Huallaga River

The Huallaga River is a tributary of the Marañón River, part of the Amazon Basin. Old names for this river include Guallaga and Rio de los Motilones. The Huallaga is born on the slopes of the Andes in central Peru and joins the Marañón before the latter reaches the Ucayali River to form the Amazon. Its main affluents are the Monzón, Mayo, Biabo, Abiseo and Tocache rivers. Coca is grown in most of those valleys, which are also exposed to periodic floods.

Huallaga River
Huallaga River
A view of the Huallaga
Huallagarivermap
Map of the Amazon Basin with the Huallaga River highlighted
Location
CountryPeru
RegionHuánuco Region, Loreto Region, Pasco Region, San Martín Region
Physical characteristics
MouthMarañón River
Length1,080 km (670 mi)[1]
Discharge 
 - average3,800 m3/s (130,000 cu ft/s)

Description

Although it runs for 700 miles (1,100 km), it remains unnavigable for most part.[2] For nearly its entire length the Huallaga is an impetuous torrent running through a succession of gorges. It has forty-two rapids (pongos) and it crosses the Andes, forming the Pongo de Aguirre gorge. From this point, 140 miles (230 km) from the Amazon, the Huallaga can be ascended by larger river boats (lanchas) to the port city of Yurimaguas, Loreto.

Although there are no defined boundaries, the river is commonly divided into two or three sections. From the town of Tocache in San Martin to the source of the river is generally referred to as the Upper Huallaga. Regions of the river are also referred to as central Huallaga (usually from Tocache or Juanjui to Chazuta), and the lower Huallaga (usually from Chazuta to Yurimaguas where the Huallaga meets the Marañon). These divisions are for general reference, and are independent of the "highland" and "lowland" jungle regions of the Amazon Rainforest.

Between the Huallaga and the Ucayali lies the famous "Pampa del Sacramento," a level region of stoneless alluvial lands covered with thick, dark forests, first entered by Christian missionaries in 1726. It is about 300 miles (480 km) long, from north to south, and varies in width from 40 to 100 kilometers. Many streams, navigable for canoes, penetrate this region from the Ucayali and the Huallaga. In addition to peasants, it is still occupied by many indigenous communities, such as the Cocama-Cocamilla.

The river and the riversides suffer point source pollution, utilized as an interminable garbage dump. At least one chute for garbage trucks is installed.[3][4]

Bio-diversity

The Huallaga River supports a myriad of wildlife and vegetation. The river is especially rich in amphibian life. A total of 18 species of frogs have been recorded from it, including the Prostherapis femoralis, Phyllodromus pulchellus and Dendrobates reticulatus.[5]

Coca

Since the 1980s, the primary coca growing and drug trafficking activities in Peru have been in the Upper Huallaga Valley. [1]

The coca is flown to Colombia, where it is used to create cocaine, which is subsequently shipped to the United States.

Vladimiro Montesinos, ex-head of Peru's intelligence service, is reported to have received $50,000 for every plane laden with drugs allowed to leave the Huallaga Valley. [2]

Notable deaths

Eric Fleming who played trail boss Gil Favor in the long-running Western TV series Rawhide was killed in the Huallaga River. During the shooting of location shots for an MGM film titled High Jungle on the Huallaga River on September 28, 1966, Fleming fell from a capsized dug-out canoe after paddling it beyond the rapids. His body was lost in the turbulent water and was not recovered until three days later.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Ziesler, R.; Ardizzone, G.D. (1979). "Amazon River System". The Inland waters of Latin America. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 978-92-5-000780-9. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014.
  2. ^ "Huallaga River". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  3. ^ MARTIN HUTCHINSON (2015-11-04). Plastic rubbish been dump in the amazon river (Motion picture) (in English and Spanish). Huallaga River, near Tingo Maria: YouTube. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  4. ^ Frente Cívico de Leoncio Prado (2016-03-13). Están matando el Rio Huallaga (Motion picture) (in Spanish). Huallaga River, near Tingo Maria: YouTube. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  5. ^ BOULENQER, G. A. (1883). "On a Collection of Frogs from Yurimaguas, Huallaga River, Northern Peru". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 51: 635–638. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1883.tb06669.x.
  6. ^ TV Actor Eric Fleming is Drowned, St. Petersburg Times. October 1, 1966

Coordinates: 5°13′33″S 75°44′53″W / 5.22583°S 75.74806°W

Acomayo River (Huánuco)

Acomayo River (possibly from Quechua aqu sand, mayu river, "sand river") is a river in Peru located in the Huánuco Region, Huánuco Province, Chinchao District. It is a left tributary of the Huallaga River. The confluence is southeast of the town Acomayo, near the village Tingo Pampa.

Alférez FAP David Figueroa Fernandini Airport

Alférez FAP David Figueroa Fernandini Airport (IATA: HUU, ICAO: SPNC) is an airport serving Huánuco, Peru. It is the most important airport in the Huánuco Region and is operated by the civil government. It is currently served by 2 airlines: LC Perú, which has one daily flight to Lima, offering connections to the rest of the Peru and the world and Star Perú also with daily flights to Lima. Although there are no other regular scheduled services, the airport serves many charter and private flights.

The runway is in the valley of the Huallaga River, with high terrain in all quadrants. Runway length includes a 300 metres (980 ft) displaced threshold on the western end.

The Huanuco non-directional beacon (Ident: NUC) is located on the field.

Chamicuro language

Chamicuro is a critically endangered indigenous American language spoken by only 8 people in South America. The language is of the Chamicuro people who number between 10 and 20. The Chamicuros live on a tributary of the Huallaga river, in Peru, in an area called Pampa Hermosa, meaning beautiful plains.

As with all native languages in Peru, Chamicuro is by default an official language in the area in which it is spoken. A Chamicuro dictionary has been created, however no children can speak the language as they have shifted to Spanish.

There is controversy in regard to whether Aguano is the same language, which one study (Ruhlen 1987) says it is, but the Chamicuros dispute this (Wise, 1987), although this may be for cultural reasons and the languages may actually be intelligible but the different people do not relate to one another and maintain different names and connotations between their language or languages.

Department of San Martín

San Martín (Spanish pronunciation: [sanmaɾˈtin]) is a department in northern Peru. Most of the department is located in the upper part of the Peruvian Amazon rainforest. Its capital is Moyobamba and the largest city in the department is Tarapoto.

Huánuco

Huánuco (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈwanuko]) is a city in central Peru. It had a population of 75,000 as of 2007 and in 2014 it had a population of 172,924. It is the capital of the Huánuco Region and the Huánuco District. It is the seat of the diocese of Huánuco. The metropolitan city of Huanuco is 170,000 hab (2011, urban pop, INEI). It has three districts, Huanuco (head), Amarilis, and Pillco Marca. In this city, the Higueras river meets the Huallaga river, one of the largest rivers in the country.

Jibito

The Jibito are an indigenous people of Peru. They first met with the Franciscans monks in 1676 in the forest near the Huallaga River, in what is now Peru's Loreto Province. After their conversion to Catholicism, they settled in villages on the western bank of the river.

Juanjuí

Juanjuí is a town in Northern Peru, capital of the province Mariscal Cáceres in the San Martín Region and located in the left edge of Huallaga River. There are 54,006 inhabitants, according to the 2010 census.

Juanjuí Airport

Juanjuí Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto de Juanjuí) (IATA: JJI, ICAO: SPJI) is an airport serving Juanjuí, a city on the Huallaga River in the San Martín Region of Peru. The airport is owned and operated by CORPAC S.A., a civil government agency.

The Juanjui non-directional beacon (Ident: UAN) is located just southeast of the runway.

Lagunas District, Alto Amazonas

Lagunas District is one of six districts of the Alto Amazonas Province, in the Department of Loreto, in Peru. It is bordered by the districts of Alto Pastaza, Pastaza, Jeberos, Santa Cruz, Urarinas and Parinari.

The capital, Lagunas, sits on the Huallaga River. The nearest road access is in Yurimaguas, situated 90 km (56 miles) to the south. To reach Yurimaguas by boat takes at least five hours.

Lowland Peruvian Quechua

Lowland Peruvian Quechua, or Chachapoyas–Lamas Quechua, are Quechuan languages spoken in the lowlands of northern Peru. The two principal varieties are,

Lamas Quechua, or San Martín Quechua (Lamista, Llakwash Runashimi), spoken in Lamas Province in San Martín Region and in some villages on the Huallaga River in the Ucayali Region by some 15,000 people

Chachapoyas Quechua or Amazonas Quechua, spoken in Chachapoyas Province and Luya Province in the Amazonas Region by some 7000 people

Southern Pastaza Quechua, or Inga, spoken in the province of Datem del Marañón in the Loreto Region along the Huasaga, Manchari, and Pastaza rivers by approximately 3500 people.Few children are learning Chachapoyas Quechua. Conila is said to be the last village where children are able to speak it.

Lowland Peruvian Quechua is quite similar in pronunciation to the Ecuadorian Kichwa language. However, it has not been grammatically simplified (creolized?) to the same extent. For example, Lowland Peruvian maintains the inclusive/exclusive distinction for "we".

Moisés Benzaquén Rengifo Airport

Moisés Benzaquén Rengifo Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Moisés Benzaquén Rengifo) (IATA: YMS, ICAO: SPMS) is an airport serving Yurimaguas, a town on the Huallaga River in the Loreto Region of Peru. It is owned and operated by CORPAC S.A., a civil government agency.

The airport receives daily flights from Iquitos and Tarapoto operated by the Peruvian Air Force in an agreement with private operator SkyWay.

Peru poison frog

The Peru poison frog (also Peruvian poison frog or Peruvian poison-arrow frog; Ameerega petersi) is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae It is found in eastern Peru (Ucayali River and Huallaga River basins) and western Brazil (Acre state). Its natural habitats are primary premontane and lowland moist tropical forests.

Pongo (geography)

A pongo (corruption of the Kichwa punku and the Aymara punku, meaning a door) is a type of canyon or narrow gorge along rivers in Peru, especially on the Marañón River (Upper Amazon) and its affluents, in the Amazonas Region.

See:

Pongos in Amazonas, the big pongos of Marañón River

The Amazonas Region, home to pongos

The Pongo de Manseriche, gorge in northwest Peru where the Marañón River runs

The Pongo de Mainique, most dangerous whitewater pass on the Urubamba River

The Olmos-Marañon Route, transcontinental road, includes the "route of pongos"

The Marañón River, has 35 miles of pongos before the Amazon River

The Huallaga River, crossing the Andes forming the Pongo de Aguirre

Pukamayu (Peru)

Pukamayu (Quechua puka red, mayu river, "red river", hispanicized spelling Pucamayo) or Antachaka (Quechua anta copper chaka bridge, "copper bridge", hispanicized Andachaca) is a river in the Daniel Alcides Carrión Province of the Pasco Region in Peru. It belongs to the watershed of the Huallaga River.

Pukamayu originates near the lakes Qiwllaqucha (Quiulacocha) and Karpakancha (Carpacancha) in the south of the province. Its direction is mainly to the northwest. The river gets waters from little streams like Yuraq Yaku (Yuracyacu), Chachaq (Chachac) and Ranra Kancha (Ranracancha). Near Chinchi Tinku (Chinche Tingo) Pukamayu meets the Río Blanco (Spanish for "white river") coming from the west. This is where the river Chawpi Waranqa (Quechua chawpi center, middle, waranqa one thousand, hispanicized Chaupihuaranga) originates. Chawpi Waranqa is an affluent of the Huallaga River.

Scopaeocharax

Scopaeocharax is a genus of characins endemic to Peru, where both species are found in the upper and middle Huallaga River basin.

Splash-back poison frog

The splash-back poison frog (Ranitomeya variabilis), also referred to as the variable poison frog or Zimmermann's poison frog, is a small species of poison dart frog known from the upper Huallaga River drainage of San Martín Region, Peru. It is semi-arboreal, living in the forest understory and canopy. Like other poison frogs, it contains alkaloid poisons. The mimic poison frog is a Müllerian mimic of this species.The species was formerly considered to be synonym of Ranitomeya ventrimaculata.

Tingo María

Tingo María is the capital of Leoncio Prado Province in the Huánuco Region in central Peru. It has an urban population of around 55,000 (June 2007).

Tingo María was considered unreachable until 1936, when the Montaña Road reached the settlement. It was then that the state run Estacion Experimental Agricola was established due to its "comfortable" elevation (2,204 ft). In 1942, the U.S. Government began adding more funding to the station, and by 1960 over 40,000 acres (160 km²) of land were under cultivation, especially along the Huallaga River valley where land was level. Coffee was a particularly valuable crop. The city nickname is "the Door of the Amazonia."

The city is placed where two important rivers meet; the Monzón and the Huallaga river, a main contributor of the Marañón river. The city headquarters the National University of the Forest (UNAS-www.unas.edu.pe); it has 7 faculties, a botanical park, and first level facilities. Near the city there is the Tingo María National Park of 180 km² (43,000 acres (170 km2)) that preserves nature and a limestone mountain range in the shape of a woman that sleeps. It is called La Bella Durmiente (Spanish for Sleeping Beauty) or Pumarinri (Quechua for "cougar ear"). A legend explains the form of the range. The main attraction is a cave named Cueva de las Lechuzas (Spanish for "cave of the owls") (named after a colony of the superficially owl-like Oilbird found in it), probably the most attractive and accessible cave of Peru, though it is not the longest and deepest.

Tingo María has an airport served daily by regional jets and turbo-prop airplanes. A well-paved main road, now called "the Federico Basadre" Highway crosses the city halfway from Lima to Pucallpa; 16 km going to the east it meets the Marginal Highway that follows the river to the north and arrives at Tarapoto. A main road that comes from Casma port, on the coast of Ancash department, is being worked now. This road reinforces the position of Tingo María as a regional and national hub.

The mayor is Juan Picón Quedo, part of a local business family.

A relevant industry working on Cacao is the Cooperativa Agroindustrial Naranjillo, that sells its products to foreign markets.

Tingo María Airport

Tingo María Airport (IATA: TGI, ICAO: SPGM) is an airport serving Tingo María, in the Huánuco Region of Peru. The runway is alongside the west bank of the Huallaga River.

The Tingo Maria non-directional beacon (Ident: TGM) is located on the field.

Tingo river

Tingo River is located in the Cajamarca Region of Peru. It flows north from near Cerro de Pasco to the Huallaga River. It is classified as hydrographic (river, creek, etc.)

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