Human resources

Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy. "Human capital" is sometimes used synonymously with "human resources", although human capital typically refers to a narrower effect (i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and economic growth). Likewise, other terms sometimes used include manpower, talent, labor, personnel, or simply people.

A human-resources department (HR department) of an organization performs human resource management, overseeing various aspects of employment, such as compliance with labor law and employment standards, administration of employee benefits, and some aspects of recruitment.[1]

HR responsibilities

Human resource managers are in charge of many duties pertaining to their job. The duties include planning, recruitment and selection process, posting job ads, evaluating the performance of employees, organizing resumes and job applications, scheduling interviews and assisting in the process and ensuring background checks. Another job is payroll and benefits administration which deals with ensuring vacation and sick time are accounted for, reviewing payroll, and participating in benefits tasks, like claim resolutions, reconciling benefit statements, and approving invoices for payment. [2] HR also coordinates employee relations activities and programs including but not limited to employee counseling[3]. The last job is regular maintenance, this job makes sure that the current HR files and databases are up to date, maintaining employee benefits and employment status and performing payroll/benefit-related reconciliations. [2] In May 2014, the U.S. Department of Labor stated that human resource assistants earn about $38,040 annually and human resource managers earn about $104,440 annually.

Activities

A human resources manager has several functions in a company[4]

  • Determine needs of the staff.
  • Determine to use temporary staff or hire employees to fill these needs.
  • Recruit and train the best employees.
  • Supervise the work.
  • Manage employee relations, unions and collective bargaining.
  • Prepare employee records and personal policies.
  • Ensure high performance.
  • Manage employee payroll, benefits and compensation.
  • Ensure equal opportunities.
  • Deal with discrimination.
  • Deal with performance issues.
  • Ensure that human resources practices conform to various regulations.
  • Push the employees' motivation.
  • Mediate disputes internally.
  • Upgrade learning knowledge of employees
  • Disseminate information in the organization so as to benefit its growth

Managers need to develop their interpersonal skills to be effective. Organizations behavior focuses on how to improve factors that make organizations more effective.

History

Human resource management used to be referred to as "personnel administration." In the 1920s, personnel administration focused mostly on the aspects of hiring, evaluating, training, and compensating employees. However, they did not focus on any employment relationships in an organizational performance level or on the systematic relationships in any parties. This led to a lacked unifying paradigm in the field during this period. [5]

According to an HR Magazine article, the first personnel management department started at the National Cash Register Co. in 1900. The owner, John Henry Patterson, after several union strikes and employee lockouts, he organized a personnel department to deal with grievances, discharges and safety, and training for supervisors on new laws and practices after several strikes and employee lockouts. This action was followed by other companies, for example, Ford had high turnover ratios of 380 percent in 1913, but just one year later, the line workers of the company has doubled their daily salaries from $2.50 to $5, even though $2.50 was a fair wage at that time. [6] This example clearly shows the importance of effective management which leads to a greater outcome of employee satisfaction as well as encouraging employees to work together in order to achieve better business objectives.

During the 1970s, American business began experiencing challenges due to the substantial increase in competitive pressures. Companies experienced globalization, deregulation, and rapid technological change which caused the major companies to enhance their strategic planning - a process of predicting future changes in a particular environment and focus on ways to promote organizational effectiveness. This resulted in developing more jobs and opportunities for people to show their skills which were directed to effective applying employees toward the fulfillment of individual, group, and organizational goals. Many years later the major/minor of human resource management was created at universities and colleges also known as business administration. It consists of all the activities that companies used to ensure more effective utilization of employees.[7]

Now, human resources focus on the people side of management.[7] There are two real definitions of HRM (Human Resource Management), one is that it is the process of managing people in organizations in a structured and thorough manner.[7] This means that it covers the hiring, firing, pay and perks, and performance management.[7] This first definition is the modern and traditional version more like what a personnel manager would have done back in the 1920s. [7] The second definition is that HRM circles the ideas of management of people in organizations from a macromanagement perspective like customers and competitors in a marketplace. [7] This involves the focus on making the “employment relationship” fulfilling for both management and employees. [7]

Some research showed that employees can perform at a much higher rate of productivity when their supervisors and managers paid more attention to them. [6] The Father of Human relations, Elton Mayo, was the first person to reinforces the importance of employee communications, cooperation, and involvement. [6] His studies concluded that sometimes the human factors are more important than physical factors, such as quality of lighting and physical workplace conditions. As a result, in today's society, individuals often value more in how their feels than in other workplace environments. [6] For example, the rewarding system in Human resource management applied effectively, as in, all the employee's work should be valued and awarded, can further encourage them to achieve their best performance.

Origins of the terminology

Pioneering economist John R. Commons used the term "human resource" in his 1893 book The Distribution of Wealth but did not further build upon it.[8] The term "human resource" was subsequently in use during the 1910s to 1930s to promote the idea that human beings were an object of worth, that should be promoted to realise human dignity, but this changed in the early 1950s as "human resource management" developed viewing people as a means to an end for employers.[9] Among scholars the first use of "human resources" in its modern form was in a 1958 report by economist E. Wight Bakke.[10] The term began to become more developed in the 19th century due to misunderstandings between employers and employees.[11]

The term in practice

From the corporate objective, employees have been traditionally viewed as assets to the enterprise, whose value is enhanced by further learning and development, referred to as human resource development.[12]

In regard to how individuals respond to the changes in a labor market, the following must be understood:

  • Skills and qualifications: as industries move from manual to more managerial professions so does the need for more highly skilled staff. If the market is "tight" (i.e. not enough staff for the jobs), employers must compete for employees by offering financial rewards, community investment, etc.
  • Geographical spread: how far is the job from the individual? The distance to travel to work should be in line with remuneration, and the transportation and infrastructure of the area also influence who applies for a position.
  • Occupational structure: the norms and values of the different careers within an organization. Mahoney 1989 developed 3 different types of occupational structure, namely, craft (loyalty to the profession), organization career path (promotion through the firm) and unstructured (lower/unskilled workers who work when needed).
  • Generational difference: different age categories of employees have certain characteristics, for example, their behavior and their expectations of the organization.[13]

Concerns about the terminology

One major concern about considering people as assets or resources is that they will be commoditized, objectified and abused. Some analysis suggests that human beings are not "commodities" or "resources", but are creative and social beings in a productive enterprise. The 2000 revision of ISO 9001, in contrast, requires identifying the processes, their sequence and interaction, and to define and communicate responsibilities and authorities. In general, heavily unionised nations such as France and Germany have adopted and encouraged such approaches. Also, in 2001, the International Labour Organization decided to revisit and revise its 1975 Recommendation 150 on Human Resources Development, resulting in its "Labour is not a commodity" principle. One view of these trends is that a strong social consensus on political economy and a good social welfare system facilitate labor mobility and tend to make the entire economy more productive, as labor can develop skills and experience in various ways, and move from one enterprise to another with little controversy or difficulty in adapting.

Another important controversy regards labor mobility and the broader philosophical issue with usage of the phrase "human resources". Governments of developing nations often regard developed nations that encourage immigration or "guest workers" as appropriating human capital that is more rightfully part of the developing nation and required to further its economic growth. Over time, the United Nations have come to more generally support the developing nations' point of view, and have requested significant offsetting "foreign aid" contributions so that a developing nation losing human capital does not lose the capacity to continue to train new people in trades, professions, and the arts.

Development

Human resources play an important part of developing and making a company or organization at the beginning or making a success at the end, due to the labor provided by employees. Human resources is intended to show how to have better employment relations in the workforce. Also, to bring out the best work ethic of the employees and therefore making a move to a better working environment.[14]

Planning

Administration and operations used to be the two role areas of HR. The strategic planning component came into play as a result of companies recognizing the need to consider HR needs in goals and strategies. HR directors commonly sit on company executive teams because of the HR planning function. Numbers and types of employees and the evolution of compensation systems are among elements in the planning role.[15] Various factors affecting Human Resource planning Organizational Structure, Growth, Business Location, Demographic changes, environmental uncertainties, expansion etc. Additionally, this area encompasses the realm of talent management.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Beyond Hiring and Firing: What is HR Management?". The Balance. Retrieved 2017-06-22.
  2. ^ a b "HR Assistant Job Description and Salary". www.humanresourcesedu.org. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  3. ^ https://www.thebalancecareers.com/use-coaching-to-improve-employee-performance-1918083
  4. ^ Mathis, R.L; Jackson, J.H (2003). Human Resource Management. Thomson.
  5. ^ "The Historical Background of HRM". Retrieved 2018-09-21.
  6. ^ a b c d "History of Human resources". Retrieved 2018-09-21.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "Human Resource Management (HRM) - Definition and Concept". www.managementstudyguide.com. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  8. ^ Kaufman, Bruce E. (2001). "Human resources and industrial relations: Commonalities and differences" (PDF).
  9. ^ E McGaughey, ‘A Human is not a Resource’ (2018) Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge Working Paper 497
  10. ^ Kaufman, Bruce E. (2008). Managing the Human Factor: The Early Years of Human Resource Management in American Industry. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. p. 312n28.
  11. ^ Maugans, Chris. "21St Century Human Resources: Employee Advocate, Business Partner, Or Both?." Cornell HR Review (2015): 1-4. Business Source Complete. Web. 25 Sept. 2015
  12. ^ Elwood F. Holton II, James W. Trott, Jr., 1996, Trends Toward a Closer Integration of Vocational Education and Human Resources Development, Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, Vol. 12, No. 2, p7
  13. ^ "Managing Generational Differences in the Human Resources Role".
  14. ^ Radhakrishna, A., and R. Satya Raju. "A Study On The Effect Of Human Resource Development On Employment Relations." IUP Journal of Management Research 14.3 (2015): 28-42. Business Source Complete. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.
  15. ^ "What Is the Difference Between Human Resource Management & Human Resource Planning?". Small Business - Chron.com. Retrieved 2015-10-08.

Notes

External links

Chief human resources officer

A chief human resources officer (CHRO) or chief people officer (CPO) is a corporate officer who oversees all aspects of human resource management and industrial relations policies, practices and operations for an organization. Similar job titles include: chief people officer, chief personnel officer, executive vice president of human resources and senior vice president of human resources. Roles and responsibilities of a typical CHRO can be categorized as follows: workforce strategist, organizational and performance conductor, HR service delivery owner, compliance and governance regulator, and coach and adviser to the senior leadership team and the board of directors. CHROs may also be involved in board member selection and orientation, executive compensation, and succession planning. In addition, functions such as communications, facilities, public relations and related areas may fall within the scope of the CHRO role. Increasingly, CHROs report directly to chief executive officers and are members of the most senior-level committees of a company (e.g., executive committee or office of the CEO).

College of Applied Science, Thamarassery

The College of Applied Science, Thamarassery also known as IHRD Thamarassery or CAS Thamarassery, is a degree-awarding educational institution located in Korangad just Near to Thamarassery, Kozhikode district.

The college was established in the year 2012. The college is managed by the Institute of Human Resources Development (IHRD) and is affiliated to the University of Calicut.

Employment Division v. Smith

Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990), is a United States Supreme Court case that held that the state could deny unemployment benefits to a person fired for violating a state prohibition on the use of peyote, even though the use of the drug was part of a religious ritual. Although states have the power to accommodate otherwise illegal acts performed in pursuit of religious beliefs, they are not required to do so.

Employment and Social Development Canada

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Fort Knox

Fort Knox is a United States Army post in Kentucky, south of Louisville and north of Elizabethtown. It is also adjacent to the United States Bullion Depository, which is used to house a large portion of the United States' official gold reserves. The 109,000 acre (170 sq mi, 441 km²) base covers parts of Bullitt, Hardin, and Meade counties. It currently holds the Army Human Resources Center of Excellence to include the Army Human Resources Command. It is named in honor of Henry Knox, Chief of Artillery in the American Revolutionary War and first United States Secretary of War.

For 60 years, Fort Knox was the home of the U.S. Army Armor Center and the U.S. Army Armor School (now moved to Fort Benning), and was used by both the Army and the Marine Corps to train crews on the American tanks of the day; the last was the M1 Abrams main battle tank. The history of the U.S. Army's Cavalry and Armored forces, and of General George S. Patton's career, is located at the General George Patton Museum on the grounds of Fort Knox.

Hospitality industry

The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, food and drink service, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, traveling and additional fields within the tourism industry.The hospitality industry is an industry that depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance and direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, management, marketing, and human resources etc.).

Before structuring as an industry, the historical roots of hospitality was in the western world in the form of social assistance mainly for Christian pilgrims directed to Rome. For such a reason, the eldest public hospital in Europe was the Ospedale di Santo Spirito in Sassia founded in Rome in the 8th century. on the model of the oriental world.

Human Resources, Science, and Technology Committee

The Human Resources, Science and Technology Committee of the African Union was created to deal with the issues surrounding the development of Education, Illiteracy, Information technology, Communication, Human resources and Technology in Africa.

The Chairperson of the Committee is Armany Asfour.

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Human resource management

Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective management of people in an organization so that they help the business to gain a competitive advantage. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee-benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and Reward management (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems). HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental laws.Human resources' overall purpose is to ensure that the organization is able to achieve success through people. HR professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can specialize in recruiting, training, employee-relations or benefits, recruiting specialists, find, and hire top talent. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations, and reward programs. Employee relations deals with concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as in cases involving harassment or discrimination. Employee benefits' role includes developing compensation structures, family-leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are human resources generalists or business partners. These human-resources professionals could work in all areas or be labor-relations representatives working with unionized employees.

HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. It was initially dominated by transactional work, such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advances, and further research, HR as of 2015 focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion. In the current global work environment, most companies focus on lowering employee turnover and on retaining the talent and knowledge held by their workforce. New hiring not only entails a high cost but also increases the risk of a newcomer not being able to replace the person who worked in a position before. HR departments strive to offer benefits that will appeal to workers, thus reducing the risk of losing employee commitment and psychological ownership.

Human resource management system

A human resources management system (HRMS) or human resources information system (HRIS) is a form of human resources (HR) software that combines a number of systems and processes to ensure the easy management of human resources, business processes and data. Human resources software is used by businesses to combine a number of necessary HR functions, such as storing employee data, managing payrolls, recruitment processes, benefits administration, and keeping track of attendance records. It ensures everyday human resources processes are manageable and easy to access. It merges human resources as a discipline and, in particular, its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standardized routines and packages of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. On the whole, these ERP systems have their origin from software that integrates information from different applications into one universal database. The linkage of its financial and human resource modules through one database is the most important distinction to the individually and proprietarily developed predecessors, which makes this software application both rigid and flexible.

Human resource information systems provide a means of acquiring, storing, analyzing and distributing information to various stakeholders. HRIS enable improvement in traditional processes and enhance strategic decision-making. The wave of technological advancement has revolutionized each and every space of life today, and HR in its entirety was not left untouched. Early systems were narrow in scope, typically focused on a single task, such as improving the payroll process or tracking employees' work hours. Today's systems cover the full spectrum of tasks associated with human resources departments, including tracking and improving process efficiency, managing organizational hierarchy, and simplifying financial transactions of all types. In short, as the role of human resources departments expanded in complexity, HR technology systems evolved to fit these needs.

Institute of Human Resources Development

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Ministry of Human Resources (Malaysia)

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Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security

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Resource

A resource is a main source or supply from which a benefit is produced and it has some utility. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability—they are classified into renewable and non-renewable resources.Examples of non renewable resources are coal ,crude oil natural gas nuclear energy etc. Examples of renewable resources are air,water,wind,solar energy etc. They can also be classified as actual and potential on the basis of level of development and use, on the basis of origin they can be classified as biotic and abiotic, and on the basis of their distribution, as ubiquitous and localized (private resources, community-owned resources, natural resources, international resources). An item becomes a resource with time and developing technology. Typically, resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth, proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well-being. From a human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism (see biological resource).The concept of resources has been developed across many established areas of work, in economics, biology and ecology, computer science, management, and human resources for example - linked to the concepts of competition, sustainability, conservation, and stewardship. In application within human society, commercial or non-commercial factors require resource allocation through resource management.

Training and development

Training and development involves improving the effectiveness of organizations and the individuals and teams within them. Training may be viewed as related to immediate changes in organizational effectiveness via organized instruction, while development is related to the progress of longer-term organizational and employee goals. While training and development technically have differing definitions, the two are oftentimes used interchangeably and/or together. Training and development has historically been a topic within applied psychology but has within the last two decades become closely associated with human resources management, talent management, human resources development, instructional design, human factors, and knowledge management.

United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions

The United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) generally considers matters relating to these issues. Its jurisdiction extends beyond these issues to include several more specific areas, as defined by Senate rules.

While currently known as the HELP Committee, the first iteration of this committee was founded on January 28, 1869 as the Committee on Education. The committee name was changed to the Committee on Education and Labor on February 14, 1870, when petitions relating to labor were added to their jurisdiction from the Committee on Naval Affairs.

The committee’s jurisdiction at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on issues relating to federal employees’ working conditions and federal education aid. Prominent issues considered by the committee in the 1910s and 1920s included the creation of a minimum wage, the establishments of a Department of Labor, a Department of Education, and a Children’s Bureau. During the 1930s, the committee took action on the National Labor Relations Act, the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of 1936 and the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.

In 1944, the jurisdiction of the Public Health Service was transferred from the Commerce Committee over to the Committee on Education and Labor, resulting in the committee taking over issues relating to public health matters. The name of the committee changed during the 80th Congress to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, which was part of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 (Public Law 79-601). As part of this bill, the jurisdiction of the committee was expanded to include the issues of rehabilitation, health, and education of veterans. Mine safety legislation was also added to the committee’s jurisdiction in 1949.

During the Johnson Administration, the committee established itself as the principal committee for the legislation pertaining to the War on Poverty, as part of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. Through the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-510), certain issues pertaining to veterans were transferred to the newly created Committee on Veterans Affairs. In the 95th Congress, the Senate passed S. Res. 4 which renamed the committee to be the Committee on Human Resources. However, the name was again changed in the 96th Congress in S. Res. 30 to become the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. On March 18, 1992, the committee’s jurisdiction was updated to include all of the areas listed below. The current name of the Committee, the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, was created on January 19, 1999 in S. Res. 20.

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