Huerta

A huerta (Spanish: [ˈweɾta]) or horta (Valencian: [ˈɔɾta], Portuguese: [ˈɔɾtɐ]), from Latin hortus, "garden", is a fertile area, or a field within a fertile area, common in Spain and Portugal, where a variety of common vegetables and fruit trees are cultivated for family consumption and sale. Typically, huertas belong to different people, huertas are also located in groups, or around rivers or other water sources because of the amount of irrigation required. It is a kind of market garden.

Valencia Capital (huerta)
Huerta in Valencia, Spain

Alternate definitions

Elinor Ostrom has defined huertas as "well-demarked irrigation areas surrounding or near towns" (emphasis added).[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ Ostrom, Elinor (2015). Governing the Commons, p.71.

Bibliography

  • Glick, Thomas F. 1970. Irrigation and Society in Medieval Valencia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Maass, Arthur, and Raymond Lloyd Anderson. 1978. ...and the Desert Shall Rejoice: Conflict, Growth and Justice in Arid Environments. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262131346
  • Ostrom, Elinor (2015 [1990]). "Huerta Irrigation Institutions." Pp.69-82 in Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107569782
Dolores Huerta

Dolores Clara Fernández Huerta (born April 10, 1930) is an American labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Cesar Chavez, is a co-founder of the National Farmworkers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW). Huerta helped organize the Delano grape strike in 1965 in California and was the lead negotiator in the workers' contract that was created after the strike.Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers', immigrants', and women's rights, including the Eugene V. Debs Foundation Outstanding American Award, the United States Presidential Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Human Rights and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. She was the first Latina inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame, in 1993.Huerta is the originator of the phrase, "Sí, se puede". As a role model to many in the Latino community, Huerta is the subject of many corridos and murals.

Huerta de Arriba

Huerta de Arriba is a municipality located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 170 inhabitants.

In the small bar by the fountain and trough, behind the door there is a stuffed two-headed calf.

Huerta de Rey

Huerta de Rey is a municipality and town located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 1,208 inhabitants.

Huerta de Valdecarábanos

Huerta de Valdecarábanos is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2006 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 1784 inhabitants.

Jesse

Jesse , or Yishai (Hebrew: יִשַׁי, Modern: Yišay, Tiberian: Yīšáy, meaning "King" or "God exists" or "God's gift"; Syriac: ܐܝܫܝ‎ Eshai; Greek: Ἰεσσαί Iessai; Latin: Isai, Jesse) is a figure described in the Bible as the father of David, who became the king of the Israelites. His son David is sometimes called simply "Son of Jesse" (Ben Yishai). The role as both father of King David and ancestor of Christ has been used in various depictions in art, e.g. as the Tree of Jesse or in hymns like Behold, a Branch is growing.

Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución mexicana), also known as the Mexican Civil War (Spanish: guerra civil mexicana), was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

The origins of the conflict were broadly based in opposition to the Díaz regime, with the 1910 election becoming the catalyst for the outbreak of political rebellion. The revolution was begun by elements of the Mexican elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero and Pancho Villa; it expanded to the middle class, the peasantry in some regions, and organized labor. In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a free and fair election. Opposition to his regime then grew from both the conservatives, who saw him as too weak and too liberal, and from former revolutionary fighters and the dispossessed, who saw him as too conservative.

Madero and his vice president Pino Suárez were forced to resign in February 1913, and were assassinated. The counter-revolutionary regime of General Victoriano Huerta came to power, backed by business interests and other supporters of the old order. Huerta remained in power from February 1913 until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces. When the revolutionaries' attempt to reach political agreement failed, Mexico plunged into a civil war (1914–1915). The Constitutionalist faction under wealthy landowner Venustiano Carranza emerged as the victor in 1915, defeating the revolutionary forces of former Constitutionalist Pancho Villa and forcing revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata back to guerrilla warfare. Zapata was assassinated in 1919 by agents of President Carranza.

The armed conflict lasted for the most of a decade, until around 1920, and had several distinct phases. Over time the Revolution changed from a revolt against the established order under Díaz to a multi-sided civil war in particular regions, with frequently shifting power struggles among factions in the Mexican Revolution. One major result of the revolution was the dissolution of the Federal Army in 1914, which Francisco Madero had kept intact when he was elected in 1911 and General Huerta used to oust Madero. Revolutionary forces unified against Huerta's reactionary regime defeated the Federal forces. Although the conflict was primarily a civil war, foreign powers that had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles. The United States played an especially significant role. Out of Mexico's population of 15 million, the losses were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. Perhaps 1.5 million people died; nearly 200,000 refugees fled abroad, especially to the United States.Many scholars consider the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 as the end point of the armed conflict. "Economic and social conditions improved in accordance with revolutionary policies, so that the new society took shape within a framework of official revolutionary institutions", with the constitution providing that framework. The period 1920–1940 is often considered to be a phase of the Revolution, as government power was consolidated, the Catholic clergy and institutions were attacked in the 1920s, and the revolutionary constitution of 1917 was implemented.This armed conflict is often characterized as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century; it resulted in an important program of experimentation and reform in social organization. The revolution committed the resulting political regime with "social justice", until Mexico underwent a neoliberal reform process that started in the 1980s.

Paz de la Huerta

María de la Paz Elizabeth Sofía Adriana de la Huerta y Bruce (born September 3, 1984), known by her stage name Paz de la Huerta [pas de la ˈweɾ.ta], is an American actress and model. De la Huerta is notable for her roles in the films The Cider House Rules (1999), A Walk to Remember (2002), Choke (2008), Enter the Void (2009), Nurse 3D (2013) and as Lucy Danziger in the HBO drama series Boardwalk Empire.

Santa María de Huerta

Santa María de Huerta is a municipality located in the Campo de Gómara comarca, Province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 419 inhabitants.

Victoriano Huerta

José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (Spanish pronunciation: [biktoˈɾjano ˈweɾta]; 22 December 1850 – 13 January 1916) was a Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico.

After a military career under President Porfirio Díaz, Huerta became a high-ranking officer under pro-democracy President Francisco I. Madero during the first phase of the Mexican Revolution. In 1913 Huerta led a conspiracy against Madero, who entrusted him to control a minor revolt in Mexico City, deposing and assassinating Madero, his brother and Vice President Pino Suarez. This maneuver is called La Decena Tragica, the Ten Tragic Days. The Huerta regime was immediately opposed by revolutionary forces, plunging the nation into a civil war. He was forced to resign and flee the country in 1914, only 17 months into his presidency, after the federal army collapsed. While attempting to intrigue with German spies in the US during World War I, Huerta was arrested in 1915 and died in U.S. custody.

His supporters were known as Huertistas during the Mexican Revolution. He is still vilified by modern-day Mexicans, who generally refer to him as El Chacal ("The Jackal") or El Usurpador ("The Usurper"). Barbara W. Tuchman described him as "a pure-blooded Indian with a flat nose, a bullet head, a sphinx's eyes behind incongruous spectacles, and a brandy bottle never far from hand. Wily, patient, laconic, and rarely sober."

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