Hugh Devore

Hugh John Devore (November 25, 1910 – December 8, 1992) was an American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at Providence College (1938–1941), the University of Notre Dame (1945 and 1963), St. Bonaventure University (1946–1949), New York University,(1950–1952), and the University of Dayton (1954–1955), compiling a career college football coaching record of 58–65–7. Devore was also the head coach for Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League (NFL), tallying a mark of 7–18–1. He played college football at Notre Dame as an end from 1931 to 1933.

Hugh Devore
Hugh Devore
Biographical details
BornNovember 25, 1910
Newark, New Jersey
DiedDecember 8, 1992 (aged 82)
Edmond, Oklahoma
Playing career
1931–1933Notre Dame
Coaching career (HC unless noted)
1934Notre Dame (freshmen)
1935–1938Fordham (line)
1942Holy Cross (assistant)
1943–1944Notre Dame (line)
1945Notre Dame
1946–1949St. Bonaventure
1953Green Bay Packers (assistant)
1956–1957Philadelphia Eagles
1958–1962Notre Dame (freshmen)
1963Notre Dame
1966–1970Houston Oilers (assistant)
Administrative career (AD unless noted)
1945Notre Dame
1964–1966Notre Dame (assistant AD)
Head coaching record
Overall58–65–7 (college)
7–18–1 (NFL)
Accomplishments and honors
2 Western New York Little Three (1946, 1949)

Early life and playing career

Devore was born and raised in Newark, New Jersey and was a three-sport star at the city's St. Benedict's Prep. He was then recruited by the legendary Knute Rockne to play at Notre Dame. While playing on the freshman squad in 1930, Devore caught Rockne's eye during an intrasquad scrimmage when he stopped All-America quarterback Frank Carideo with a crushing tackle. Unfortunately, Devore never had the opportunity to play for Rockne in an official game after the coach was killed in a plane crash on March 31, 1931.

During his three years as a member of the Fighting Irish varsity, Devore played at end under Heartley Anderson, serving as co-captain during his senior year in 1933.

Coaching career

Upon graduating from Notre Dame, Devore stayed at his alma mater the following year as freshman football coach, then followed fellow Irish alum Jim Crowley as line coach at Fordham University in 1935.

Providence, Holy Cross

Following three seasons in that role, made famous by his coaching Fordham's iconic "Seven Blocks of Granite", a unit that included future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi he accepted his first head coaching position when he was hired at Providence College on January 20, 1938 and served as head coach of the Friars through the 1941 season and compiled a record of 12–19–2.[1] After finishing his fourth season with the Friars, Devore then took an assistant coaching position with Holy Cross College on January 11, 1942. His one year at the school was marked by his outstanding scouting report of rival Boston College, leading to a stunning 55–12 upset of the Eagles in the season finale. In a strange twist of fate, Devore probably saved the lives of most or all of the BC players. The overconfident BC team had made reservations at Boston's Cocoanut Grove nightclub to celebrate their victory but cancelled. That night Cocoanut Grove burned down with the loss of 492 lives.

Return to Notre Dame

Devore then returned to his alma mater as ends coach the following year. When Irish head coach Frank Leahy entered the U.S. Navy in early 1944, Edward McKeever was named interim head coach and guided the Irish to an 8–2 record. However, when McKeever accepted the head coaching slot at Cornell University, Devore took his place on March 6, 1945. Notre Dame started that season in strong fashion with five straight wins and was ranked second in the nation, but a 48–0 thrashing by a potent Army squad ended hopes of a national title, with the Irish closing out the year with a 7–2–1 mark.

St. Bonaventure

Upon Leahy's return, Devore was under consideration for the head coaching position at the University of Arkansas, but instead signed to lead St. Bonaventure College on February 13, 1946. In his first three years, Devore led his teams to a 19–5–1 record, including a 7–1–1 mark in 1948, an effort that earned him a new three-year contract. Yet after one 6–4 season, Devore announced his resignation on February 2, 1950 to accept the head coaching position at New York University, citing the proximity to his New Jersey roots.


Devore was the 24th and last head football coach at the New York University (NYU)y.[2] His coaching record at NYU was 4–17–2.[3]

Devore had entered the job in hopes of improving the fortunes of the once-powerful program which had struggled after years of neglect and strict academic standards that had led to a severe downturn. The effort went for naught when after three years of trying, the school announced on March 10, 1953 that it was dropping its football program after 80 seasons, leaving Devore and his staff looking for work.

Green Bay Packers, Dayton

Less than a month later, Devore found employment at the professional level for the first time as an assistant with the NFL's Green Bay Packers. That role lasted only one season, with Devore and Ray McLean serving as co-coaches for the team's final two games. Devore then returned to the colleges as head coach at the University of Dayton on January 6, 1954. After two seasons with the Flyers in which he compiled an 8–11–1 record (one of his players was future Notre Dame head coach Gerry Faust), homesickness pangs once again led him to accept the position of head coach of the NFL Eagles on January 9, 1956. The move, prompted by the strong urgings of league commissioner Bert Bell, engendered some controversy after Devore had first turned the position down because of his new four-year contract with Dayton.

Philadelphia Eagles

Despite adding assistants such as former New York Giants head coach Steve Owen, Devore struggled during his two seasons in the City of Brotherly Love, compiling a mark of 7–16–1. The poor record led to Devore's firing on January 11, 1958, but the mentor quickly found work again at Notre Dame as freshman coach and assistant athletic director.

Second return to Notre Dame

The following year, after having recommended his former Fordham player Vince Lombardi for the Packers' head coaching position, Devore was retained as freshman coach by new head coach Joe Kuharich after Terry Brennan was dismissed along with his entire staff. Then when Kuharich resigned during spring practice in March 1963, Devore was once again named interim head coach at the school. In a complete reversal of his earlier stint, Devore's one season at the helm saw Notre Dame hit rock bottom with a 2–7 record (the scheduled game at Iowa was canceled due to the Assassination of John F. Kennedy). One of the few bright spots was a midseason 17–14 upset of the University of Southern California, while the season finale against Syracuse University saw Devore adorn his team in bright green jerseys, a sharp contrast to the school's traditional blue and gold. The green jerseys did not return until Dan Devine broke them out for the 1977 matchup with USC.

Despite the 2–7 docket in 1963, the beloved, personable Devore, affectionately known as "Hughie", boosted the morale of the squad that had been left devoid of emotion under Kuharich. He knew all along that he was merely a stopgap measure while the search for a permanent replacement was being conducted and maintained, "I'll do whatever Notre Dame feels is best for me." The following year, he was presented with a game ball after Notre Dame's victory over Stanford, and new coach Ara Parseghian praised Devore for making his job that much easier.

The arrival of Ara Parseghian brought an exciting new era to the Golden Dome, including a near-national championship during his first season in 1964. Devore served as assistant athletic director during each of Parseghian's first two years, but on February 9, 1966, he was hired as an assistant coach for the American Football League's Houston Oilers under Wally Lemm.

Later life and family

After five years in that capacity, Devore then went to work as promotions director for the Houston Sports Association, dealing primarily with bringing in events for the city's Astrodome. He continued working until retiring at the age of 75 in 1986.

Health issues led Devore to move in with his daughter, Noreen, in August 1992, and four months later, he died, nearly two weeks after his 82nd birthday. His death was overshadowed in the Notre Dame community by the passing of former Irish athletic director Moose Krause, who died in his sleep three days later.

Devore was married to the former Madeline Foster on January 15, 1938, who preceded him in death. They had seven children. Devore's grandsons, Charlie and Russ Haas, were professional wrestlers who worked for WWE.[4]

Head coaching record


Year Team Overall Conference Standing Bowl/playoffs AP#
Providence Friars (Independent) (1938–1941)
1938 Providence 3–5
1939 Providence 3–5
1940 Providence 3–6
1941 Providence 3–3–2
Providence: 12–19–2
Notre Dame Fighting Irish (Independent) (1945)
1945 Notre Dame 7–2–1 9
St. Bonaventure Brown Indians (Western New York Little Three Conference) (1946–1949)
1946 St. Bonaventure 6–2 2–0 1st
1947 St. Bonaventure 6–3
1948 St. Bonaventure 7–1–1
1949 St. Bonaventure 6–3 2–1 T–1st
St. Bonaventure: 25–9–1
NYU Violets (Independent) (1950–1952)
1950 NYU 1–5–1
1951 NYU 1–7
1952 NYU 2–5–1
NYU: 4–17–2
Dayton Flyers (Independent) (1954–1955)
1954 Dayton 5–5
1955 Dayton 3–6
Dayton: 8–11
Notre Dame Fighting Irish (NCAA University Division independent) (1963)
1963 Notre Dame 2–7 9
Notre Dame: 9–9–1
Total: 58–65–7
      National championship         Conference title         Conference division title or championship game berth

See also


  1. ^ Providence College Fighting Friars 1921–1941 (PDF). Providence, Rhode Island: Providence College Special Collections. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
  2. ^ The Ultimate Guide to College Football, James Quirk, 2004
  3. ^ New York University Violets coaching records Archived December 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^

External links

1953 Green Bay Packers season

The 1953 Green Bay Packers season was their 35th season overall and their 33rd in the National Football League. The club posted a 2–9–1 record under head coach Gene Ronzani and interim co-coaches Ray McLean, and Hugh Devore, and finished last in the newly named Western Conference.

Fourth-year head coach Ronzani led the team for the first ten games, but resigned after a nationally televised Thanksgiving Day loss, his eighth loss to the Detroit Lions in four seasons; McLean and Devore co-coached the last two games of the season, both losses.

It was the only in-season coaching change in Packers history, until 2018. This season also marked the first season that the Packers played at the recently completed Milwaukee County Stadium.

1956 Philadelphia Eagles season

The 1956 Philadelphia Eagles season was their 24th in the league. They failed to improve on their previous output of 4–7–1, winning only three games. The team failed to qualify for the playoffs for the seventh consecutive season.

1957 NFL season

The 1957 NFL season was the 38th regular season of the National Football League. The season ended with the Detroit Lions defeating the Cleveland Browns in the NFL championship game, 59–14.

Elmer Layden

Elmer Francis Layden (May 4, 1903 – June 30, 1973) was an American football player, coach, college athletics administrator, and professional sports executive. He played college football at the University of Notre Dame where he starred at fullback as a member of the legendary "Four Horsemen" backfield. Layden played professionally in the original AFL in 1925 and 1926 with three clubs, the Hartford Blues, the Brooklyn Horsemen, and the Rock Island Independents. He began his coaching career during the same two seasons at Columbia College in Dubuque, Iowa, now known as Loras College. Layden then served as the head coach at Duquesne University from 1927 to 1933 and at his alma mater, Notre Dame, from 1934 to 1940, where he also held the position of athletic director. From 1941 to 1946, Layden was the commissioner of the National Football League (NFL). He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a player in 1951.

Frank E. Hering

Frank Earl Hering (April 30, 1874 – July 11, 1943) was an American football player and coach of football, basketball, and baseball. He served as the head football coach at the University of Notre Dame from 1896 to 1898, compiling a record of 12–6–1. Hering was also the first basketball coach at Notre Dame, coaching one season in 1897–1898, and helmed the school's baseball team for three seasons from 1897 to 1899.

Hering was born in Sunbury, Pennsylvania and played quarterback for the Chicago Maroons in 1893 and 1894. His first head coaching job was with the Bucknell Bison in 1895. The next year, he arrived at Notre Dame to play quarterback for the football team; but by 1898 he had taken on the additional responsibility of directing the entire athletic department, including coaching the football and baseball teams, and introducing basketball to the university. He earned the title of "Father of Notre Dame Football" for his success in expanding the football program from an intramural activity to a full-fledged intercollegiate sport. Hering officially dedicated the new Notre Dame Stadium in 1930.

Hering is also recognized by the Fraternal Order of Eagles as the "Father of Mother's Day" for his work in promoting the establishment of a national holiday, having given public speeches supporting the idea as early as 1904. Hering was a member of Phi Gamma Delta Fraternity.While a member of the Notre Dame faculty in his later years, Hering was known for his outreach programs in South Bend, Indiana, including the establishment of "Hering House"—a civic center for the African-American community.

Gerry Faust

Gerard Anthony Faust (born May 21, 1935) is a former American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at the University of Notre Dame from 1981 to 1985 and at the University of Akron from 1986 to 1994, compiling a career college football record of 73–79–4. From 1962 to 1980, Faust was the head football coach at Moeller High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he tallied a mark of 178–23–2 and won four High School Football National Championships. Before coaching, Faust enjoyed a successful stint as a quarterback at the University of Dayton, where he played under former Notre Dame coach Hugh Devore. Faust was offered a partial scholarship to Notre Dame, but enrolled at Dayton, where he graduated in 1958.

Henry J. McGlew

Henry J. "Fuzzy" McGlew of Chelsea, Massachusetts was a quarterback and head coach of the Notre Dame college football program.

In his two years as a starting quarterback from 1901 to 1902, the team achieved a combined record of 14–3–2. His best game came against the American College of Medicine and Surgery in 1902, when he made runs of 80, 65 and 40 yards and scored one touchdown. In 1903, he moved to left end, and helped the team to achieve their first undefeated season. McGlew never once fumbled the ball during his playing career.

McGlew was a teammate of College Football Hall of Famer Red Salmon, and succeeded him as head coach of the Irish in 1905. His lone season as coach included a record-setting 142–0 victory over American Medical, but the team finished a disappointing 5–4, and McGlew retired from the coaching ranks.

James Farragher

James Francis Farragher (September 10, 1873 – February 22, 1949) was an American football player and coach. He played left tackle at the University of Notre Dame in the early 1900s. He is often identified in official university histories as the team's head coach for the 1902–1903 season. This claim remains controversial among sports historians, some of whom assign this honor to Farragher's teammate, All-American Louis "Red" Salmon, who served as team captain during the 1902–1903 season. Both men are routinely credited as acting coaches in official histories of the Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team.

Jesse Harper

Jesse Clair Harper (December 10, 1883 – July 31, 1961) was an American football and baseball player, coach, and college athletics administrator. He served as the head football coach at Alma College (1906–1907), Wabash College (1909–1912), and the University of Notre Dame (1913–1917), compiling a career college football record of 57–17–7. Harper was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1971.

Joe Kuharich

Joseph Lawrence Kuharich (April 14, 1917 – January 25, 1981) was an American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at the University of San Francisco from 1948 to 1951 and at the University of Notre Dame from 1959 to 1962, compiling a career college football record of 42–37. Kuharich was also the head coach of the Chicago Cardinals in 1952, the Washington Redskins from 1954 to 1958, and the Philadelphia Eagles from 1964 to 1968, amassing a career coaching record of 58–81–3 in the National Football League (NFL). He played football as a guard at Notre Dame from 1935 to 1937 and with the Chicago Cardinals in 1940, 1941 and 1945. Kuharich's death fell on the day the Eagles lost Super Bowl XV to the Oakland Raiders.

John L. Marks

John L. "Jack" Marks was an American football coach. He served as the head football coach at the University of Notre Dame from 1911 to 1912, compiling a record of 13–0–2. Marks played college football at Dartmouth College.On October 5, 1912, in one of the easiest victories in Notre Dame history, junior quarterback Gus Dorais led the Irish to a 116–7 rout of St. Viator in the season-opener.

List of Green Bay Packers head coaches

There have been 15 head coaches for the Green Bay Packers, a professional American football team of the National Football League (NFL). The franchise was founded in 1919 by Curly Lambeau and competed for two years against teams around Wisconsin and Michigan before entering into the American Professional Football Association, which is now known as the NFL.

Four different coaches have won NFL championships with the Packers: Earl Louis "Curly" Lambeau in 1929, 1930, 1931, 1936, 1939, and 1944; Vince Lombardi in 1961, 1962, 1965, 1966, and 1967; Mike Holmgren in 1996; and Mike McCarthy in 2010. Lambeau is the franchise leader in career games (334) and career wins (209), while Lombardi has the best winning percentage (.754). Ray (Scooter) McLean has the worst winning percentage (.077). Four Packers coaches—Lambeau, Lombardi, Bart Starr and Forrest Gregg—have been elected into the Pro Football Hall of Fame, although Starr and Gregg are recognized as players. Lombardi and Lindy Infante have both been named the league's coach of the year by major news organizations.

As of January 2019, the head coach of the Green Bay Packers is Matt LaFleur, who was named to that position after Mike McCarthy was fired during the 2018 NFL season.

List of NYU Violets head football coaches

The NYU Violets football program was a college football team that represented New York University. The team was independent of any conference but was a part of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The team had 24 head coaches during its time of operations and had its first recorded football game in 1894. The final coach was Hugh Devore who first took the position for the 1950 season and concluded with the end of the 1952 season.

List of Notre Dame Fighting Irish head football coaches

This is a list of Notre Dame Fighting Irish football head coaches. The Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team is the football team of the University of Notre Dame, located in South Bend, Indiana, United States. The team competes as an Independent at the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision level. Notre Dame has produced more All-Americans than any other Football Bowl Subdivision school. Additionally, seven Fighting Irish football players have won the Heisman Trophy. Notre Dame is one of only two Catholic universities that field a team in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the other being Boston College, and one of a handful of programs independent of a football conference. The team plays its home games on Notre Dame's campus at Notre Dame Stadium, also known as the "House that Rockne Built", which has a capacity of 80,795. The head coach is Brian Kelly.

List of Philadelphia Eagles head coaches

This is a list of head coaches for the Philadelphia Eagles. The Philadelphia Eagles are a professional American football team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Eagles joined the National Football League (NFL) as an expansion team in 1933. Currently members of the Eastern Division of the National Football Conference (NFC), the team has won three NFL titles and made three Super Bowl appearances (1980, 2004, and 2018), with their first Super Bowl victory coming in Super Bowl LII under second-year head coach Doug Pederson. There have been 22 head coaches of the Eagles in the NFL.

Three different coaches have won NFL championships with the team: Earl "Greasy" Neale in 1948 and 1949, Buck Shaw in 1960, and Doug Pederson in Super Bowl LII. Andy Reid is the all-time leader in games coached and wins, while Neale has the highest winning percentage with .594 (with at least one full season coached). Bert Bell is statistically the worst coach the Eagles have had in terms of winning percentage, with .185 win/loss percentage.Of the 22 Eagles coaches, four have been elected into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Bert Bell was a charter member of the Hall of Fame. Bell was inducted for his work as the NFL Commissioner from 1946–1959. Wayne Millner, who coached the team in 1951, was enshrined as a player in 1968. Greasy Neale was in the class of 1969 for his work as the Eagles coach in the 1940s. Mike McCormack made the 1984 class for his Offensive Tackle play. Several former NFL players have been head coaches for the Eagles, including Jerry Williams, Ed Khayat, and Marion Campbell. Andy Reid. spent 14 seasons in charge before he was fired on December 31, 2012, after a 4–12 season – Reid's worst season in charge – which left the Eagles bottom of the NFC. He was replaced by former University of Oregon head coach Chip Kelly, who led the Eagles to a 10–6 record and the playoffs. Kelly was fired on December 29, 2015 after going 6–9 through that season's first 15 games. He was replaced by Offensive coordinator Pat Shurmer for week 17. As of January 14, the Eagles named Kansas City Chiefs offensive coordinator, Doug Pederson their new head coach going into the 2016 NFL season.

Louis J. Salmon

Louis J. "Red" Salmon (June 10, 1880 – September 27, 1965) is considered to be the first outstanding fullback for the University of Notre Dame football team. He was the first "Fighting Irish" player to win an All-American mention, and some sports historians argue that he served as the team's de facto coach during the 1902–1903 season. This honor, however, is often accorded to teammate James Farragher. Both men are widely credited as acting head coaches in official histories of the "Fighting Irish" football team, and Salmon is recognized as head coach during the 1903–1904 season.

St. Bonaventure Brown Indians football

For information on all St. Bonaventure University sports, see St. Bonaventure Bonnies

The St. Bonaventure Brown Indians football program were the intercollegiate American football team for St. Bonaventure University located in St. Bonaventure, New York. The team competed in the NCAA Division I as an Independent football team. The school's first football team was fielded in 1895. St. Bonaventure participated in football from 1895-1951, compiling an all-time record of 161–157–26. The football program was discontinued at the conclusion of the 1951 season.

A second St. Bonaventure football team played three seasons from 1968 to 1970; this squad played only at the club team level and not as a varsity squad.

Terry Brennan

Terence Patrick Brennan (born June 11, 1928) is a former American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at the University of Notre Dame from 1954 to 1958, compiling a record of 32–18.

Wally Lemm

Walter Horner Lemm (October 23, 1919 – October 8, 1988) was an American football coach at the high school, collegiate and professional levels and achieved his greatest prominence as head coach of the American Football League's Houston Oilers and the National Football League's St. Louis Cardinals.

Lemm graduated from Carroll College, in Waukesha, Wisconsin, in 1942 after playing football for head coach John W. Breen. After service in World War II during the next two years, Lemm served as an assistant coach at the University of Notre Dame under Hugh Devore in 1945. Lemm returned to Carroll as an assistant coach with the school's football team the following year, then became a head coach for the first time, accepting the top job for Waukesha High School in 1948.

Following Lemm's one year at Waukesha, Carroll's former coach, Breen, took the head coaching position at Lake Forest College. Lemm served under his leadership for the next three years, while also working as the school's head basketball coach, then replaced Breen in 1952. During his two seasons, he compiled an 11–4–1 record before leaving to accept the head coach position at Montana State University. An 8-1 season in 1954 was followed the next year by a 4–4–1 campaign. On May 14, 1956, he reached the National Football League (NFL) when he accepted a defensive assistant position with the Chicago Cardinals.

Lemm spent just one season before resigning to again accept the head coaching position at Lake Forest. During the next two years, he nearly matched his previous stint at the school with an 11–5 record, winning District Coach of the Year accolades in 1957 from the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA). On February 21, 1959, he returned to an assistant's role with the Cardinals, and would remain at the professional level for the remainder of his career.

After again spending a single season with the Cardinals, Lemm resigned on January 12, 1960 to accept an assistant coaching position with the Houston Oilers of the seminal American Football League. During the first season of play, the Oilers captured the league's first-ever title, but Lemm resigned after the season, returning to Libertyville, Illinois to work in the sporting goods industry.

However, after a slow start to the 1961 season that saw the team with a 1–3–1 record, Oilers' head coach Lou Rymkus was fired. Lemm was offered the position by his former coach John Breen, the Oilers' Director of Player Personnel, and proceeded to lead the team to nine straight victories. The team then won its second straight title with a 10–3 win over the San Diego Chargers on December 24, 1961, and Lemm was named AFL Coach of the Year for his efforts.

After orally agreeing to a contract for the next season, Lemm instead resigned on February 22, 1962 to take the top spot with the Cardinals, citing the proximity of St. Louis to his home in Lake Bluff, Illinois. He replaced Pop Ivy at St. Louis, and Ivy replaced Lemm at Houston. After a 4–9–1 record in his first year, Lemm came close to capturing the NFL's Eastern Conference title with a 9–5 season in 1963 and a 9–3–2 mark the following year. After signing a contract with a huge pay increase, the Cardinals crashed in 1965 with a 5–9 mark, with Lemm seemingly having job security. However, after Lemm was asked to stay in St. Louis as a full-time coach, he resigned on January 10, 1966, again citing family considerations. Oddly, he then accepted the head coaching job with his former team in Houston 19 days later.

The Oilers struggled in 1966 with a 3–11 record, but bounced back in 1967 with a 9–4–1 record and a spot in the AFL Championship game. After a 40–7 thrashing at the hands of the Oakland Raiders, the Oilers again reached the postseason in 1969 compiling a mediocre 6–6–2 record and were again dismantled by the Raiders, 56–7, in the AFL's oddly constructed one year playoff system. For that season the first place team of the West played the second place team of the East and vice versa. The team's first year in the post-merger NFL, 1970, finished with a disastrous 3–10–1 mark. Following a 44–0 loss to his former team in St. Louis on November 1, 1970, Lemm announced he would be retiring at the conclusion of the year, this time citing health issues. Lemm's final game came on December 20 of that year, a 52–10 loss to the Oilers' Lone Star State rivals, the Dallas Cowboys.

Lemm died on October 8, 1988 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin after a college reunion.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.