Hugh Baillie

Hugh Baillie (October 23, 1890 – March 1, 1966) was an American journalist best known as the head of UP (United Press Associations), the leading rival to the Associated Press. As president 1935-1955, he was an overall charge of business operations, and dealings with his correspondents and subscribing newspapers. Baillie was the son of a prominent journalist in New York, and joined UP in 1915 after attending the University of Southern California. He personally interviewed top European leaders in the coming of World War II, including Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Neville Chamberlain. He covered the American invasion of Sicily in 1943, and the Belgian campaign in 1944, in which he was wounded.

After the war Baillie continued with his interviews of famous world leaders, such as the heads of Japan, China, and the Soviet Union. Baillie was a leader in promoting freedom of news dissemination and called in 1944 for an open system of news sources and transmission, and a minimum of government regulation of the news. His proposals were aired at the Geneva Conference on Freedom of Information in 1948, but were blocked by the Soviets and by France. He strongly supported General Douglas MacArthur and his conduct of the Korean War, making sure that his reporters and editors covered it thoroughly.

At the time of his retirement, UP had 2900 clients in the United States, and 1500 abroad.

Hugh Baillie
BornDecember 23, 1890
DiedMarch 1, 1966 (aged 75)
EducationUniversity of Southern California
EmployerUnited Press Associations
Known forPresident of UP, 1935–1955

Further reading

  • Eleonora W. Schoenebaum, ed. Political Profiles: The Truman Years (1978) pp 16–17

Primary sources

  • Hugh Baillie. High Tension: The Recollections of Hugh Baillie (Harper, 1959)
Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. Its members are U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its standards and practices.The AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917.

The AP has counted the vote in U.S. elections since 1848, including national, state and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish, city and town across the U.S., and declares winners in over 5,000 contests.

The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English, Spanish and Arabic. AP content is also available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher.As of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters. The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It also operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative. As part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials.

Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.

Astrarium of Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio

The Astrarium of Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio was a complex astronomical clock built between 1348 and 1364 in Padova, Italy, by the doctor and clock-maker Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio. The Astrarium had seven faces and 107 moving parts; it showed the positions of the sun, the moon and the five planets then known, as well as religious feast days. It was one of the first mechanical clocks to be built in Europe.

Baillie Scott

Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott (23 October 1865 – 10 February 1945) was an English architect and artist. Through his long career, he designed in a variety of styles, including a style derived from the Tudor, an Arts and Crafts style reminiscent of Voysey and later the Neo-Georgian.

Campbellton, New Brunswick

Campbellton is a city with a population of 6,883 (2016) in Restigouche County, New Brunswick, Canada.Situated on the south bank of the Restigouche River opposite Pointe-à-la-Croix, Quebec, Campbellton was officially incorporated in 1889 and achieved city status in 1958.

Forestry and tourism are major industries in the regional economy, while a pulp mill in nearby Atholville is the largest single employer in the area. As part of the tourism "industry", wealthy sportfishermen seeking Atlantic salmon flock to the scenic Restigouche Valley every summer. The region sees extensive annual snowfall. Alpine and Nordic ski facilities at Sugarloaf Provincial Park provide winter recreation opportunities for both visitors and local residents.

Campbellton is also a retail and service centre for Restigouche County.

Charles Tyers

Captain Charles James Tyers RN FRSV (13 September 1806–20 September 1870) was a 19th-century Australian surveyor and explorer, and the Commissioner of Crown Lands for Portland (1841) and Gippsland (1844).

There are many Australian geographical features named after him, including Tyers, Tyers Junction, Western Tyers, Tyers River, Mount Tyers, and Lake Tyers. His many achievements include the surveying and naming of Port Essington (1839), the determination of the border between South Australia and Victoria, naming the Baw Baw plateau, and being the first European (in 1841) to climb Mount Emu and Mount Buninyong in the Western District of Victoria.

Christopher Tunnard

Arthur Coney Tunnard (1910 in Victoria, British Columbia – 1979), later known as Christopher Tunnard, was a Canadian-born landscape architect, garden designer, city-planner, and author of Gardens in the Modern Landscape (1938).

Evan Baillie

Evan Baillie (1741 – 28 June 1835) was a British West Indies merchant, landowner and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1802 to 1812.

Baillie was the third son of Hugh Baillie of Dochfour, Inverness and his wife Emilia Fraser, the daughter of Alexander Fraser. His early life was obscure and he suffered "fatal neglect" in formal education. He entered the army in early life and served in part of the American war.He was first in the West Indies in 1759–60, serving with the 4th Foot in Martinique, as his 1835 Inverness Courier obituary makes clear. Baillie himself seems to have been a staff officer to General Howe at the Siege of Havana in the adjutant's department. He then transferred to the 19th Regiment (later the Green Howards) as a lieutenant, and retired on half-pay. He then seems to have spent most of the next 15 years in partnership with his brothers, Alexander and James, who had begun a partnership in St Kitts known as Smith and Baillies, which was eventually based in Grenada and later in St Vincent as the partnership of Garraway and Baillie. A 1779 letter from his brother James to his cousin, William Baillie of Dunain, then serving in India, indicates that he had returned to Britain in about 1774 and settled in Bristol.

A 1775 letter from John Alves in Inverness to the same William Baillie, Alves's brother-in-law confirms that he had bought at the same time, for £10,000, the estate of Kinmylies, Inverness, from the army agent, George Ross of Pitkerrie, who intended to concentrate on developing Cromarty. Alves also indicates that he was believed in 1775 to have married in the West Indies, marrying Mary Gurley of St Peter's Hope, St Vincent, in 1777. He founded what became the firm of Evan Baillie, Son & Co in Bristol, and was a common councilman for Bristol in 1785. He was sheriff of Bristol for 1786–87 but declined becoming mayor. In 1789 he was member of a committee of merchants to defend the slave trade, in all branches of which he had from time to time invested and financed. He was Lieutenant Colonel of the Royal Bristol Volunteers in 1797 and Colonel in 1798.On the death of his brother Alexander in 1798 Baillie succeeded to the family estates in Inverness-shire. He was also partner in an Inverness hemp manufacturers and other businesses. He continued to purchase more land in Scotland as a result of concerns about the effects of the war with France and effects of abolition of slavery.In 1802 Baillie became an alderman of Bristol. Also in 1802, he was elected unopposed as Member of Parliament for Bristol. He was unopposed again in 1806 and 1807. He noted how feeble were attempts in parliament to oppose slave trade abolition bill but he was not among those who made last stand against it. By 1811, he was suffering poor health and was concerned for his son Peter (by then MP for the Inverness burghs) who died in 1812. He therefore decided not to stand in the 1812 election.Baillie retired to Scotland and left the business operations to his sons. He resigned as alderman of Bristol in 1821 pleading old age, but survived to the age of 94.His wife Mary Gurley was the daughter of Peter Gurley of St. Vincent. Their sons Peter Baillie, Hugh Duncan Baillie and James Evan Baillie all became members of parliament. Baillie's brother James Baillie was also an MP and West Indies merchant.

Frank L. Kluckhohn

Frank L. Kluckhohn (November 24, 1907 – October 2, 1970) was an author and journalist.

Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely. Such freedom implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state; its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections.

With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public. State materials are protected due to either of two reasons: the classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret, or the relevance of the information to protecting the national interest. Many governments are also subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest.

The United Nations' 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers".This philosophy is usually accompanied by legislation ensuring various degrees of freedom of scientific research (known as scientific freedom), publishing, and press. The depth to which these laws are entrenched in a country's legal system can go as far down as its constitution. The concept of freedom of speech is often covered by the same laws as freedom of the press, thereby giving equal treatment to spoken and published expression. Sweden was the first country in the world to adopt freedom of the press into its constitution with the Freedom of the Press Act of 1766.


The FullSIX Group is an independent European marketing group . Founded in Paris by Marco Tinelli in 1998 under the name Grey Interactive, over the past 15 years the digital agency has become an integrated communications group composed of 20 agencies around Europe and in 8 different countries (France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, U.S. and China)FullSIX Group has 10 agency networks: FullSIX, Grand Union, Ekino, FullSIX Advertising, FullSIX Media, FullSIX Data, FullSIX Search, FullSIX Retail, FullBooster and Novalem.

In September 2015, FullSIX was acquired by Havas Group in a transaction worth $75 Million. Prior to joining Havas Group - FullSIX was the largest independent Digital Marketing agency in France.

James Baillie (c. 1737–1793)

James Baillie (1737 – 7 September 1793) was a British West Indies plantation owner and merchant, and a Member of the Great British Parliament from 1792 to 1793.

List of people from Bedford

This is a list of notable people from Bedford, in Bedfordshire, England. People on this list may have been born in Bedford, attended school there, or resided in Bedford. For people whose primary association to Bedford is an education from the Bedford School, see the list of people educated at Bedford School.

Morningside Cemetery, Edinburgh

Morningside Cemetery was established in Edinburgh in 1878 by the Metropolitan Cemetery Company, originally just outwith the then city boundary, the nearest suburb then being Morningside. It extends to just over 13 acres in area. The cemetery contains 80 war graves. Although arguably visually uninspiring the cemetery contains the graves of several important female figures; including a female air commandant, Scotland's first female surgeon, the first female Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, a Nobel Prize winner and many church missionaries.

Portrait of Diego Ortiz de Zúñiga

Portrait of Diego Ortiz de Zúñiga is an oil on canvas portrait of the Spanish historian, writer and nobleman Diego Ortiz de Zúñiga, measuring 113 cm by 94 cm. It has been thought to be an autograph work by the Spanish painter Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, then a copy after an original work by Murillo, and is now thought to be an autograph work once again following a 2017 re-attribution by the art historian Benito Navarrete Prieto. It dates to around 1653.

It was probably sold by the sitter's family in the mid-eighteenth century. Its first recorded provenance is as lot 28 in the 15 May 1858 auction of the collection of Colonel Hugh Baillie. In the 1870s it was bought from the art dealer Charles Johannes Nieuwenhuys (1799 - 1883) by Edward Douglas-Pennant, 1st Baron Penrhyn (1800 – 1886) to furnish his new Penrhyn Castle. At that time it was thought to be an original Murillo, but (partly due to heavy discoloration in its varnish) it was reassigned as a copy by 1901. It was passed down through Douglas-Pennant's descendants and is now owned by Richard Douglas-Pennant, great-grandson via the female line of the 3rd Baron Penrhyn. It is currently on long-term loan to Penrhyn Castle, which is now a National Trust property.


A stackfreed is a simple spring-loaded cam mechanism used in some of the earliest antique spring-driven clocks and watches to even out the force of the mainspring, to improve timekeeping accuracy. Stackfreeds were used in some German clocks and watches from the 16th to the 17th century, before they were replaced in later timepieces by the fusee. The term may have come from a compound of the German words starke ("strong") and feder ("spring").

Tudor Revival architecture

Tudor Revival architecture (commonly called mock Tudor in the UK) first manifested itself in domestic architecture beginning in the United Kingdom in the mid to late 19th century based on a revival of aspects of Tudor architecture or, more often, the style of English vernacular architecture of the Middle Ages that survived into the Tudor period. It later became an influence in some other countries, especially the British colonies. For example, in New Zealand, the architect Francis Petre adapted the style for the local climate. Elsewhere in Singapore, then a British colony, architects such as R. A. J. Bidwell pioneered what became known as the Black and White House. The earliest examples of the style originate with the works of such eminent architects as Norman Shaw and George Devey, in what at the time was thought of as a neo-Tudor design.

Tudorbethan is a subset of Tudor Revival architecture which eliminated some of the more complex aspects of Jacobethan in favor of more domestic styles of "Merrie England", which were cosier and quaint. It was associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement.

United Press International

United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century. At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. Since the first of several sales and staff cutbacks in 1982, and the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its rival, the Associated Press, UPI has concentrated on smaller information-market niches.

WT Small House

WT Small House is reputed to be the oldest continually inhabited home in Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada. It is listed on the Kelowna Heritage Register as a highly valued example of early residential pioneer settlement in the Okanagan Valley.

The Home was constructed with adze-cut squared logs and dovetail joints on two-storey wood frame. William Thomas Small, a blind miller at The Lequime Mill built the original portion of the house in 1890 with three of his sons, Fred, Charles and William. The fieldstone fireplace in the parlour is carved with the year of construction '1890'. The house was sold in 1908 to James Hugh Baillie, who added a two-storey wood frame front in 1910. Baillie sold the house in 1918 to C. Graham, whose wife is reputed to have built a second fieldstone fireplace in the sitting room. In 1930, the house was bought by Arthur H. Raymer (1880–1956) and his wife Edith Small, the daughter of WT Small (1884–1951) who had grown up in the house. Raymer's father had been Kelowna's first mayor when the city was incorporated in 1905. Raymer's daughter, Hilda and her husband W. Sinclair-Thompson lived there with their son and daughter Terry Gilbert and Wendy Edith. The Mulberry tree on the property was brought to Kelowna on a wagon from Ontario by William Small. The heritage value of the building is characterised by the organic growth of more than a century from early pioneer vernacular architecture to modern additions while retaining the original portions, still easily defined and recognisable today.

Small's wife was instrumental in founding the first school in the Mission Creek area in 1894. Six local families (Small, Casorso, Berard, Crawford, Dickson and Smith) gathered to refurbish the old Fred Gillard cabin under the guidance of William Small, the only carpenter in the party, to provide the first school in the area for the eighteen local children. They were taught by Fred Watson until 1900 for the sum of $720 per year (Okanagan Historical Society).

Walter Cronkite

Walter Leland Cronkite Jr. (November 4, 1916 – July 17, 2009) was an American broadcast journalist who served as anchorman for the CBS Evening News for 19 years (1962–1981). During the heyday of CBS News in the 1960s and 1970s, he was often cited as "the most trusted man in America" after being so named in an opinion poll.He reported many events from 1937 to 1981, including bombings in World War II; the Nuremberg trials; combat in the Vietnam War; the Dawson's Field hijackings; Watergate; the Iran Hostage Crisis; and the assassinations of President John F. Kennedy, civil rights pioneer Martin Luther King Jr., and Beatles musician John Lennon.

He was also known for his extensive coverage of the U.S. space program, from Project Mercury to the Moon landings to the Space Shuttle. He was the only non-NASA recipient of an Ambassador of Exploration award.Cronkite is well known for his departing catchphrase, "And that's the way it is," followed by the date of the broadcast.

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