The Humber /ˈhʌmbər/ is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England. It is formed at Trent Falls, Faxfleet, by the confluence of the tidal rivers Ouse and Trent. From there to the North Sea, it forms part of the boundary between the East Riding of Yorkshire on the north bank and North Lincolnshire on the south bank. Although the Humber is an estuary from the point at which it is formed, many maps show it as the River Humber.
Below Trent Falls, the Humber passes the junction with the Market Weighton Canal on the north shore, the confluence of the River Ancholme on the south shore; between North Ferriby and South Ferriby and under the Humber Bridge; between Barton-upon-Humber on the south bank and Kingston upon Hull on the north bank (where the River Hull joins), then meets the North Sea between Cleethorpes on the Lincolnshire side and the long and thin headland of Spurn Head to the north.
Ports on the Humber include the Port of Hull, Port of Grimsby, Port of Immingham, as well as lesser ports at New Holland and North Killingholme Haven. The estuary is navigable for the largest of deep-sea vessels. Inland connections for smaller craft are extensive but handle only a quarter of the goods traffic handled in the Thames.
Humber Bridge viewed from the south-east
Mouth of the Humber
|Counties||East Riding of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire|
|Town||Grimsby, Immingham, Barton upon Humber, Cleethorpes|
|⁃ location||Trent Falls|
|North Sea, between Spurn Head|
|Length||38.5 mi (62.0 km)|
|Basin size||24,240 km2 (9,360 sq mi)|
|⁃ location||freshwater inflow|
|⁃ average||250 m3/s (8,800 cu ft/s)|
|⁃ maximum||1,500 m3/s (53,000 cu ft/s)|
|⁃ left||River Ouse, River Hull|
|⁃ right||River Trent, River Ancholme, River Freshney|
|Official name||Humber Estuary|
|Designated||28 July 1994|
Classical authors knew the Humber as the Abus (Ancient Greek: Ἄβος), which was one of the principal rivers, or rather estuaries in the Roman province of Maxima Caesariensis in Britain. It was reported as receiving many tributaries, and discharging itself into the German Ocean (the North Sea) south of Ocelum Promontorium (Spurn Head). Its left bank was inhabited by the Celtic tribe, whom the Romans entitled Parisi, but according to a medieval poet, no great town or city anciently stood on its banks.
In the Anglo-Saxon period, the Humber was a major boundary, separating Northumbria from the southern kingdom, though at its height Northumbria did cover areas south of the Humber. The Kingdom of Lindsey, which today is Northern Lincolnshire, was part of Northumbria before being lost to Mercia. The name Northumbria came from Anglo-Saxon Norðhymbre (plural) = "the people north of the Humber". The Humber currently forms the boundary between the East Riding of Yorkshire, to the north and North and North East Lincolnshire, to the south.
From 1974 to 1996, the areas now known as the East Riding of Yorkshire, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire constituted the county of Humberside.
Before the bridge was built, a series of paddle steamers operated from the Corporation Pier railway station at the Victoria Pier in Hull to the railway pier in New Holland. Steam ferries started in 1841, and in 1848 were purchased by the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway. They, and their successors, ran the ferry until the bridge opened in 1981. Railway passenger and car traffic continued to use the pier until the end of ferry operations.
The line of the bridge is similar to an ancient ferry route from Hessle to Barton upon Humber, which is noted in the Domesday Book and in a charter of 1281. The ferry was recorded as still operating in 1856, into the railway era. The Humber was then one mile (1.6 km) across.
The Humber Forts were built in the mouth of the river for the First World War. Planned in 1914, their construction started in 1915 and they were not completed until 1919. A coastal battery at Easington, Fort Goodwin or Kilnsea Battery, faced the Bull Sands Fort. They were also garrisoned during the Second World War, and were finally abandoned for military use in 1956.
Graham Boanas, a Hull man, is believed to be the first man to succeed in wading across the Humber since ancient Roman times. The feat, in August 2005, was attempted to raise cash and awareness for the medical research charity, DebRA. He started his trek on the north bank at Brough; four hours later, he emerged on the south bank at Whitton. He is 6 feet 9 inches (2.06 m) tall and took advantage of a very low tide. He replicated this achievement on the television programme Top Gear (Series 10 Episode 6) when he raced James May who drove an Alfa Romeo 159 around the inland part of the estuary without using the Humber Bridge.
On Saturday 26 August 1911, Alice Maud Boyall became the first woman to swim the Humber. Boyall, then aged 19 and living in Hull, was the Yorkshire swimming champion. She crossed the Humber from Hull to New Holland Pier swimming the distance in 50 minutes, 6 minutes slower than the men's record.
Since 2011 Warners Health have organised the 'Warners Health Humber Charity Business Swim'. Twelve swimmers from companies across the Yorkshire region train and swim in an ellipse from the south bank to the north bank of the river under the Humber Bridge over a total distance of approximately 1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km).
Most European hydronyms are Celtic in origin and numerous Celtic or Pre-Celtic derivations for Humber have been suggested. The Celtic root *com-*bero (coming together), gives the modern Welsh toponym cymer which is found typically at the confluence of rivers. A derivation of Humber from *cym(b)er is supported by the proven Celtic/Germanic sound changes of K to H such as Grimm's Law, and the geographic fact of the Humber being the confluence of a number of important rivers.
The estuary appears in some Latin sources as Abus (A name used by Edmund Spenser in The Faerie Queene). This is possibly a Latinisation of the Celtic form Aber (Welsh for river mouth or estuary), but is erroneously given as a name for both the Humber and The Ouse as one continuous watercourse. Both Abus and Aber may record an older Indo-European word for water or river, (as in the ‘Five Rivers’ of the Punjab). An alternative derivation may be from the Latin verb abdo meaning black or dark river. The successive name Humbre/Humbri/Umbri may continue the meaning via the Latin verb umbro also meaning "to cover with shadows".
By Medieval times, the river is recorded as Humbre (Anglo-Saxon) Hwmyr (Welsh) and Humbri (Vulgar Latin dative) / Umbri (Classical Latin dative). Since the name appears to reoccur in "Humber Brook" near "Humber Court" in Herefordshire or Worcestershire, it has been suggested that a root word *humbr- may have existed meaning "river", or something similar, in hypothetical Pre-Celtic language spoken before the Celtic Migration (compare Tardebigge). An element *ambri- 'channel, river' is also reconstructible for proto-Celtic and the Ancient Celtic prefix *su- 'good' routinely developed into Welsh element *hy-.
The Humber features regularly in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th-century fictional chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae. According to Geoffrey, the Humber, invariably referred to by the Latin word for river, was named after "Humber the Hun", who drowned there while trying to invade in the earliest days of Britain's settlement.
Many fish live in and also migrate through the Humber whilst returning from the sea to their spawning grounds in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and Derbyshire. Salmon, sole, cod, eel, flounder, plaice, sprat, Lamprey and sand goby have all been caught in the estuary's reach. The Humber is also a good place for over-wintering birds and is a good breeding ground for bitterns, marsh harriers, little terns and avocets.
The ancient ferry to Hessle, across the Humber, which is here about a mile broad, is appurtenant to the manor, which is vested in the crown...(entry for Barton-upon-Humber)
Barton-upon-Humber or Barton is a town and civil parish in the North Lincolnshire district, in the county of Lincolnshire, England. The population at the 2011 census was 11,066. It is situated on the south bank of the Humber Estuary at the southern end of the Humber Bridge. It is 46 miles (74 km) east of Leeds, 6 miles (10 km) south-west of Kingston upon Hull and 31 miles (50 km) north north-east of the county town of Lincoln. Other nearby towns include Scunthorpe to the south-west and Grimsby to the south-east.Barton line
The Barton line is a railway line in North and North East Lincolnshire, England. It runs from Barton-upon-Humber south east to Cleethorpes and was designated by the Department for Transport as a community rail line in February 2007. Barton station is near to the Humber Bridge. It is situated on the south bank of the Humber Estuary.Brough, East Riding of Yorkshire
Brough ( BRUF) is a small town in the civil parish of Elloughton-cum-Brough in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. Brough is situated on the northern bank of the Humber Estuary, approximately 12 miles (19 km) west of Hull city centre. Brough has a long association with BAE Systems.DN postcode area
The DN postcode area, also known as the Doncaster postcode area, is a group of 32 postcode districts in England, which are subdivisions of 13 post towns. These postcode districts cover eastern South Yorkshire (including Doncaster), north Lincolnshire (including Grimsby, Scunthorpe, Barnetby, Barrow upon Humber, Barton-upon-Humber, Brigg, Cleethorpes, Gainsborough, Immingham and Ulceby), small parts of Nottinghamshire (including Retford) and the East Riding of Yorkshire (including Goole), and a very small part of North Yorkshire.
The S64 postcode district for Mexborough was originally earmarked as DN13, which has never been used. Otherwise, the area's districts are numbered sequentially up to DN22, then from DN31 to DN41 for the eastern spur of the area, in and around Grimsby.
There is one non-geographic district, DN55, which has a single purpose use to Royal Mail.Etobicoke
Etobicoke ( (listen), e-TOH-bi-koh) is a former city that makes up the western part of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Etobicoke was first settled by Europeans in the 1790s; the municipality grew into city status in the 20th century. Several independent villages and towns developed within the area of Etobicoke, only to be absorbed later into Etobicoke during the era of Metro Toronto. Etobicoke was dissolved in 1998, when it was amalgamated with other Metro Toronto municipalities into the City of Toronto. Etobicoke is bordered on the south by Lake Ontario, on the east by the Humber River, on the west by Etobicoke Creek, the city of Mississauga, and Toronto Pearson International Airport (a small portion of the airport extends into Etobicoke), and on the north by Steeles Avenue West.
Etobicoke has a highly diversified population (365,143 in 2016). It is primarily suburban in development but also heavily industrialized, resulting in a lower population density than the other districts of Toronto. Much of its cityscape is characterized by larger main streets, shopping malls, and cul-de-sac housing developments. Etobicoke contains several expressways, including Highways 427, 401, 409, the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW) and Gardiner Expressway. Etobicoke is the western terminus of Line 2 Bloor-Danforth of the Toronto subway and served by four suburban rail stations of GO Transit. Humber College is located in Etobicoke, encompassing two campuses, one of which is also home to the University of Guelph-Humber.Humber Bridge
The Humber Bridge, near Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England, is a 2.22-kilometre (2,430 yd; 7,300 ft; 1.38 mi) single-span road suspension bridge, which opened to traffic on 24 June 1981. When it opened, the bridge was the longest of its type in the world; it was not surpassed until 1998, with the completion of the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge, and is now the tenth-longest. It spans the Humber (an estuary formed by the rivers Trent and Ouse), between Barton-upon-Humber on the south bank and Hessle on the north bank, thereby connecting the East Riding of Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire. Both sides of the bridge were in the non-metropolitan county of Humberside until its dissolution in 1996. The bridge can be seen for miles around and from as far as Patrington in the East Riding of Yorkshire and out to sea miles off the coast. It is a Grade I listed building.
By 2006, the bridge carried an average of 120,000 vehicles per week. The toll was £3.00 each way for cars (higher for commercial vehicles), which made it the most expensive toll crossing in the United Kingdom. In April 2012, the toll was halved to £1.50 each way after the UK government deferred £150 million from the bridge's outstanding debt.Humber College
The Humber Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, commonly known as Humber College, was founded in 1967. Humber is a publicly funded college in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Humber has three main campuses, Humber North campus, Lakeshore campus, and Humber Orangeville campus.Humber Limited
Humber Limited was a British manufacturer of bicycles, motorcycles and motor vehicles incorporated and listed on the stock exchange in 1887. It took the name Humber & Co Limited because of the high reputation of the products of one of the constituent businesses that had belonged to Thomas Humber. A financial reconstruction in 1899 transferred its business to Humber Limited.
From an interest in motor vehicles beginning in 1896, the motor division became much more important than the cycle division and the cycle trade marks were sold to Raleigh in 1932. The motorcycles were withdrawn from sale during the depression of the 1930s.
Humber is now a dormant marque for automobiles as well as cycles. Following their involvement in Humber through Hillman in 1928 the Rootes brothers acquired 60 per cent of Humber's ordinary capital, sufficient for a controlling interest. The two Rootes brothers joined the Humber board in 1932 and began to make Humber the holding company for vehicle manufacturing members of what became their Rootes Group.
By 1960 annual production was around 200,000 vehicles. Previous insistence on Rootes family control, however, may have led to under-capitalisation of the business. Building a brand new car, the Hillman Imp, proved beyond Humber and Rootes Group resources and their businesses were bought by the Chrysler Corporation in 1967.Humber River (Ontario)
The Humber River is a river in Southern Ontario, Canada. It is in the Great Lakes Basin, is a tributary of Lake Ontario and is one of two major rivers on either side of the city of Toronto, the other being the Don River to the east. It was designated a Canadian Heritage River on September 24, 1999.The Humber collects from about 750 creeks and tributaries in a fan-shaped area north of Toronto that encompasses portions of Dufferin County, the Regional Municipality of Peel, Simcoe County, and the Regional Municipality of York. The main branch runs for about 100 kilometres (60 mi) from the Niagara Escarpment in the northwest, while another major branch, known as the East Humber River, starts at Lake St. George in the Oak Ridges Moraine near Aurora to the northeast. They join north of Toronto and then flow in a generally southeasterly direction into Lake Ontario at what was once the far western portions of the city. The river mouth is flanked by Sir Casimir Gzowski Park and Humber Bay Park East.Humberside
Humberside was a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county in Northern England from 1 April 1974 until 1 April 1996. It was composed of land from either side of the Humber Estuary, created from portions of East Riding of Yorkshire, West Riding of Yorkshire, and the district of Lindsey, Lincolnshire. The county council's headquarters was County Hall at Beverley, inherited from the East Riding, and its largest settlement and only city was Kingston upon Hull. The county stretched from Wold Newton in its northern tip to a different Wold Newton at its most southern point.
Humberside bordered North Yorkshire to the north and west, South Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire to the south-west, and Lincolnshire to the south. It faced east towards the North Sea.
Humberside was abolished on 1 April 1996, with four unitary authorities being formed: North Lincolnshire, North East Lincolnshire, Kingston upon Hull and East Riding of Yorkshire. The name has continued in use as a geographical term, mainly in the media, and in the names of institutions such as Humberside Police and Humberside Fire and Rescue Service. These institutions did not change their names mainly due to costs. There are proposals to merge the police force with other Yorkshire forces and then change all the forces' names accordingly.Humber Enterprise Zone was launched in 2012 to encourage industrial development at 16 sites around the estuary.Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its confluence with the Humber Estuary, 25 miles (40 km) inland from the North Sea, 50 miles (80 km) east of Leeds, 34 miles (55 km) southeast of York and 54 miles (87 km) northeast of Sheffield. With a population of 260,645 (mid-2018 est.), Hull is the fourth-largest city in Yorkshire and the Humber.
The town of Wyke on Hull was founded late in the 12th century by the monks of Meaux Abbey as a port from which to export their wool.
Renamed Kings-town upon Hull in 1299, Hull has been a market town, military supply port, trading hub, fishing and whaling centre and industrial metropolis.
Hull was an early theatre of battle in the English Civil Wars. Its 18th-century Member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, took a prominent part in the abolition of the slave trade in Britain.After suffering heavy damage in the Second World War (the "Hull Blitz"), Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, gaining unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation, education and policing. In the early 21st century spending boom before the late 2000s recession the city saw large amounts of new retail, commercial, housing and public service construction spending.
Tourist attractions include The Hull People's Memorial, the historic Old Town and Museum Quarter, Hull Marina and The Deep aquarium. Sports teams include EFL Championship football club Hull City and rugby league clubs Hull F.C. & Hull Kingston Rovers.
The University of Hull was founded in 1927 and now enrols more than 16,000 students. Hull was the 2017 UK City of Culture and in the same year the city's Ferens Art Gallery hosted the prestigious Turner Prize.North East Lincolnshire
North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire in England. It borders the unitary authority of North Lincolnshire and the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire, the three areas making up the ceremonial county. The population of the Unitary Authority at the 2011 Census was 159,616. North East Lincolnshire is part of the Yorkshire and the Humber region.North Lincolnshire
North Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in Lincolnshire, England, with a population of 167,446 at the 2011 census. There are three significant towns: Scunthorpe, the administrative centre, Brigg and Barton-upon-Humber.
North Lincolnshire was formed following the abolition of Humberside County Council in 1996, when four unitary authorities replaced it, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire, on the south bank of the river Humber, and the East Riding of Yorkshire and Kingston upon Hull on the north bank.
It is home to the Haxey Hood, a traditional event which takes place in Haxey on 6 January, a large football scrum where a leather tube (the "hood") is pushed to one of four pubs, where it remains until next year's game.
In 2015, North Lincolnshire Council began discussions with the other nine authorities in the Greater Lincolnshire area as part of a devolution bid. If successful this would see greater powers over education, transport, health, crime and social care being devolved from central government.Philip Humber
Philip Gregory Humber (; born December 21, 1982) is an American former professional baseball pitcher. He pitched for the New York Mets, Minnesota Twins, Kansas City Royals, Chicago White Sox, and Houston Astros in seven seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB). Although he debuted in the major leagues in 2006 and had worked mostly as a starter in the minor leagues, he did not become a regular MLB starter until 2011.
Humber earned three Texas Little League state championships. He subsequently attended Carthage High School in Carthage, Texas, where he led the baseball team to the state championship game in 2001, his senior season, winning state Player of the Year honors. He then attended Rice University, where he played college baseball for the Rice Owls baseball team. Humber was the winning pitcher in the clinching game of the 2003 College World Series. He has also represented the United States at the World University Baseball Championship.
The Mets selected Humber with the third overall selection in the 2004 MLB draft. During his minor league career, he underwent ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction, before making his MLB debut with the Mets. It took him several years to regain his ability to throw with the same velocity that he had prior to the injury. After being included in a trade to the Twins for Johan Santana, Humber struggled to establish himself. He spent a year with the Royals organization and was briefly a member of the Oakland Athletics organization, before being claimed on waivers by the White Sox in 2011, getting an opportunity to pitch in the White Sox' starting rotation. On April 21, 2012, Humber pitched the 21st perfect game in MLB history, defeating the Seattle Mariners.Philip Humber's perfect game
Philip Humber of the Chicago White Sox pitched a perfect game against the Seattle Mariners by retiring all 27 batters he faced on April 21, 2012, as the White Sox defeated the Mariners 4–0. It was the 21st perfect game in Major League Baseball (MLB) history and the third by a member of the White Sox. It was Humber's first career complete game, although he had come close to achieving no-hitters on several occasions at several levels of organized baseball. The game was played in Seattle and broadcast regionally by Fox Sports in the two teams' metropolitan areas.
Humber, a top pitching prospect from a Texas high school, attended Rice University, where he had a successful career. A high draft pick by the New York Mets, he debuted in MLB for the Mets before headlining a group of four prospects traded to the Minnesota Twins for Johan Santana. After two ineffective seasons with the Twins, Humber pitched a season for the Kansas City Royals. Acquired on waivers by the Chicago White Sox in 2011, Humber had his first successful season in an MLB starting rotation. The perfect game, Humber's 30th career start and his second of the 2012 season, totaled 96 pitches.The Queensway – Humber Bay
The Queensway – Humber Bay, known officially as Stonegate-Queensway, is a neighbourhood in the south-west of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is located in the south-east of the former City of Etobicoke.United Kingdom Parliament constituencies
The United Kingdom Parliament currently has 650 Parliamentary constituencies across the constituent countries (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), each electing a single Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons by the plurality (first past the post) system of election, ordinarily every five years. Voting last took place in all 650 of those constituencies at the United Kingdom general election on 8 June 2017, and these results have been counted and verified.
The number of seats rose from 646 at the 2005 general election after proposals made by the boundary commissions for England, Wales and Northern Ireland were adopted through statutory instruments. Constituencies in Scotland remained unchanged, as the Boundary Commission for Scotland had completed a review just before the 2005 general election.
Primary legislation provides for the independence of the boundary commissions for each of the four parts of the UK; the number of seats for each of the countries; permissible factors to use in departing from any old boundaries; and a strong duty to consult. For the 2013 review this was primarily the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011. The Sainte-Laguë formula method is used to form groups of seats split between the four parts of the United Kingdom and the English Regions (as defined by EU Parliament Elections).The electorate figures given in the second column of the tables below are those used by the commissions during their reviews. These electorate figures date from the start of the review in each country: England, February 2000; Scotland, June 2001; Wales, December 2002; and Northern Ireland, May 2003. Of the 650 seats listed below, 533 are in England, 59 in Scotland, 40 in Wales and 18 in Northern Ireland.Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It comprises most of Yorkshire (the administrative areas of South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, East Riding of Yorkshire, Hull, North Yorkshire and the City of York), as well as North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. It does not include Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland or other areas of the historic county of Yorkshire, such as Sedbergh not included in the aforementioned administrative areas. The largest settlements are, Leeds, Sheffield, Bradford, Hull, and York. The population in 2011 was 5,284,000.The committees for the regions, including the one for Yorkshire and the Humber, ceased to exist upon the dissolution of Parliament on 12 April 2010; they were not re-established by the newly elected House. Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, and the Government Offices were abolished in 2011.Yorkshire and the Humber (European Parliament constituency)
Yorkshire and the Humber is a constituency of the European Parliament. It elects six Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) using the D'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.
Rivers of Yorkshire
|East Riding of Yorkshire|