The XB-1 was the first aircraft named using just a B- designation. Prior to 1926, the U.S. Army used LB- and HB- prefixes, signifying 'Light Bomber' and 'Heavy Bomber'. The first XB-1, called the Super-Cyclops by Huff-Daland, was an extension of the earlier Huff-Daland XHB-1 'Cyclops'. It was essentially the same in size, but sported a twin tail and twin engines.
|Manufacturer||Huff-Daland Aero Company|
|First flight||September 1927|
|Developed from||Huff-Daland XHB-1|
The XB-1's gunnery arrangement was new for an American bomber, but it had been previously used by the British and the Germans near the end of World War I. The Army Air Corps had decided that single-engined bombers such as the XHB-1 performed more poorly and with less safety than the more traditional twin-engined bomber.
The aircraft flew for the first time in September 1927. Its original Packard engines did not provide enough power for the aircraft, and it was refitted with more powerful Curtiss Aircraft "Conqueror" engines. This new configuration was designated the XB-1B.
Three other similar aircraft designs were requested by the Army Air Corps around the same time which competed against the XB-1 for the contract. Of these three (the XB-2 Condor, the Sikorsky S-37 and the Fokker XLB-2), the Curtiss model eventually won, and only a single XB-1 was ever produced.
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
The Curtiss B-2 Condor was a 1920s United States bomber aircraft. It was a descendant of the Martin NBS-1, which was built by the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company for the Glenn L. Martin Company. There were a few differences, such as stronger materials and different engines, but they were relatively minor.Curtiss V-1570
The Curtiss V-1570 Conqueror was a 12-cylinder vee liquid-cooled aircraft engine. Representing a more powerful version of the Curtiss D-12, the engine entered production in 1926 and flew in numerous aircraft.Huff-Daland Aero Corporation
Formed as Ogdensburg Aeroway Corp in 1920 in Ogdensburg, New York by Thomas Huff and Elliot Daland, its name was quickly changed to Huff-Daland Aero Corp and then in 1925 it was changed again to the Huff-Daland Aero Company with its main headquarters in Bristol, Pennsylvania. Huff-Daland produced a series of biplanes as trainers, observation planes, and light bombers for the U.S. Army and Navy.
From 1923-1924, Huff-Daland developed the first aircraft designed for crop dusting and began selling and promoting the new service through a subsidiary Huff Daland Dusters founded on March 2, 1925. Though acquisitions beginning in 1928, the dusting subsidiary became a founding component of Delta Air Lines.In 1927, the corporation was taken over by Hayden, Stone & Company, a New York City brokerage firm and in the course of the merger it became the Huff-Daland Division of the Keystone Aircraft Corporation. A single example of the Huff-Daland XB-1 bomber became the Keystone XB-1B, after its original Packard 2A-1500 engines were replaced with Curtiss V-1570-5 "Conqueror" engines. The Improved -B aircraft had better performance than the original, but still didn't compare favorably to the other aircraft of the period and never entered production.
Keystone merged with the Loening Company in 1928. By 1931, Keystone had become the Keystone Aircraft Division of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation.Huff-Daland XHB-1
The Huff-Daland XHB-1 "Cyclops" was a 1920s American prototype heavy bomber designed and built by the Huff-Daland company.The XHB-1 was designed as an enlarged version of the earlier LB-1 powered by a single 750 hp Packard 2A-2540 nose-mounted engine. It had a crew of four and had a 4000 lb bomb load. The Army decided not to order the Cyclops into production as it had decided single-engined aircraft were not suitable for the role.
A twin-engined version was developed as the XB-1 Super Cyclops.Keystone Aircraft
Keystone Aircraft Corporation was an early pioneer in airplane manufacturing. Headquartered in Bristol, Pennsylvania, it was formed as Ogdensburg Aeroway Corp in 1920 by Thomas Huff and Elliot Daland, but its name was quickly changed to Huff-Daland Aero Corp, then to the Huff-Daland Aero Company. The company made a name for itself in agricultural aircraft, and then in the United States Army Air Corps' early bomber aircraft. From 1924, James McDonnell was the chief designer.
In 1926, Huff left the company, and it was soon purchased by Hayden, Stone & Co., who increased capital to $1 million (United States) and renamed it Keystone. In 1928, it merged with Loening and was known as Keystone-Loening. In 1929, it was taken over by Curtiss-Wright. Also in 1929, the Keystone- Loening plant on the East River in New York City was closed by Curtis- Wright and the operation was moved to the Bristol, Pa. Keystone plant. A small band of the top Loening management, design and shop workers (all New Yorkers) did not want to go to Bristol. They instead started their own aircraft company in a small rented shop in Baldwin, NY in Jan. 1930. The principal players were Leroy R. Grumman, Leon "Jake" Swirbul and William Schwendler. Grumman Aircraft went on to stellar heights with some of the top Naval aircraft in Navy history. Grumman also designed and built the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) that landed US astronauts on the moon. Keystone itself became a manufacturing division of Curtiss-Wright and ceased production in 1932.Lieut. Comdr. Noel Davis and Lieut. Stanton H. Wooster were killed in their Keystone Pathfinder American Legion while conducting a test flight, just days before they were to attempt a trans-Atlantic flight for the Orteig Prize.List of B1 aircraft
This is a list of aircraft denominated B1, B-1, B.1 or B.I.List of United States bomber aircraft
This is a list of United States bomber aircraftList of bomber aircraft
The following is a list of bomber airplanes and does not include bomber airships, organized by era and manufacturer. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground or sea targets.List of cancelled military projects
This is a list of cancelled military projects.Martin NBS-1
The Martin NBS-1 was a military aircraft of the United States Army Air Service and its successor, the Air Corps. An improved version of the Martin MB-1, a scout-bomber built during the final months of World War I, the NBS-1 was ordered under the designation MB-2 and is often referred to as such. The designation NBS-1, standing for "Night Bomber-Short Range", was adopted by the Air Service after the first five of the Martin bombers were delivered.
The NBS-1 became the standard frontline bomber of the Air Service in 1920 and remained so until its replacement in 1928–1929 by the Keystone Aircraft series of bombers. The basic MB-2 design was also the standard against which prospective U.S. Army bombers were judged until the production of the Martin B-10 in 1933.