Hugo Award

The Hugo Awards are a set of literary awards given annually for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year. The awards are named after Hugo Gernsback, the founder of the pioneering science fiction magazine Amazing Stories, and were officially named the Science Fiction Achievement Awards until 1992. Organized and overseen by the World Science Fiction Society, the awards are given each year at the annual World Science Fiction Convention as the central focus of the event. They were first given in 1953, at the 11th World Science Fiction Convention, and have been awarded every year since 1955. Over the years that the award has been given, the categories presented have changed; currently Hugo Awards are given in more than a dozen categories, and include both written and dramatic works of various types.

The Hugo Awards have been termed as "among the highest honors bestowed in science fiction and fantasy writing".[1] Works that have won have been published in special collections, and the official logo of the Hugo Awards is often placed on the winning books' cover as a promotional tool. The 2018 Hugos were presented at the 76th Worldcon, "Worldcon 76", in San Jose, California, on August 19, 2018. The 2019 awards will be presented at the 77th Worldcon, "Dublin 2019: An Irish Worldcon", in Dublin on August 19, 2019.

For lists of winners and nominees for each category, see the list of award categories below.

Hugo Award
Hugo Award Logo
Hugo Award logo
Awarded forBest science fiction or fantasy works of previous year
Presented byWorld Science Fiction Society
First awarded1953
Websitethehugoawards.org

Award

Worldcon 75 in Helsinki 2017 13
Hugo Awards through the years exhibited in Helsinki, 2017.
Hartwell, Brown, Willis 2008 Hugo Awards
David Hartwell, Charles N. Brown, and Connie Willis pose with the 2008 Hugo Awards

The World Science Fiction Society (WSFS) gives out the Hugo Awards each year for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year. The award is named after Hugo Gernsback, who founded the pioneering science fiction magazine Amazing Stories and who is considered one of the "fathers" of the science fiction genre.[2] Works are eligible for an award if they were published in the prior calendar year, or translated into English in the prior calendar year. There are no written rules as to which works qualify as science fiction or fantasy, and the decision of eligibility in that regard is left up to the voters, rather than to the organizing committee. Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, and the presentation evening constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the WSFS constitution as instant-runoff voting with five nominees per category, except in the case of a tie.[3] The awards are split over more than a dozen categories, and include both written and dramatic works.[4]

For each category of Hugo, the voter may rank "No Award" as one of their choices. Voters are instructed that they should do so if they feel that none of the nominees are worthy of the award, or if they feel the category should be abolished entirely. A vote for "No Award" other than as one's first choice signifies that the voter believes the nominees ranked higher than "No Award" are worthy of a Hugo in that category, while those ranked lower are not.[5]

The six works on the ballot for each category are the most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of stories that can be nominated. With the exception of 1956, the first years of the awards did not include any recognition of runner-up novels, but since 1959 all of the candidates have been recorded.[3] Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of six nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held.[6] Prior to 2017, the final ballot was five works in each category.[7] Worldcons are generally held near the start of September, and take place in a different city around the world each year.[2][8]

The idea of giving out awards at Worldcons was proposed by Harold Lynch for the 1953 convention.[9] The idea was based on the Academy Awards,[10] with the name "Hugo" being given by Robert A. Madle. The award trophy was created by Jack McKnight and Ben Jason in 1953, based on the design of hood ornaments of 1950s cars. It consisted of a finned rocket ship on a wooden base. Each subsequent trophy, with the exception of the 1958 trophy, has been similar to the original design. The rocket trophy was formally redesigned in 1984, and since then only the base of the trophy has changed each year.[11] There is no monetary or other remuneration associated with the Hugo, other than the trophy.[3]

Retro Hugos

Retrospective Hugo Awards, or Retro Hugos, were added to the ballot beginning in 1996. They are awards optionally given by a Worldcon for works that would have been eligible 50, 75, or 100 years ago.[3]

Prior to 2017, these could be awarded for the ten years that had a Worldcon where no Hugos were awarded: the conventions in 1939–41, 1946–52, and 1954.[3][12] Retro Hugos under these rules were given five times: in 1996, 2001, and 2004 for 50 years prior, and 2014 and 2016 for 75 years prior. The Worldcons eligible in 1997–2000, 2002, and 2015 chose not to award Retro Hugos, and under these rules there would have been no more opportunities to award them until 2022 (for 1947).[13]

A 2017 rule change expanded the criteria to be any year after 1939 in which no Hugos were awarded, whether or not there was a Worldcon that year, or fifteen years in total: 1939–52 and 1954.[14] Worldcon 76 and Dublin 2019 then jointly announced that Retro Hugos would be awarded in 2018 for 1943 and in 2019 for 1944.[15]

History

1950s

The first Hugo Awards were presented at the 11th Worldcon in Philadelphia in 1953, which awarded Hugos in seven categories.[16] The awards presented that year were initially conceived as a one-off event, though the organizers hoped that subsequent conventions would also present them.[17] At the time, Worldcons were completely run by their respective committees as independent events and had no oversight between years. Thus there was no mandate for any future conventions to repeat the awards, and no set rules for how to do so.[18]

The 1954 Worldcon chose not to, but the awards were reinstated at the 1955 Worldcon, and thereafter became traditional. The award was called the Annual Science Fiction Achievement Award, with "Hugo Award" being an unofficial, but better known name.[2] The nickname was accepted as an official alternative name in 1958, and since the 1992 awards the nickname has been adopted as the official name of the award.[10][19]

In 1959, though there were still no formal guidelines governing the awards, several rules were instated which thereafter became traditional. These included having a ballot for nominating works earlier in the year and separate from the voting ballot; defining eligibility to include works published in the prior calendar year, rather than the previous rule of the "preceding year"; and allowing voters to select "no award" as an option, which then won that year in two categories: Dramatic Presentation and Best New Author.[20] The eligibility change additionally sparked a separate rule, prohibiting the nomination of works which had been nominated for the 1958 awards, as the two time periods overlapped.[21]

1960s

In 1961, after the formation of the WSFS to oversee each Worldcon committee, formal rules were set down in the WSFS constitution mandating the presenting of the awards as one of the responsibilities of each Worldcon organizing committee. The rules restricted voting to members of the convention at which the awards would be given, while still allowing anyone to nominate works; nominations were restricted to members of the convention or the previous year's convention in 1963.[21] The guidelines also specified the categories that would be awarded, which could only be changed by the World Science Fiction Society board.[22] These categories were for Best Novel, Short Fiction (short stories, broadly defined), Dramatic Presentation, Professional Magazine, Professional Artist, and Best Fanzine (fan magazine).[23] 1963 was also the second year in which "no award" won a category, again for Dramatic Presentation.[24]

In 1964 the guidelines were changed to allow individual conventions to create additional categories, which was codified as up to two categories for that year. These additional awards were officially designated as Hugo Awards, but were not required to be repeated by future conventions.[25] This was later adjusted to only allow one additional category; while these extra Hugo Awards have been given out in several categories, only a few were ever awarded for more than one year.[4]

In 1967 categories for Novelette, Fan Writer, and Fan Artist were added, and a category for Best Novella was added the following year; these new categories had the effect of providing a definition for what word count qualified a work for what category, which was previously left up to voters.[26][27] Novelettes had also been awarded prior to the codification of the rules. The fan awards were initially conceived as separate from the Hugo Awards, with the award for Best Fanzine losing its status, but were instead absorbed into the regular Hugo Awards by the convention committee.[21]

1970s

While traditionally five works had been selected for nomination in each category out of the proposed nominees, in 1971 this was set down as a formal rule, barring ties.[21] In 1973, the WSFS removed the category for Best Professional Magazine, and a Best Professional Editor award was instated as its replacement, in order to recognize "the increasing importance of original anthologies".[28][29]

After that year the guidelines were changed again to remove the mandated awards and instead allow up to ten categories which would be chosen by each convention, though they were expected to be similar to those presented in the year before. Despite this change no new awards were added or previous awards removed before the guidelines were changed back to listing specific categories in 1977.[21][30] 1971 and 1977 both saw "no award" win the Dramatic Presentation category for the third and fourth time; "no award" did not win any categories afterwards until 2015.[31][32]

1980s and 90s

In 1980 the category for Best Non-Fiction Book (later renamed Best Related Work) was added, followed by a category for Best Semiprozine (semi-professional magazine) in 1984.[33][34] In 1983, members of the Church of Scientology were encouraged by people such as Charles Platt to nominate as a bloc Battlefield Earth, written by the organization's founder L. Ron Hubbard, for the Best Novel award; it did not make the final ballot.[35] Another campaign followed in 1987 to nominate Hubbard's Black Genesis; it made the final ballot but finished behind "no award".[36] 1989 saw a work—The Guardsman by Todd Hamilton and P. J. Beese—withdrawn by its authors from the final ballot after a fan bought numerous memberships under false names, all sent in on the same day, in order to get the work onto the ballot.[37]

In 1990 the Best Original Art Work award was given as an extra Hugo Award, and was listed again in 1991, though not actually awarded, and established afterward as an official Hugo Award.[19][38] It was then removed from this status in 1996, and has not been awarded since.[39] The Retro Hugos were created in the mid-1990s, and were first awarded in 1996.[3]

Since 2000

In 2003, the Dramatic Presentation award was split into two categories, Long Form and Short Form.[40] This was repeated with the Best Professional Editor category in 2007.[41] 2009 saw the addition of the Best Graphic Story category, while the most recent change to the Hugo Awards was in 2012, when an award for Best Fancast was added.[42][43]

In 2015, two groups of science fiction writers, the "Sad Puppies" led by Brad R. Torgersen and Larry Correia, and the "Rabid Puppies" led by Vox Day, each put forward a similar slate of suggested nominations which came to dominate the ballot.[44][45] The Sad Puppies campaign had run for two years prior on a smaller scale, with limited success. The leaders of the campaigns characterized them as a reaction to "niche, academic, overtly [leftist]" nominees and the Hugo becoming "an affirmative action award" that preferred female and non-white authors and characters.[44][46] In response, five nominees declined their nomination before and, for the first time, two after the ballot was published.[47][48] Multiple-Hugo-winner Connie Willis declined to present the awards.[49] The slates were characterized by The Guardian as a "right wing",[44] "orchestrated backlash"[50] and by The A.V. Club as a "group of white guys",[51] and were linked with the Gamergate controversy.[45][52][53] Multiple Hugo winner Samuel R. Delany characterized the campaigns as a response to "socio-economic" changes such as minority authors gaining prominence and thus "economic heft".[54] In all but the Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form category, "no award" placed above all nominees that were on either slate, and it won all five categories that only contained slate nominees.[47] The two campaigns were repeated in 2016 with some changes to the campaigns, and the "Rabid Puppy" slate again dominated the ballot in several categories, with all five nominees in Best Related Work, Best Graphic Story, Best Professional Artist, and Best Fancast.[55]

In response to the campaigns, a set of new rules, called "E Pluribus Hugo", were passed in 2015 and ratified in 2016 to modify the nominations process. Intended to ensure that organized minority groups cannot dominate every finalist position in a category, the new rules define a voting system in which nominees are eliminated one by one, with each vote for an eliminated work then spread out over the uneliminated works they nominated, until only the final shortlist remains. These rules were ratified in 2016 to be used for the first time in 2017. A rule mandating that the final nominees must appear on at least five percent of ballots was also eliminated, to ensure that all categories could reach a full set of nominees even when the initial pool of works was very large.[56] Each nominator is limited to five works in each category, but the final ballot was changed to six in each; additionally, no more than two works by a given author or group, or in the same dramatic series, can be in one category on the final ballot.[7]

In 2018 the newest permanent category, Best Series, was begun; it was run the year prior as a special Hugo Award prior to being ratified at the business meeting.[57]

Categories

Current categories Year started Current description
Best Novel 1953 Stories of 40,000 words or more
Best Novella 1968 Stories of between 17,500 and 40,000 words
Best Novelette 1955 Stories of between 7,500 and 17,500 words
Best Short Story 1955 Stories of less than 7,500 words
Best Series 2017 Series of works
Best Related Work 1980 Works which are either non-fiction or noteworthy for reasons other than the fictional text
Best Graphic Story 2009 Stories told in graphic form
Best Dramatic Presentation
(Long and Short Forms)
1958 Dramatized productions, divided since 2003 between works longer or shorter than 90 minutes
Best Semiprozine 1984 Semi-professional magazines
Best Fanzine 1955 Non-professional magazines
Best Professional Editor
(Long and Short Forms)
1973 Editors of written works, divided since 2007 between editors of novels or editors of magazines and anthologies
Best Professional Artist 1953 Professional artists
Best Fan Artist 1967 Fan artists
Best Fan Writer 1967 Fan writers
Best Fancast 2012 Audiovisual fanzines
Former repeating categories Years active Description
Best Professional Magazine 1953–1972 Professional magazines
Best Original Art Work 1990, 1992–1996 Works of art
Former categories awarded by individual Worldcons Years active Description
Best Cover Artist 1953 Artists of covers for books and magazines
Best Interior Illustrator 1953 Artists of works inside magazines
Excellence in Fact Articles 1953 Authors of factual articles
Best New SF Author or Artist 1953 New authors or artists
#1 Fan Personality 1953 Favorite fan
Best Feature Writer 1956 Writers of magazine features
Best Book Reviewer 1956 Writers of book reviews
Most Promising New Author 1956 New authors
Outstanding Actifan 1958 Favorite fan
Best New Author 1959 New authors
Best SF Book Publisher 1964, 1965 Book publishers
Best All-Time Series 1966 Series of works
Other Forms 1988 Printed fictional works which were not novels, novellas, novelettes, or short stories
Best Web Site 2002, 2005 Websites

The only discontinued awards which were instated in the WSFS constitution as permanent categories were the Best Professional Magazine and Best Original Art Work Hugo Awards. Worldcon committees may also give out special awards during the Hugo ceremony, which are not voted on. Unlike the additional Hugo categories which Worldcons may present, these awards are not officially Hugo Awards and do not use the same trophy, though they once did.[4][58] Two additional awards, the John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer and the Lodestar Award for Best Young Adult Book, are presented at the Hugo Award ceremony and voted on by the same process, but are not formally Hugo Awards.[59][57]

Recognition

The Hugo Award is highly regarded by observers. The Los Angeles Times has termed it "among the highest honors bestowed in science fiction and fantasy writing",[1] a claim echoed by Wired, who said that it was "the premier award in the science fiction genre".[60] Justine Larbalestier, in The Battle of the Sexes in Science Fiction (2002), referred to the awards as "the best known and most prestigious of the science fiction awards",[61] and Jo Walton, writing for Tor.com, said it was "undoubtedly science fiction's premier award".[62] The Guardian similarly acknowledged it as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" as well as "one of the most venerable, democratic and international" science fiction awards "in existence".[63][64] James Gunn, in The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1988), echoed The Guardian's statement of the award's democratic nature, saying that "because of its broad electorate" the Hugos were the awards most representative of "reader popularity".[65] Camille Bacon-Smith, in Science Fiction Culture (2000), said that at the time fewer than 1000 people voted on the final ballot; she held, however, that this is a representative sample of the readership at large, given the number of winning novels that remain in print for decades or become notable outside of the science fiction genre, such as The Demolished Man or The Left Hand of Darkness.[66] The 2014 awards saw over 1900 nomination submissions and over 3500 voters on the final ballot, while the 1964 awards received 274 votes.[67][68][69] The 2015 awards saw 2122 nominating ballots and 5950 votes.[70][71] The 2016 awards saw 4032 nominating ballots and 3130 votes.[72][73]

Brian Aldiss, in his book Trillion Year Spree: The History of Science Fiction, claimed that the Hugo Award was a barometer of reader popularity, rather than artistic merit; he contrasted it with the panel-selected Nebula Award, which provided "more literary judgment", though he did note that the winners of the two awards often overlapped.[74] Along with the Hugo Award, the Nebula Award is also considered one of the premier awards in science fiction, with Laura Miller of Salon.com terming it "science fiction's most prestigious award".[75]

The official logo of the Hugo Awards is often placed on the winning books' cover as a promotional tool.[76][77] Gahan Wilson, in First World Fantasy Awards (1977), claimed that noting that a book had won the Hugo Award on the cover "demonstrably" increased sales for that novel,[78] though Orson Scott Card said in his 1990 book How to Write Science Fiction & Fantasy that the award had a larger effect on foreign sales than in the United States.[79] Spider Robinson, in 1992, claimed that publishers were very interested in authors that won a Hugo Award, more so than for other awards such as the Nebula Award.[66] Literary agent Richard Curtis said in his 1996 Mastering the Business of Writing that having the term Hugo Award on the cover, even as a nominee, was a "powerful inducement" to science fiction fans to buy a novel,[80] while Jo Walton claimed in 2011 that the Hugo is the only science fiction award "that actually affects sales of a book".[62]

There have been several anthologies of Hugo-winning short fiction. The series The Hugo Winners, edited by Isaac Asimov, was started in 1962 as a collection of short story winners up to the previous year, and concluded with the 1982 Hugos in Volume 5. The New Hugo Winners, edited originally by Asimov, later by Connie Willis and finally by Gregory Benford, has four volumes collecting stories from the 1983 to the 1994 Hugos.[81] The most recent anthology is The Hugo Award Showcase (2010), edited by Mary Robinette Kowal. It contains most of the short stories, novelettes, and novellas that were nominated for the 2009 award.[82]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Kellogg, Carolyn (2011-04-25). "2011 Hugo Award nominees announced". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  2. ^ a b c "The Locus index to SF Awards: About the Hugo Awards". Locus. Archived from the original on 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "The Hugo Awards: FAQ". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  4. ^ a b c "The Hugo Awards: Introduction". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  5. ^ "The Hugo Awards: The Voting System". World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 2015-06-14.
  6. ^ "The Hugo Awards: Hugo Award Categories". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  7. ^ a b "Worldcon 75: 2017 Hugo report #2" (PDF). Worldcon 75. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-15. Retrieved 2017-08-15.
  8. ^ "World Science Fiction Society / Worldcon". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  9. ^ Madle, Inside Science Fiction, p. 54
  10. ^ a b Nicholls; Clute, The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, p. 595
  11. ^ "The Hugo Awards: Hugo Award Trophies". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
  12. ^ "Constitution of the World Science Fiction Society, as of August 23, 2015" (PDF). The World Science Fiction Society. August 23, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  13. ^ "The Locus index to SF Awards: About the Retro Hugo Awards". Locus. Archived from the original on 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  14. ^ "2017 WSFS Minutes" (PDF). World Science Fiction Society. 2017. pp. 44–45. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  15. ^ "Retro Hugo Awards News". Locus. 2017-12-18. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  16. ^ "1953 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  17. ^ Kyle, David, ed. (1953). Eleventh World Science Convention Program. Philadelphia Science Fiction Society. p. 5. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02.
  18. ^ Standlee, Kevin (2007-11-03). "The Hugo Awards: Ask a Question". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2011-06-13. The awards presented in 1953 were initially conceived as "one-off" awards, and the 1954 Worldcon decided not to present them again.
  19. ^ a b "The World Science Fiction Society – 1991 Minutes". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  20. ^ "1959 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  21. ^ a b c d e Franson; DeVore, A History of the Hugo, Nebula and International Fantasy Awards, pp. 3–6
  22. ^ "The Con-committee Chairman's Guide, by George Scithers. Chapter 10 – The Constitution and Bylaws". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  23. ^ "1961 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  24. ^ "1963 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  25. ^ "The World Science Fiction Society Constitution and Bylaws 1963". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  26. ^ "1967 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  27. ^ "1968 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  28. ^ "1973 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  29. ^ Nicholls; Clute, The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, p. 596
  30. ^ "Notes from the 1974 WSFS Business Meeting". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  31. ^ "1971 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  32. ^ "1977 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  33. ^ "1980 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  34. ^ "1984 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  35. ^ Edelman, Scott (2015-04-06). "In which the Sad Puppies prove to be more powerful than L. Ron Hubbard". scottedelman.com. Retrieved 2015-04-27.
  36. ^ Wallace, Amy (2015-10-30). "Sci-Fi's Hugo Awards and the Battle for Pop Culture's Soul". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
  37. ^ Standlee, Kevin (2015-04-06). "2015 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 2015-04-27.
  38. ^ "Minutes of 1990 WSFS Business Meeting". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  39. ^ "1996 WSFS Business Meeting Minutes". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  40. ^ "2003 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  41. ^ "2007 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  42. ^ "2009 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  43. ^ "2012 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2012-09-03.
  44. ^ a b c Flood, Alison (2015-04-09). "George RR Martin says rightwing lobby has 'broken' Hugo awards". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  45. ^ a b Waldman, Katy (2015-04-08). "How Sci-Fi's Hugo Awards Got Their Own Full-Blown Gamergate". Slate. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  46. ^ "Hugo Award nominations spark criticism over diversity in sci-fi: Sci-fi awards have been roped into a furore". The Daily Telegraph. 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
  47. ^ a b "2015 Hugo Award Statistics" (PDF). World Science Fiction Society. 2015-08-22. Retrieved 2015-08-23.
  48. ^ Standlee, Kevin (2015-04-16). "Two Finalists Withdraw from 2015 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  49. ^ "Hugo Awards Withdrawals". Locus. 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-04-15.
  50. ^ Walter, Damien (2015-04-06). "Are the Hugo nominees really the best sci-fi books of the year?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  51. ^ McCown, Alex (2015-04-06). "This year's Hugo Award nominees are a messy political controversy". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  52. ^ "Hugo Awards nominations stir controversy". The Boston Globe. 2015-04-07. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  53. ^ Biggs, Tim (2015-04-09). "Gamergate-style furore after sci-fi awards hijacked". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  54. ^ Bebergal, Peter (2015-07-29). "Samuel Delany and the Past and Future of Science Fiction". The New Yorker. Advance Publications. Archived from the original on 2015-08-01. Retrieved 2015-08-03.
  55. ^ Glyer, Mike (2016-04-26). "Measuring The Rabid Puppies Slate's Impact on the Final Hugo Ballot". Retrieved 2016-09-11.
  56. ^ "Business Passed On". World Science Fiction Society Annual Business Meeting. MidAmeriCon II. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  57. ^ a b "2018 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  58. ^ Franson; DeVore, A History of the Hugo, Nebula and International Fantasy Awards, p. 7
  59. ^ "The Hugo Awards: Campbell Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  60. ^ Donahoo, Daniel (2010-09-05). "Previous post Next post Hugo Award Winners Announced at AussieCon 4". Wired. Condé Nast Publications. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  61. ^ Larbalestier, The Battle of the Sexes in Science Fiction, p. 255
  62. ^ a b Walton, Jo (2010-10-24). "Hugo Nominees: Introduction". Tor.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-01. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
  63. ^ Jordison, Sam (2008-08-07). "An International Contest We Can Win". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2009-07-29. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  64. ^ Jordison, Sam (2008-08-07). "Why do critics still sneer at sci-fi?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2009-07-30. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  65. ^ Gunn, The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, p. 32
  66. ^ a b Bacon-Smith, Science Fiction Culture, p. 61
  67. ^ Standlee, Kevin (2014-04-19). "2014 Hugo Awards Finalists Announced". World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
  68. ^ Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (2014-08-17). "Ann Leckie's debut novel wins Hugo science fiction award". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
  69. ^ "1964 Hugo Statistics" (PDF). World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 2014-04-26.
  70. ^ Standlee, Kevin (2015-04-04). "2015 Hugo Award Finalists Announced". World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
  71. ^ Searle-Kovacevic, Marah (2015-08-04). "Sasquan Announces Record Participation in the 2015 Hugo Awards Voting". Worldcon 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-05.
  72. ^ Standlee, Kevin (2016-04-26). "2016 Hugo Award Finalists Announced". World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
  73. ^ "2016 Hugo Final Results" (PDF). World Science Fiction Society. 2016-08-24. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
  74. ^ Aldiss; Wingrove, Trillion Year Spree, p. 349
  75. ^ Miller, Laura (2011-08-20). "The Death of the Red-Hot Center". Salon.com. Archived from the original on 2011-01-29. Retrieved 2011-09-20.
  76. ^ "The Hugo Awards: Hugo Awards Logo Contest Official Rules". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  77. ^ Scalzi, John (2010-01-05). "Your Hate Mail Will Be Graded Out in Trade Paperback". scalzi.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  78. ^ Gahan, First World Fantasy Awards, 17
  79. ^ Card, How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy, p. 133
  80. ^ Curtis, Mastering the Business of Writing, ch. 15
  81. ^ Barron, Anatomy of Wonder, p. 476
  82. ^ "The Hugo Award Showcase Editorial Review", Publishers Weekly

Sources

External links

Charles Stross

Charles David George "Charlie" Stross (born 18 October 1964) is a British writer of science fiction, Lovecraftian horror, and fantasy. Stross specialises in hard science fiction and space opera. Between 1994 and 2004, he was also an active writer for the magazine Computer Shopper and was responsible for the monthly Linux column. He stopped writing for the magazine to devote more time to novels. However, he continues to publish freelance articles on the Internet.

Flowers for Algernon

Flowers for Algernon is a science fiction short story and subsequent novel written by Daniel Keyes. The short story, written in 1958 and first published in the April 1959 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, won the Hugo Award for Best Short Story in 1960. The novel was published in 1966 and was joint winner of that year's Nebula Award for Best Novel (with Babel-17).Algernon is a laboratory mouse who has undergone surgery to increase his intelligence by artificial means. The story is told by a series of progress reports written by Charlie Gordon, the first human test subject for the surgery, and it touches upon many different ethical and moral themes such as the treatment of the mentally disabled.Although the book has often been challenged for removal from libraries in the United States and Canada, sometimes successfully, it is frequently taught in schools around the world and has been adapted many times for television, theatre, radio, and as the Academy Award-winning film Charly.

Frederik Pohl

Frederik George Pohl Jr. (; November 26, 1919 – September 2, 2013) was an American science-fiction writer, editor, and fan, with a career spanning more than 75 years—from his first published work, the 1937 poem "Elegy to a Dead Satellite: Luna", to the 2011 novel All the Lives He Led and articles and essays published in 2012.From about 1959 until 1969, Pohl edited Galaxy and its sister magazine If; the latter won three successive annual Hugo Awards as the year's best professional magazine. His 1977 novel Gateway won four "year's best novel" awards: the Hugo voted by convention participants, the Locus voted by magazine subscribers, the Nebula voted by American science-fiction writers, and the juried academic John W. Campbell Memorial Award. He won the Campbell Memorial Award again for the 1984 collection of novellas Years of the City, one of two repeat winners during the first 40 years. For his 1979 novel Jem, Pohl won a U.S. National Book Award in the one-year category Science Fiction. It was a finalist for three other year's best novel awards. He won four Hugo and three Nebula Awards.The Science Fiction Writers of America named Pohl its 12th recipient of the Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award in 1993 and he was inducted by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame in 1998, its third class of two dead and two living writers.Pohl won the Hugo Award for Best Fan Writer in 2010, for his blog, "The Way the Future Blogs".

George R. R. Martin

George Raymond Richard Martin (born George Raymond Martin; September 20, 1948), also known as GRRM, is an American novelist and short story writer in the fantasy, horror, and science fiction genres, screenwriter, and television producer. He is best known for his series of epic fantasy novels, A Song of Ice and Fire, which was adapted into the HBO series Game of Thrones (2011–present).

In 2005, Lev Grossman of Time called Martin "the American Tolkien", and in 2011, he was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world.

Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation

The Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation is given each year for theatrical films, television episodes, or other dramatized works related to science fiction or fantasy released in the previous calendar year. Originally the award covered both works of film and of television but since 2003, it has been split into two categories: "Best Dramatic Presentation (Long Form)" and "Best Dramatic Presentation (Short Form)". The Dramatic Presentation Awards are part of the broader Hugo Awards, which are given every year by the World Science Fiction Society for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year. The awards are named after Hugo Gernsback, the founder of the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, and was once officially known as the Science Fiction Achievement Award. The award has been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction".

Hugo Award for Best Graphic Story

The Hugo Awards are given every year by the World Science Fiction Society for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year. The award is named after Hugo Gernsback, the founder of the pioneering science fiction magazine Amazing Stories, and was once officially known as the Science Fiction Achievement Award. It has been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing". The Hugo Award for Best Graphic Story is given each year for science fiction or fantasy stories told in graphic form and published or translated into English during the previous calendar year. The Hugo Award for Best Graphic Story has been awarded annually since 2009. It was started then with the requirement that it would only continue as an official award if approved again by the World Science Fiction Society after that year. It was, and was again awarded in 2010; it was ratified as a permanent category after the 2012 awards.Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, and the presentation evening constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with six nominees, except in the case of a tie as happened in 2009. The graphic stories on the ballot are the six most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of stories that can be nominated. Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of six nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held. Prior to 2017, the final ballot was five works; it was changed that year to six, with each initial nominator limited to five nominations. Worldcons are generally held near the start of September, and are held in a different city around the world each year. In addition to the regular Hugo awards, beginning in 1996 Retrospective Hugo Awards, or "Retro Hugos", have been available to be awarded for 50, 75, or 100 years prior. Retro Hugos may only be awarded for years in which a World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, was hosted, but no awards were originally given. To date, Retro Hugo awards have only been given for graphic stories for 1941.In the 11 nomination years, 58 works from 38 series have been nominated, including Retro Hugos. Works from 8 different series have won the award. Girl Genius, written by Kaja and Phil Foglio, drawn by Phil Foglio, and colored by Cheyenne Wright, won the first three awards. After their third straight win in 2011, the Girl Genius team announced that, in order to show that the category was a "viable award", they were refusing nomination for the following year (after which the award was up for re-ratification); Girl Genius was nominated for a fourth time in 2014. For the following five years, the award was taken by a different series or work every year; winners include Ursula Vernon's Digger, Brian K. Vaughan and Fiona Staples's Saga, Randall Munroe's "Time", G. Willow Wilson's Ms. Marvel, Neil Gaiman and J. H. Williams III's The Sandman: Overture. The 2017 and 2018 awards saw the second series to win twice, Marjorie Liu and Sana Takeda's Monstress. The sole Retro Hugo was won by Bill Finger and Bob Kane's Batman #1. Schlock Mercenary, by Howard Tayler, and Saga have the most nominations at five, while Bill Willingham's Fables has been nominated four times. Six other works have two nominations.

Hugo Award for Best Novel

The Hugo Award for Best Novel is one of the Hugo Awards given each year for science fiction or fantasy stories published or translated into English during the previous calendar year. The novel award is available for works of fiction of 40,000 words or more; awards are also given out in the short story, novelette, and novella categories. The Hugo Awards have been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing".The Hugo Award for Best Novel has been awarded annually by the World Science Fiction Society since 1953, except in 1954 and 1957. In addition to the regular Hugo awards, beginning in 1996 Retrospective Hugo Awards, or "Retro Hugos", have been available to be awarded for 50, 75, or 100 years prior. Retro Hugos may only be awarded for years in which a World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, was hosted, but no awards were originally given. To date, Retro Hugo awards have been given for novels for 1939, 1941, 1943, 1946, 1951, and 1954.Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual Worldcon, and the presentation evening constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with six nominees, except in the case of a tie. The novels on the ballot are the six most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of stories that can be nominated. The 1953, 1955, and 1958 awards did not include any recognition of runner-up novels, but since 1959 all final candidates have been recorded. Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of six nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held. Prior to 2017, the final ballot was five works; it was changed that year to six, with each initial nominator limited to five nominations. Worldcons are generally held in August or early September, and are held in a different city around the world each year.During the 70 nomination years, 145 authors have had works nominated; 48 of these have won, including co-authors, ties, and Retro Hugos. One translator has been noted along with the author whose works he translated. Robert A. Heinlein has received the most Hugos for Best Novel as well as the most nominations, with six wins (including two Retro Hugos) and twelve nominations. Lois McMaster Bujold has received four Hugos on ten nominations; the only other authors to win more than twice are Isaac Asimov (including one Retro Hugo), N. K. Jemisin, Connie Willis, and Vernor Vinge, who have each won three times. Nine other authors have won the award twice. The next-most nominations by a winning author are held by Robert J. Sawyer and Larry Niven, who have been nominated nine and eight times, respectively, and each have only won once, while Robert Silverberg has the greatest number of nominations without winning at nine. Three authors have won the award in consecutive years: Orson Scott Card (1986, 1987), Lois McMaster Bujold (1991, 1992), and N. K. Jemisin (2016, 2017, and 2018).

Hugo Award for Best Novelette

The Hugo Award for Best Novelette is one of the Hugo Awards given each year for science fiction or fantasy stories published or translated into English during the previous calendar year. The novelette award is available for works of fiction of between 7,500 and 17,500 words; awards are also given out in the short story, novella and novel categories. The Hugo Awards have been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing".The Hugo Award for Best Novelette was first awarded in 1955, and was subsequently awarded in 1956, 1958, and 1959, lapsing in 1960. The category was reinstated for 1967 through 1969, before lapsing again in 1970; after returning in 1973, it has remained to date. In addition to the regular Hugo awards, beginning in 1996 Retrospective Hugo Awards, or "Retro Hugos", have been available to be awarded for years 50, 75, or 100 years prior in which no awards were given. To date, Retro Hugo awards have been given for novelettes for 1939, 1941, 1943, 1946, 1951, and 1954.Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, and the award presentation constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with six nominees, except in the case of a tie. The novelettes on the ballot are the six most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of stories that can be nominated. Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of six nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held. Prior to 2017, the final ballot was five works; it was changed that year to six, with each initial nominator limited to five nominations. Worldcons are generally held near the start of September, and are held in a different city around the world each year.During the 59 nomination years, 187 authors have had works nominated; 45 of these have won, including coauthors and Retro Hugos. 1 translator has been noted along with the author whose work she translated. Poul Anderson, Isaac Asimov, and Harlan Ellison both have received the most Hugos for Best Novelette at three, with Ellison having been nominated a total of six times, while seven other authors have won twice. Mike Resnick has had the most nominations at eight, and Ursula K. Le Guin and Greg Egan have been nominated seven times each. Fifteen other authors have been nominated at least four times, while Egan has the most number of nominations without winning.

Hugo Award for Best Novella

The Hugo Award for Best Novella is one of the Hugo Awards given each year for science fiction or fantasy stories published or translated into English during the previous calendar year. The novella award is available for works of fiction of between 17,500 and 40,000 words; awards are also given out in the short story, novelette and novel categories. The Hugo Awards have been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing".The Hugo Award for Best Novella has been awarded annually since 1968. In addition to the regular Hugo awards, beginning in 1996 Retrospective Hugo Awards, or "Retro Hugos", have been available to be awarded for years 50, 75, or 100 years prior in which no awards were given. Retro Hugos may only be awarded for years in which a World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, was hosted, but no awards were originally given. To date, Retro Hugo awards have been given for novellas for 1939, 1941, 1943, 1946, 1951, and 1954.Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by the supporting and attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, and the presentation evening constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with six nominees, except in the case of a tie. These novellas on the ballot are the six most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of stories that can be nominated. Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of six nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held. Prior to 2017, the final ballot was five works; it was changed that year to six, with each initial nominator limited to five nominations. Worldcons are generally held near the start of September, and are held in a different city around the world each year. Members are permitted to vote "no award", if they feel that none of the nominees is deserving of the award that year, and in the case that "no award" takes the majority the Hugo is not given in that category. This happened in the Best Novella category in 2015.During the 57 nomination years, 161 authors have had works nominated; 41 of these have won, including coauthors and Retro Hugos. Connie Willis has received the most Hugos for Best Novella at four, and at eight is tied for the most nominations with Robert Silverberg. Willis and Charles Stross at three out of four nominations are the only authors to have won more than twice, while thirteen other authors have won the award twice. Nancy Kress has earned seven nominations and Robert A. Heinlein, George R. R. Martin, Kim Stanley Robinson, and Lucius Shepard six, and are the only authors besides Willis and Silverberg to get more than four. Robinson has the highest number of nominations without winning.

Hugo Award for Best Short Story

The Hugo Award for Best Short Story is one of the Hugo Awards given each year for science fiction or fantasy stories published or translated into English during the previous calendar year. The short story award is available for works of fiction of fewer than 7,500 words; awards are also given out for pieces of longer lengths in the novelette, novella, and novel categories. The Hugo Awards have been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing".The Hugo Award for Best Short Story has been awarded annually since 1955, except in 1957. The award was titled "Best Short Fiction" rather than "Best Short Story" in 1960–1966. During this time no Novelette category was awarded and the Novella category had not yet been established; the award was defined only as a work "of less than novel length" that was not published as a stand-alone book. In addition to the regular Hugo awards, beginning in 1996 Retrospective Hugo Awards, or "Retro Hugos", have been available to be awarded for 50, 75, or 100 years prior. Retro Hugos may only be awarded for years in which a World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, was hosted, but no awards were originally given. To date, Retro Hugo awards have been given for short stories for 1939, 1941, 1943, 1946, 1951, and 1954.Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual Worldcon, and the presentation evening constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with six nominees, except in the case of a tie. The short stories on the ballot are the six most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of stories that can be nominated. The 1955 and 1958 awards did not include any recognition of runner-up stories, but since 1959 all six candidates have been recorded. Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of six nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held. Prior to 2017, the final ballot was five works; it was changed that year to six, with each initial nominator limited to five nominations. Worldcons are generally held near Labor Day, and are held in a different city around the world each year. Members are permitted to vote "no award", if they feel that none of the nominees is deserving of the award that year, and in the case that "no award" takes the majority the Hugo is not given in that category. This happened in the Best Short Story category in 2015.During the 69 nomination years, 191 authors have had works nominated; 52 of these have won, including co-authors and Retro Hugos. Harlan Ellison has received the most Hugos for Best Short Story at four, Arthur C. Clarke, Larry Niven, Mike Resnick, Michael Swanwick, and Connie Willis have each won three times, and Poul Anderson, Joe Haldeman, and Ken Liu have won twice, the only other authors to win more than once. Resnick has received the most nominations at 18, while Swanwick has received 14; no other author has gotten more than 7. Michael A. Burstein, with 7, has the highest number of nominations without winning.

John Scalzi

John Michael Scalzi II (born May 10, 1969) is an American science fiction author and former president of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. He is best known for his Old Man's War series, three novels of which have been nominated for the Hugo Award, and for his blog Whatever, where he has written on a number of topics since 1998. He won the Hugo Award for Best Fan Writer in 2008 based predominantly on that blog, which he has also used for several charity drives. His novel Redshirts won the 2013 Hugo Award for Best Novel. He has written non-fiction books and columns on diverse topics such as finance, video games, films, astronomy, writing and politics, and served as a creative consultant for the TV series Stargate Universe.

Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin (simplified Chinese: 刘慈欣; traditional Chinese: 劉慈欣; pinyin: Liú Cíxīn; born 23 June 1963) is a Chinese science fiction writer. He is a nine-time winner of the Galaxy Award (China's most prestigious literary science fiction award) and winner of the Hugo Award. Liu's work is considered hard science fiction. In English translations of his works, his name is given in the form Cixin Liu.

Locus (magazine)

Locus: The Magazine of The Science Fiction & Fantasy Field, is an American magazine published monthly in Oakland, California. It is the news organ and trade journal for the English language science fiction and fantasy fields. It also publishes comprehensive listings of all new books published in the genres. The magazine also presents the annual Locus Awards. Locus Online was launched in April 1997, as a semi-autonomous web version of Locus Magazine.

Lois McMaster Bujold

Lois McMaster Bujold ( (listen) boo-ZHOHLD; born November 2, 1949) is an American speculative fiction writer. She is one of the most acclaimed writers in her field, having won the Hugo Award for best novel four times, matching Robert A. Heinlein's record, not counting his Retro Hugo. Her novella "The Mountains of Mourning" won both the Hugo Award and Nebula Award. In the fantasy genre, The Curse of Chalion won the Mythopoeic Award for Adult Literature and was nominated for the 2002 World Fantasy Award for best novel, and both her fourth Hugo Award and second Nebula Award were for Paladin of Souls. In 2011 she was awarded the Skylark Award. In 2013 she was awarded the Forry Award. In 2017 she won a Hugo Award for Best Series, for the Vorkosigan Saga.The bulk of Bujold's works comprises three separate book series: the Vorkosigan Saga, the Chalion Series, and the Sharing Knife series.

N. K. Jemisin

Nora K. Jemisin (born September 19, 1972) is an American science fiction and fantasy writer and a psychologist. Her fiction explores a wide variety of themes, including cultural conflict and oppression. She has won several awards for her work, including the Locus Award. As of her August 2018 win, the three books of her Broken Earth series have made her the only author to have won the Hugo Award for Best Novel in three consecutive years.

In 2009 and 2010, Jemisin's short story "Non-Zero Probabilities" was a finalist for the Nebula and Hugo Best Short Story Awards, respectively. Her debut novel, The Hundred Thousand Kingdoms, the first volume in her Inheritance Trilogy, was nominated for the 2010 Nebula Award, and short-listed for the James Tiptree Jr. Award. In 2011, it was nominated for the Hugo Award, World Fantasy Award, and Locus Award, winning the 2011 Locus Award for Best First Novel. The Hundred Thousand Kingdoms also won the Sense of Gender Awards in 2011. It was followed by two further novels in the same trilogy – The Broken Kingdoms in 2010 and The Kingdom of Gods in 2011.

In 2016, Jemisin's novel The Fifth Season won the Hugo Award for Best Novel, making her the first African-American writer to win a Hugo award in that category. Its sequels, The Obelisk Gate and The Stone Sky, won the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 2017 and 2018, respectively.

Roger Zelazny

Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 – June 14, 1995) was an American poet and writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels, best known for The Chronicles of Amber. He won the Nebula award three times (out of 14 nominations) and the Hugo award six times (also out of 14 nominations), including two Hugos for novels: the serialized novel ...And Call Me Conrad (1965), subsequently published under the title This Immortal (1966) and then the novel Lord of Light (1967).

Steven Moffat

Steven William Moffat (; born 18 November 1961) is a Scottish television writer and producer, best known for his work as showrunner, writer and executive producer of British television series Doctor Who and Sherlock.

Moffat's first television work was the teen drama series Press Gang. His first sitcom, Joking Apart, was inspired by the breakdown of his first marriage; conversely, his later sitcom Coupling was based upon the development of his relationship with television producer Sue Vertue. In between the two relationship-centred shows, he wrote Chalk, a sitcom set in a comprehensive school inspired by his own experience as an English teacher.

A lifelong fan of Doctor Who, Moffat's first work on the series was the script of the parody episode The Curse of Fatal Death, which aired in 1999. When Doctor Who was revived in 2005, he wrote six episodes under executive producer Russell T Davies. Moffat was subsequently Doctor Who showrunner, lead writer and executive producer from 2009 until 2017. Moffat's run as executive producer aired from April 2010 to December 2017. Sherlock, which Moffat co-created with Mark Gatiss, began airing in July 2010. He also co-wrote the 2011 feature film The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn.

Moffat has won several awards, mainly for Doctor Who and Sherlock, including two Emmy Awards, five BAFTA Awards and four Hugo Awards.

Ted Chiang

Ted Chiang (born 1967) is an American science fiction writer. His Chinese name is Chiang Feng-nan (姜峯楠).

His work has won four Nebula awards, four Hugo awards, the John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer, and four Locus awards. His short story "Story of Your Life" was the basis of the film Arrival (2016).

Vernor Vinge

Vernor Steffen Vinge ( (listen); born October 2, 1944) is an American science fiction author and retired professor. He taught mathematics and computer science at San Diego State University. He is the originator of the technological singularity concept and perhaps the first to present a fictional "cyberspace". He has won the Hugo Award for his novels and novellas A Fire Upon the Deep (1992), A Deepness in the Sky (1999), Rainbows End (2006), Fast Times at Fairmont High (2002), and The Cookie Monster (2004).

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.