 occurring annually, which puts much of the state at around 9.7 tornadoes per 10,000 square miles (30,000 km2) annually. The deadliest tornado on record in the nation occurred largely in Illinois. The Tri-State Tornado of 1925 killed 695 people in three states; 613 of the victims lived in Illinois.

Climate of Italy

Italy has a variety of climate systems. The inland northern areas of Italy (for example Turin, Milan, and Bologna) have a relatively cool, mid-latitude version of the Humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), while the coastal areas of Liguria and the peninsula south of Florence generally fit the Mediterranean climate profile (Köppen climate classification Csa).

Between the north and south there can be a considerable difference in temperature, above all during the winter: in some winter days it can be −2 °C (28 °F) and snowing in Milan, while it is 8 °C (46.4 °F) in Rome and 20 °C (68 °F) in Palermo. Temperature differences are less extreme in the summer.

The east coast of the Italian peninsula is not as wet as the west coast, but is usually colder in the winter. The east coast north of Pescara is occasionally affected by the cold bora winds in winter and spring, but the wind is less strong here than around Trieste. During these frosty spells from E–NE cities like Rimini, Ancona, Pescara and the entire eastern hillside of the Apennines can be affected by true "blizzards". The town of Fabriano, located just around 300 m (984 ft) in elevation, can often see 0.5–0.6 m (1 ft 7.7 in–1 ft 11.6 in) of fresh snow fall in 24 hours during these episodes.

On the coast from Ravenna to Venice and Trieste, snow falls more rarely: during cold spells from the east, the cold can be harsh but with bright skies; while during the snowfalls that affect Northern Italy, the Adriatic coast can see a milder Sirocco wind which makes snow turn to rain—the mild effects of this wind often disappear just a few kilometres inside the plain, and sometimes the coast from Venice to Grado sees snow while it is raining in Trieste, the Po River mouths and Ravenna. Rarely, the city of Trieste may see snow blizzards with north-eastern winds; in the colder winters, the Venice Lagoon may freeze, and in the coldest ones even enough to walk on the ice sheet.

Summer is usually more stable, although the northern regions often have thunderstorms in the afternoon/night hours and some grey and rainy days. So, while south of Florence the summer is typically dry and sunny, in the north it tends to be more humid and cloudy. Spring and Autumn weather can be very changeable, with sunny and warm weeks (sometimes with Summer-like temperatures) suddenly broken off by cold spells or followed by rainy and cloudy weeks.

In the north, precipitation is more evenly distributed during the year, although the summer is usually slightly wetter. Between November and March the Po valley is often covered by fog, especially in the central zone (Pavia, Piacenza, Cremona and Mantua), while the number of days with lows below 0 °C (32 °F) is usually from 60 to 90 a year, with peaks of 100–110 days in the mainly rural zones. Snow is quite common between early December and early March in cities like Turin, Milan and Bologna, but sometime it appears in late November or late March and even April. In the winter of 2005–2006, Milan received around 0.75–0.8 m (2 ft 5.53 in–2 ft 7.50 in) or 75–80 cm (29.5–31.5 in) of fresh snow, Como around 1 m (3 ft 3.37 in) or 100 cm (39.4 in), Brescia 0.5 m (1 ft 7.69 in) or 50 cm (19.7 in), Trento 1.6 m (5 ft 2.99 in) or 160 cm (63.0 in), Vicenza around 0.45 m (1 ft 5.72 in) or 45 cm (17.7 in), Bologna around 0.3 m (11.81 in) or 30 cm (11.8 in), and Piacenza around 0.8 m (2 ft 7.50 in) or 80 cm (31.5 in)

Summer temperatures are often similar north to south. July temperatures are 22–24 °C (71.6–75.2 °F) north of river Po, like in Milan or Venice, and south of river Po can reach 24–25 °C (75.2–77.0 °F) like in Bologna, with fewer thunderstorms; on the coasts of Central and Southern Italy, and in the near plains, mean temperatures goes from 23 °C to 27 °C (80.6 °F). Generally, the hottest month is August in the south and July in the north; during these months the thermometer can reach 38–42 °C (100.4–107.6 °F) in the south and 32–35 °C (89.6–95.0 °F) in the north; Sometimes the country can be split as during winter, with rain and 20–22 °C (68.0–71.6 °F) during the day in the north, and 30–40 °C (86–104 °F) in the south; but, having a hot and dry summer does not mean that Southern Italy will not see rain from June to August.

The coldest month is January: the Po valley's mean temperature is between −1–1 °C (30.2–33.8 °F), Venice 2–3 °C (35.6–37.4 °F), Trieste 4 °C (39.2 °F), Florence 5–6 °C (41.0–42.8 °F), Rome 7–8 °C (44.6–46.4 °F), Naples 9 °C (48.2 °F), and Cagliari 12 °C (53.6 °F). Winter morning lows can occasionally reach −30 to −20 °C (−22.0 to −4.0 °F) in the Alps, −14 to −8 °C (6.8 to 17.6 °F) in the Po valley, −7 °C (19.4 °F) in Florence, −4 °C (24.8 °F) in Rome, −2 °C (28.4 °F) in Naples and 2 °C (35.6 °F) in Palermo. In cities like Rome and Milan, strong heat islands can exist, so that inside the urban area, winters can be milder and summers more sultry.

On some winter mornings it can be just −3 °C (26.6 °F) in Milan's Dome plaza while −8 to −9 °C (17.6 to 15.8 °F) in the metropolitan outskirts, in Turin can be just −5 °C (23.0 °F) in the city centre and −10 to −12 °C (14.0 to 10.4 °F) in the metropolitan outskirts.

Often, the largest snowfalls happen in February, sometime in January or March; in the Alps, snow falls more in autumn and spring over 1,500 m (4,921 ft), because winter is usually marked by cold and dry periods; while the Apennines see many more snow falls during winter, but they are warmer and less wet in the other seasons.

Both the mountain chains can see up to 5–10 m (16 ft 4.85 in–32 ft 9.70 in) or 500–1,000 cm (196.9–393.7 in) of snow in a year at 2,000 m (6,562 ft); on the highest peaks of the Alps, snow may fall even during mid summer, and glaciers are present.

The record low is −45 °C (−49 °F) in the Alps, and −29.0 °C (−20.2 °F) near sea level (recorded on January 12, 1985 at San Pietro Capofiume, hamlet of Molinella, in the Province of Bologna), while in the south cities like Catania, Foggia, Lecce or Alghero have experienced highs of 46 °C (114.8 °F) in some hot summers.

Climate of Missouri

Missouri generally has a variety of seasonal humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with cool winters and long, hot summers. In the southern part of the state, particularly in the Bootheel, the climate borders on a more mild-type humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), and in the northern third, the state transitions into a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa). Because of its location in the interior United States, Missouri often experiences extremes in temperatures. Lacking either large mountains or oceans nearby to moderate its temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico. As of late, Missouri has seen a drastic decline in annual snowfall, with some daily high winter temperatures sometimes dwindling in early summer/late spring temperatures.

Climate of North Carolina

North Carolina's climate varies from the Atlantic coast in the east to the Appalachian Mountain range in the west. The mountains often act as a "shield", blocking low temperatures and storms from the Midwest from entering the Piedmont of North Carolina. Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), except in the higher elevations of the Appalachians which have a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cfb). The USDA hardiness zones for the state range from zone 5a (-20°F to -15°F) in the mountains to zone 8b (15°F to 20°F) along the coast. For most areas in the state, the temperatures in July during the daytime are approximately 90 °F (32 °C). In January the average temperatures range near 50 °F (10 °C). (However, a polar vortex or "cold blast" can significantly bring down average temperatures, seen in the winters of 2014 and 2015.)

Climate of Uruguay

Uruguay has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa according to the Köppen climate classification). It is fairly uniform nationwide, since the country is located entirely within the temperate zone. Seasonal variations do exist, but extremes in temperature are rare. As would be expected by its abundance of water, high humidity and fog are common. The absence of mountains and other weather barriers makes all locations vulnerable to high winds and rapid changes in weather as fronts or storms sweep across the country. Weather is sometimes humid.

Geography of Georgia (U.S. state)

The geography of Georgia describes a state in the Southeastern United States in North America. The Golden Isles of Georgia lie off the coast of the state. The main geographical features include mountains such as the Ridge-and-valley Appalachians in the northwest, the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northeast, the Piedmont plateau in the central portion of the state and Coastal Plain in the south. The highest area in Georgia is Brasstown Bald which is 1,458 m (4,784 ft) above sea level, while the lowest is at sea level, at the Atlantic Ocean. Georgia is located at approximately 33° N 83.5° W. The state has a total area of 154,077 km2 (59,489 sq mi) and the geographic center is located in Twiggs County.Georgia is primarily a humid subtropical climate with hot and humid summers, except at the highest elevations. Georgia's subtropical climate depends on latitude and how close an area is to the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. The state's weather is mostly moderate, but Georgia has occasional extreme weather. The highest temperature ever recorded is 112 °F (44.4 °C) and the lowest is -17 °F (-27.2 °C). Georgia is vulnerable to hurricanes, though the coast rarely experiences a direct hurricane strike.

Georgia has 500 cities in 159 counties with 13 congressional districts. 149 of the 159 in the state are governed by a committee of around three to eleven commissioners while the other 10 are overseen by a single commissioner. Most of the 536 cities are governed by a mayor-council system. Georgia has almost eight million acres (32,000 km²) of prime farmland while over 60% of the land is made up of pine forests. Georgia has 70,150 miles (112,900 km) of streams and rivers, 425,000 acres (1,720 km2) of lakes, and approximately 4,500,000 acres (18,000 km2) of freshwater wetlands. Manganese, iron, copper, among and other minerals make up the natural resources of the state.

Jiaozuo

Jiaozuo (Chinese: 焦作; pinyin: Jiāozuò [tɕjáu.tswô]; postal: Tsiaotso) is a prefecture-level city in northern Henan province, China. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the south, Xinxiang to the east, Jiyuan to the west, Luoyang to the southwest, and the province of Shanxi to the north.Jiaozuo is one of the core cities of the Central Plains urban agglomeration and a regional central city in the Jin-Yu border area.link

Its population was 3,700,000 at the 2016 census whom 1,301,732 live in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts (Jiefang, Shanyang, Zhongzhan and Macun) and Bo'ai County being urbanized.

Jiaozuo enjoys a humid subtropical climate with continental climate influences. Winters are cool and relatively dry while summers are hot and often rainy. Average temperature ranges from 0.3 °C in January to 27.5 °C in July. Extremes exist from -22.4 °C to 43.6 °C. Precipitation averages 659 mm.

Klein, Texas

Klein is an unincorporated community in the extraterritorial jurisdiction of Houston within north Harris County, Texas, United States, roughly bordering Texas State Highway 99 to the north, Texas State Highway 249 to the west, Interstate 45 to the east, and the city of Houston to the south. It includes the entire area of Klein ISD. Residents of the zip codes 77066, 77069, 77086, 77379, 77388, 77389 and 77391 can use Klein as their postal city.It is named after Adam Klein, a German immigrant whose best-known great-great-grandson is singer Lyle Lovett. Other famous sons and daughters of the Klein community include actor Jim Parsons, actor Lee Pace, actor Matthew Bomer, actress Lynn Collins, actress Sherry Stringfield, singer/songwriter Derek Webb, songwriter Aaron Tate, singer/songwriter Chase Hamblin, actor Ben Rappaport, Major League Baseball players David Murphy and Josh Barfield, NFL players Randy Bullock, Ashton Youboty, Mike Green (running back), and Olympic gold medalists Laura Wilkinson and Chad Hedrick as well as Kevin M. Klein chef and restaurateur Klein is served by David Wayne Hooks Memorial Airport, one of just a few privately owned airports in the U.S. to have a Federal Aviation Administration control tower, and home to Civil Air Patrol's Delta Composite Squadron.

Klein has a Humid subtropical climate. The area is susceptible to flooding and hurricanes.

Meitan County

Meitan (Chinese: 湄潭; pinyin: Méitán) is a county of Guizhou, China. It is under the administration of Zunyi city.

Meitan, located in the northern part of Guizhou Province, has a total area of 1,864 km2 (720 sq mi). Meitan has a population of 480,000, 420,000 of which work in agriculture. It consists of 9 towns, 6 townships, 118 villages, and 14 communities. The average altitude of Meitan is 972.7 m (3,191 ft). The forest coverage rate is 56.5%. Meitan is in the humid subtropical climate zone. The average temperature is 14.9℃ (58.82F). Meitan has four distinct seasons, abundant rainfall, mild climate, 284 frost-free days each year, and an average annual rainfall of 1,141 mm (44.9 in).

The County of Meitan was established in 1601 (in Ming Dynasty). It was a base for the Red Army during the Long March. Zhejiang University (浙江大学) held classes in Meitan for seven years during the Anti-Japanese War. Meitan has been producing tea since 1939 and is known nationally for its tea.

Meitan is rich in agricultural resources and is a typical inland agricultural county. It is famous for its high-quality tea, rice, tobacco, rapeseed, corn, wheat, sericulture, and Chinese herbal medicine. Meitan is known as "The County of Tobacco", "Home of Chinese Liquor", "Tea City", and "The Granary".

Meitan is the largest tea-producing county in Guizhou. Meitan has 20.5 mu (1367 sq kilometers) of tea fields with an annual output of 400 million yuan. Guizhou Meitan Southwest Tea City is the tea market appointed by the Ministry of Agriculture located in the south part of the county. It is the largest Tea distributing center in Northern Guizhou. Meitan's "Mao Gong" high-quality rice, known as "China's first rice", was awarded the gold medal in the National Quality Rice Exposition for five consecutive years from 2003 to 2007. Meitan produces 80,000 quintal high-quality tobacco annually and is the major producer for the Shanghai Tobacco Group, which produces "Chunghwa" and "Panda" cigarettes. Mae Wine received the only gold medal ever rewared to white liquor in Leipzig International Fair in 1988.

Meitan is also famous for its beautiful landscapes and natural scenery. There are provincial scenic areas "Mejiang Landscape Gallery", the country's largest contiguous tea fields "Western China Tea Sea," "The world's Largest Tea Pot" recorded in Guinness Book of World Records, the national agricultural tourism demonstration sites "Hetao Ba - Dragon & phoenix Tea Garden", the various karst topography "Hundred-Faced Water" and much more.

Mississippi Delta AVA

The Mississippi Delta AVA is an American Viticultural Area on the left (east) bank of the Mississippi River, between Memphis, Tennessee, and Vicksburg, Mississippi. It includes portions of the Mississippi Delta and the watershed of the lower Mississippi River in the U.S. states of Louisiana (west bank), Mississippi, and Tennessee.

Since the creation of the AVA in 1984, there has been very little viticulture in the Mississippi Delta region. Mississippi State University established an enology laboratory to research grape cultivation in the area, but little commercial activity has resulted. The few wineries that have produced wine from the Mississippi Delta AVA have used native Muscadine grapes. The region has a humid subtropical climate and the hardiness zone ranges from 8b in the south to 7b in some Tennessee portions of the Memphis metropolitan area.

Nagrota

Nagrota is a town located in the Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir state in India. It is located on National Highway 1A (NH1A) between Jammu city and Udhampur. Nagrota along with Kashmiri Pandit Migrant town of Jagti straddle the national highway, with a few additional minor roads. Nagrota is the first shrine stoppage for Shri Mata Vaishno Devi. The Kol-Kandoli temple is a mandate for completing the Shri Mata Vaishno Devi pilgrimage. Nagrota has an extension of Jammmu Industries having Oil Depots and Godowns.

Though Nagrota does not have a railway station, it does have a Railway Station Code assigned (NGRT) in preparation for the completion of the planned Jammu-Srinagar railway extension.

Nagrota is also home to prestigious Sainik School.

Nagrota has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), much cooler than what is found in much of the rest of India, due to its moderately high elevation and northerly position. The valley is surrounded by the Himalayas on all sides. Winters are cool, with daytime temperature averaging to 2.5 °C (36.5 °F), and drops below freezing point at night. Moderate to heavy snowfall occurs in winter and the highway connecting Nagrota with the rest of India faces frequent blockades due to icy roads . Summers are warm with a July daytime average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F). The average annual rainfall is around 720 millimetres (28 in). Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest. The highest temperature reliably recorded is 38.3 °C (100.9 °F) and the lowest is −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F).[30]

Natural history of Georgia (U.S. state)

The natural history of Georgia covers many plant and animal species. The humid subtropical climate of Georgia influences its plant and animal life.

Nyalam County

Nyalam County (simplified Chinese: 聂拉木县; traditional Chinese: 聶拉木縣; pinyin: Nièlāmù Xiàn; Tibetan: gnya' lam rdzong) is a county in Tibet's Shigatse Prefecture. It borders on Nepal.

The land area of the county is 7,903 km2 (3,051 sq mi). The population as of 2003 was 10,000. The postal code for the county is 858300.

The county seat is in Nyalam Town.

The other town of the county is Dram, also known under its Tibetan name Dram, or Nepali Khasa. It is located near the border and is the point of entry from Nepal. At "merely" 2300 meters elevation about the sea level, Zhangmu has mild and humid subtropical climate, which is a rarity for Tibet.

It is one of the four counties that comprise the Qomolangma National Nature Preserve (Nyalam, Tingri, Dinggyê, and Kyirong).

Rioja, Peru

Rioja is the capital of Rioja Province in the San Martín Region in northern Peru. It is situated to the west of Moyobamba. There are 24,263 inhabitants according to the 2007 census.

The town is 848 metres above sea level and has a semi-humid subtropical climate.

San Pedro de Jujuy

San Pedro de Jujuy is the second most populated city in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. It has 75,037 inhabitants since the 2010 census [INDEC], and is the head town of the San Pedro Department. It lies in the southeast of the province, by National Route 34, within the valley of the San Francisco River, about 45 km east of the provincial capital San Salvador de Jujuy.

The area has a humid subtropical climate that favours crops such as sugarcane and tobacco, which are the basis of the regional economy.

Tàrrega

Tàrrega is a village and municipality located in the Urgell comarca, Province of Lleida, Catalonia. According to the 2009 census (INE), the village has a population of 16,539.

Tàrrega is the capital of Urgell in the Ondara River basin. The village has a humid subtropical climate, with an average temperature of 14 °C, and an average rainfall of 451 mm per year according to the Meteorological Service of Catalonia. Local attractions include a park at Sant Eloi mountain (420 m) with a Romanesque church of the 13th century. Its theatre fair, held annually each September, attracts over 100,000 people a year.

Yalta

Yalta (Crimean Tatar: Yalta; Russian: Я́лта; Ukrainian: Я́лта) is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea. It serves as the administrative center of Yalta Municipality, one of the regions within Crimea. Population: 76,746 (2014 Census).The city is located on the site of an ancient Greek colony, said to have been founded by the Greek conquerors who were looking for a safe shore (γιαλός – yalos in Greek) on which to land. It is situated on a deep bay facing south towards the Black Sea, surrounded by the mountain range Ai-Petri. It has a warm humid subtropical climate and surrounded by numerous vineyards and orchards.The term "Greater Yalta" is used to designate a part of the Crimean southern coast spanning from Foros in the west to Gurzuf in the east and including the city of Yalta and multiple adjacent urban settlements.

Zhangmu

Zhangmu (also from Tibetan as Dram or Zham, from Nepali as Khasa) is a customs town and port of entry located in Nyalam County on the Nepal-China border, just uphill and across the Bhote Koshi River from the Nepalese town of Kodari. At 2,300 metres (7,500 ft) above sea level, Zhangmu has mild and humid subtropical climate, which is a rarity for Tibet.

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5.3
 
 
82
70
 
 
4.4
 
 
82
70
 
 
4.7
 
 
82
68
 
 
2.9
 
 
79
63
 
 
2.3
 
 
76
57
 
 
1.5
 
 
73
51
 
 
1.5
 
 
73
51
 
 
2.4
 
 
73
55
 
 
2.9
 
 
74
60
 
 
3.9
 
 
75
62
 
 
4.3
 
 
77
65
 
 
4
 
 
80
68
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.1
 
 
49
34
 
 
2.2
 
 
51
35
 
 
4.6
 
 
56
40
 
 
4.9
 
 
66
49
 
 
5.4
 
 
73
57
 
 
6.6
 
 
78
64
 
 
6
 
 
85
71
 
 
6.6
 
 
87
73
 
 
8.3
 
 
80
67
 
 
7.8
 
 
71
58
 
 
3.6
 
 
61
47
 
 
2
 
 
53
38
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
4.2
 
 
46
34
 
 
5.1
 
 
48
35
 
 
3.9
 
 
56
40
 
 
4.4
 
 
65
46
 
 
3.3
 
 
74
54
 
 
4.1
 
 
80
61
 
 
4.2
 
 
83
66
 
 
3.4
 
 
84
67
 
 
4.6
 
 
78
61
 
 
4.3
 
 
70
53
 
 
5.6
 
 
59
46
 
 
5.5
 
 
51
38
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.4
 
 
63
43
 
 
3.2
 
 
66
47
 
 
3.4
 
 
73
53
 
 
3.3
 
 
80
59
 
 
5.1
 
 
86
68
 
 
5.9
 
 
91
74
 
 
3.8
 
 
94
75
 
 
3.8
 
 
94
75
 
 
4.1
 
 
90
70
 
 
5.7
 
 
82
61
 
 
4.3
 
 
73
52
 
 
3.7
 
 
64
45
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
4.8
 
 
87
69
 
 
4.8
 
 
84
67
 
 
6.1
 
 
80
63
 
 
4.2
 
 
73
57
 
 
3.6
 
 
66
51
 
 
2
 
 
60
46
 
 
2.1
 
 
57
45
 
 
2.5
 
 
63
48
 
 
3.1
 
 
66
50
 
 
5.5
 
 
73
55
 
 
5.2
 
 
78
61
 
 
4.1
 
 
83
65
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
6.1
 
 
86
70
 
 
6.3
 
 
86
70
 
 
5.5
 
 
84
68
 
 
3.6
 
 
81
63
 
 
3.1
 
 
77
57
 
 
2.7
 
 
72
54
 
 
2.1
 
 
72
50
 
 
1.7
 
 
73
52
 
 
1.7
 
 
79
57
 
 
3.1
 
 
81
61
 
 
3.9
 
 
82
66
 
 
5.1
 
 
84
68
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.3
 
 
46
39
 
 
2.2
 
 
48
40
 
 
2.5
 
 
54
44
 
 
3.3
 
 
62
50
 
 
3.3
 
 
71
58
 
 
4
 
 
77
64
 
 
2.4
 
 
82
69
 
 
3.3
 
 
82
69
 
 
4.1
 
 
74
62
 
 
4.4
 
 
64
55
 
 
4.2
 
 
54
47
 
 
3.5
 
 
48
39
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E

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