The Hualapai (pronounced [walapaɪ], wa-la-peye) is a federally recognized Indian tribe in Arizona with over 2300 enrolled members. Approximately 1353 enrolled members reside on the Hualapai Indian reservation, which spans over three counties in Northern Arizona (Coconino, Yavapai, and Mohave).
The name, meaning "people of the tall pines", is derived from hwa:l, the Hualapai word for ponderosa pine and pai "people". Their traditional territory is a 108-mile (174 km) stretch along the pine-clad southern side of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River with the tribal capital at Peach Springs.
Ta'thamiche, Hualapai 1907 photo by Edward Curtis
|2,300 enrolled members|
|Regions with significant populations|
|United States ( Arizona)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Mohave, Yavapai, Havasupai|
The Hualapai tribe is a sovereign nation and governed by an executive and judicial branch and a tribal council. The tribe provides a variety of social, cultural, educational and economic services to its members.
The Hualapai language is a Pai branch of the Yuman–Cochimí languages, also spoken by the closely related Havasupai, and more distantly to Yavapai people. It is still spoken by most people over 30 on the Reservation as well as many young people. The Peach Springs School District runs a successful bilingual program for all local students, both Hualapai and non-Hualapai, in addition to immersion camps.
Major traditional ceremonies of the Hualapai include the "Maturity" ceremony and the "Mourning" ceremony. Nowadays the modern Sobriety Festival is also celebrated in June.
The souls of the dead are believed to go northwestward to a beautiful land where plentiful harvest grow. This land is believed to be seen only by Hualapai spirits.
Traditional Hualapai dress consists of full suits of deerskin and rabbit skin robes.
Conical houses formed from cedar boughs using the single slope form called a Wikiup.
The Hualapai Reservation was created by executive order in 1883 on lands that just four regional bands considered as part of their home range, like the Yi Kwat Pa'a (Iquad Ba:' – "Peach Springs band") or Ha'kasa Pa'a (Hak saha Ba:' - "Pine Springs band"). The other Hualapai regional bands (including the Havasupai) lived far away from the current reservation land.
The Hualapai War (1865–1870) was caused by an increase in traffic through the area on the Fort Mojave-Prescott Toll Road which elevated tensions and produced armed conflicts between the Hualapai and European Americans. The war broke out in May 1865, when the Hualapai leader Anasa was killed by a man named Hundertinark in the area of Camp Willow Grove and in March 1866. In response, a man named Clower was killed by the Hualapai, who also closed the route from Prescott, Arizona to the Colorado River ports due to the conflict. The most important and principal Hualapai leaders (called Tokoomhet or Tokumhet) at that time were: Wauba Yuba (Wauba Yuma of the Yavapai Fighters subtribe), Sherum (Shrum or Cherum of the Ha Emete Pa'a i.e. "Cerbat Mountain band" of the Middle Mountain People subtribe), Hitchi Hitchi (Hitchie-Hitchie of the Plateau People subtribe) and Susquatama (Sudjikwo'dime, better known by his nickname Hualapai Charley, Hualapai Charlie, Walapai Charley or Walapai Charlie of the Middle Mountain People subtribe). It was not until William Hardy and the Hualapai leaders negotiated a peace agreement at Beale Springs that the raids and the fighting subsided. However, the agreement lasted only nine months when it was broken with the murder of Chief Wauba Yuba near present-day Kingman during a dispute with the Walker Party over the treaty.
After the chief's murder, raids by the Hualapai began in full force on mining camps and settlers. The cavalry from Fort Mojave responded, with the assistance of the Mohave, by attacking Hualapai rancherias and razing them. The pivotal engagement took place in January 1868, when Captain S.B.M. Young, later joined in by Lt. Johnathan D. Stevenson, surprised the rancheria of Sherum with his more than one hundred warriors. Known as the Battle of Cherum Peak, it lasted all day. Stevenson fell in the first volley. The Hualapai managed to escape, but lost twenty-one warriors, with many more wounded. The Battle broke the military resistance of the Hualapai. The Hualapai began to surrender, as whooping cough and dysentery weakened their ranks, on August 20, 1868. They were led by Chief Leve Leve (Levi-Levi, half-brother to Sherum and Hualapai Charley) of the Amat Whala Pa'a (Mad hwa:la Ba:' - "Hualapai Mountains band") of the Yavapai Fighters subtribe. The warrior Sherum, who was known for his tenacity as a warrior, later surrendered, thus marking the end of the Hualapai Wars in 1870. It is estimated that one-third of the Hualapai people were killed during this war either by the conflict or disease.
Ethnically, the Havasupai and the Hualapai are one people, although today, they are politically separate groups as the result of U.S. government policy. The Hualapai (Pa'a or Pai) had three subtribes - the Middle Mountain People in the northwest, Plateau People in the east, and Yavapai Fighter in the south (McGuire; 1983). The subtribes were divided into seven bands (Kroeber; 1935, Manners; 1974), which themselves were broken up into thirteen (original fourteen) regional bands or local groups (Dobyns and Euler; 1970). The local groups were composed of several extended family groups, living in small villages: The Havasupai were one band of the Plateau People subtribe.
Ko'audva Kopaya ("The People Up Above") included seven bands in the plateau and canyon country mostly east of the Truxton Canyon Wash (with "Qwa'ga-we'/Hackberry Springs") and Grand Wash Cliffs, planted in Quartermaster Canyon (with "Metipka/Mati'bika Spring"), Meriwhitica Canyon (with "Meriwhitica Spring/Indian Gardens"), Milkweed Canyon (with "Hê'l/Milkweed Springs"), Spencer Canyon (with "Matawidita Spring"), Peach Springs Canyon (with "Yiga't/Lower Peach Springs" and "Hake-takwi'va/Peach Springs proper"), Diamond Creek Canyon (Gwada), Prospect Canyon, Mohawk Canyon, and National Canyon, they also occupied portion of the eastern Hualapai Valley and Peacock Mountains, the Music Mountains, this area include the current Hualapai Reservation, bands listed from west to east:
Villages (along the edge of the Grand Wash Cliffs): Hadū'ba/Ha'a Dooba ("Clay Springs"), Hai'ya, Hathekáva-kió, Hath'ela/Ha'thi-el ("[Salty] Spring"), Huwuskót, Kahwāga, Kwa'thekithe'i'ta, Metipka/Mati'bika, Oya'a Nisa ("spider cave"), Oya'a Kanyaja, Tanyika'/Danyka ("Grass Springs")
Villages (the largest settlements were near Milkweed Springs and Truxton Canyon): Yokamva (today: Crozier [Spring], an American appellation), Djiwa'ldja, Hak-tala'kava, Haktutu'deva, Hê'l ("Milkweed Springs", was used in particular for the irrigation of tobacco), Katha't-nye-ha', Muketega'de, Qwa'ga-we'/Kwagwe' ("Hackberry Springs"), Sewi', Taki'otha'wa, Wi-kanyo
Villages (not included are that of the Havasupai): Agwa'da, Ha'ke-takwi'va/Haketakwtva/Hàkđugwi:v ("Peach Springs proper", literally: "a series/group of springs"), Haksa', Hānya-djiluwa'ya, Tha've-nalnalwi'dje, Wiwakwa'ga, Wi Kasala ("Many Sharp Points Mountain"), Yiga't/Yi Kwat ("Lower Peach Springs")
Witoov Mi'uka Pa'a ("Separate Mountain Range People") lived west of the Plateau People subtribe and mostly north of today's city Kingman, ranged over the Cerbat and Black Mountains and portions of the Hualapai, Detrital, and Sacramento Valleys.
Villages (most settlements were near springs along the eastern slopes of each mountain range): Amadata ("Willow Beach" near Hoover Dam), Chimethi'ap, Ha'a Taba ("Whiskey Springs"), Ha-kamuê'/Ha'a kumawe' ("Beale's Springs"), Ham sipa (near Temple Bar, flooded by Lake Mead), Háka-tovahádja, Ha'a Kawila, Hamte'/Ha'a Emete/Ha'emede: ("White Rock Water", name of a spring in the Cerbat Mountains), Ha'theweli'-kio', Ivthi'ya-tanakwe, Kenyuā'tci, Kwatéhá, Nyi'l'ta, Quwl'-nye-há, Sava Ha'a ("Dolan Springs"), Sina Ha'a ("Buzzard Spring"), Thawinūya, Tevaha:ja (today: "Canyon Station"), Waika'i'la, Wa-nye-ha'/Wana Ha'a, Wi'ka-tavata'va, Wi-kawea'ta, Winya'-ke-tawasa, Wiyakana'mo
Yavapai Fighters were the largest group, occupied the southern half of the Hualapai country and were the first to fight the enemy Yavapai - called by the Hualapai Ji'wha', "The Enemy" - living direct to their south, were almost wiped out during the Hualapai War by fighting, systematic destruction of supplies and fields by the US Army and by famines and diseases erupting thereby, bands listed from west to east:
Villages (were concentrated near springs and streams at the northern end of the range): Walnut Creek, Hake-djeka'dja, Ilwi'nya-ha', Kahwa't, Tak-tada'pa
Villages: Burro Creek, Chivekaha', Djimwā'nsevio'/Chimwava suyowo' ("Little Cane Springs", literally: "He dragged a Chemehuevi around."), Ha-djiluwa'ya, Hapu'k/Hapuk/Ha'a pook ("[Cofer] Hot Spring"), Kwakwa', Kwal-hwa'ta, Kwathā'wa, Magio'o' ("Francis Creek"), Tak-mi'nva/Takaminva ("Big Cane Springs")
Villages: Cottonwood Creek (or "Cottonwood Station"), Hakeskia'l/Ha'a Kesbial ("where one creek goes into another"), Ha'a Kiacha/Hakia'ch/Hakia'tce ("Fort Rock Creek Spring", main settlement), Ka'nyu'tekwa', Knight Creek, Tha'va-ka-lavala'va, Trout Creek, Willow Creek, Wi-ka-tāva, Witevikivol, Witkitana'kwa
The Aquarius Mountains are a 45-mi (72 km) long mountain range in southeast Mohave County, Arizona. The range lies in the northwest of the Arizona transition zone, and at the southwest of the Coconino Plateau, a subsection of the Colorado Plateau.
The Aquarius Mountains are on the perimeter of the transition zone, and border the south-flowing Big Sandy River and Valley on its west; adjacent further west is the massif of the Hualapai Mountains, a block faulted Basin and Range landform bordered westwards by the north-south Sacramento Valley.
Mohave County and northwest Arizona, is also a southeastwards extension of the Mojave Desert which extends down to Wickenburg, Arizona, on the southwest perimeter of the Arizona transition zone. Joshua trees can be found here, and the route north from Wickenburg, U.S. Route 93 in Arizona is called the Joshua Tree Highway. The region is at the northwest border of Arizona's Sonoran Desert region of the lower elevation deserts, as they merge northwest into higher elevations of Mohave County.Aubrey Peak (Hualapai Mountains)
Aubrey Peak, also known as Grooms Peak, is a summit located 35 miles east-northeast of Lake Havasu City in Mohave County, Arizona and is in the Hualapai Mountains.
The peak can approached from the town of Wikieup on U.S. Route 93 by way of Chicken Springs Road which ascends to a saddle on the mountains southeast flank.
The Aubrey Peak is profiled in Hiking Arizona's Geology, as Hike 29, Aubrey Peak Road.Bat Cave mine
The Bat Cave guano mine, located in the western Grand Canyon of Arizona at river mile 266, 800 feet (240 m) above Lake Mead, was an unusual, expensive and noteworthy mining operation. The natural cave was a bat habitat and contained an accumulation of guano.Big Sandy River (Arizona)
The Big Sandy River is both an intermittent and perennial stream in Mohave and La Paz counties in northwestern Arizona in the United States. It begins where Cottonwood Wash and Trout Creek converge in the Hualapai Indian Reservation east of U.S. Route 93 then flows past Wikieup south of Kingman. The Big Sandy River then passes the Signal Ghost Town Site, meanders through the Arrastra Mountain Wilderness, and joins the Santa Maria River in Southern Mohave County to form the Bill Williams River. The Bill Williams River then empties into Alamo Lake State Park. The Big Sandy River is 55.7 miles (89.6 km) long.The Big Sandy drainage basin covers approximately 2,000 square miles (5,200 km2) in Mohave, La Paz, and Yavapai counties. The Hualapai Mountains are west of the river, and the Aquarius and Mohon Mountains lie to the east and southeast, the Juniper Mountains further east, and the Peacock Mountains and Cottonwood Mountains to the north. Hualapai Peak at 8,417 feet (2,566 m) is the highest point in the basin. The river flows through the Arrastra Mountain Wilderness.Bridge Canyon Dam
Bridge Canyon Dam, also called Hualapai Dam, was a proposed dam in the lower Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, in northern Arizona in the United States. It would have been located near Bridge Canyon Rapids in an extremely rugged and isolated portion of the canyon, 235 miles (378 km) downstream of Lee's Ferry and at the uppermost end of Lake Mead.
First proposed in the 1920s, the project was seriously considered by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for a period of over twenty years from the early 1950s to 1968. If built, the dam would have stood 740 feet (230 m) high, forming a reservoir stretching more than ninety miles (140 km) upstream, including thirteen miles (21 km) along the border of Grand Canyon National Park. The dam would serve mainly for hydropower production in conjunction with several others further upstream including Marble Canyon Dam, on the Colorado, Green and other rivers.
Due to its enormous potential for environmental destruction and the dwindling flows of the Colorado River, the project stalled in 1968 after years of public opposition. However, the location is considered one of the best remaining sites for a large dam in the western United States.Diamond Creek (Arizona)
Diamond Creek (Hualapai: Gwada) is an intermittent stream that flows through the Hualapai tribal reservation generally north from Peach Springs, Arizona to the Colorado River.Grand Canyon Skywalk
The Grand Canyon Skywalk is a horseshoe-shaped cantilever bridge with a glass walkway at Eagle Point in Arizona near the Colorado River on the edge of a side canyon in the Grand Canyon West area of the main canyon. USGS topographic maps show the elevation at the Skywalk's location as 4,770 ft (1,450 m) and the elevation of the Colorado River in the base of the canyon as 1,160 ft (350 m), and they show that the height of the precisely vertical drop directly under the skywalk is between 500 ft (150 m) and 800 ft (240 m).Commissioned and owned by the Hualapai Indian tribe, it was unveiled March 20, 2007, and opened to the general public on March 28, 2007. It is accessed via the Grand Canyon West Airport terminal or a 120-mile (190 km) drive from Las Vegas. The Skywalk is east of Meadview and north of Peach Springs with Kingman being the closest city of some size.Grand Wash Cliffs
The Grand Wash Cliffs extend south-southeast from the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument in northwest Arizona west of the Shivwits Plateau south through the Grand Cliffs Wilderness and into the Lake Mead Recreation Area. The Grand Wash Cliffs cross the Grand Canyon where the Colorado River enters Lake Mead. To the south of the Grand Canyon the Grand Wash Cliffs continue past the east side of Grapevine Mesa and then southeast above and east of the Hualapai Valley forming the southwest margin of the Music Mountains.Havasupai–Hualapai language
Havasupai–Hualapai (Havasupai–Walapai) is the Native American language spoken by the Hualapai (also spelled Walapai) and Havasupai peoples of northwestern Arizona. Havasupai–Hualapai belongs to the Pai branch of the Yuman–Cochimí language family, together with its close relative Yavapai and with Paipai, a language spoken in northern Baja California. There are two main dialects of this language: the Havasupai dialect is spoken in the bottom of the Grand Canyon, while the Hualapai dialect is spoken along the southern rim. As of 2010, there were 550 speakers of Havasupai-Hualapai. UNESCO classifies the Havasupai dialect as endangered and the Hualapai dialect as vulnerable. There are efforts at preserving both dialects through bilingual education programs.Hualapai Flat
Hualapai Flat (pronounced "wall-a-pie") is a valley in northwestern Nevada, USA, located northwest of the Black Rock Desert. The two valleys are separated by the Calico Hills. The Granite Range marks the southern and western edges of Hualapai Flat. To the north the valley is constrained by the Granite Range and the Calico Hills. Washoe, Pershing, and Humboldt counties meet in the Hualapai Flat.
The northern two-thirds of the valley are used for pasturage by cattle ranches. The southern third is occupied by a playa on the Fly Ranch. The valley has a number of geothermal features associated with the northwest Nevada volcanic region, such as Fly Geyser, also called The Geyser, Cottonwood Springs, and Wards Hot Spring.In 1997 the Burning Man festival, usually located in the Black Rock Desert, was held on private land in Hualapai Flat. The move was made in response to contain the traffic problems of the vast, open, Black Rock desert.Hualapai Mountains
The Hualapai Mountains (Mojave language: Amat 'Avii Kahuwaaly), are a mountain range in Mohave County, near Kingman in Arizona. "Hualapai" means "People of the tall Pines" in the Hualapai language.The mountain range consists of five main peaks: Dean Peak, Getz Peak, Aspen Peak, and Hayden Peak overlooking the broad Hualapai Valley to the north toward Kingman; and the tallest, Hualapai Peak, on the south.
Hiking trails reach Aspen and Hayden Peaks. Several areas, including Ghett's and Hayden Peaks, are home to radio transmitter/receiver towers.Hualapai Peak
Hualapai Peak is a 8,417-foot (2,566 m) mountain summit in Mohave County, Arizona and is the highest point of the Hualapai Mountains. It is located about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of Kingman in Hualapai Mountain County Park.
The mountain is characterized by huge granite outcroppings and pillars, a result of its volcanic origin. Although trails lead to its base, a moderate scramble and climb is required to reach the summit.
There are also climbing routes along the trail to the peak.
It is named after the Hualapai Native American tribe. Hualapai means "people of the tall pines".Hualapai War
The Hualapai War, or Walapai War, was an armed conflict fought from 1865 to 1870 between the Hualapai native Americans and the United States in Arizona Territory. The Yavapai also participated on the side of the Hualapai and Mohave scouts were employed by the United States Army. Following the death of the prominent Yavapai leader Anasa in April 1865, the natives began raiding American settlements which provoked a response by the United States Army forces stationed in the area. By the spring of 1869 disease forced the majority of the Hualapais to surrender though some skirmishing continued for almost two more years.Kiowa Gordon
Kiowa Joseph Gordon (born March 25, 1990) is an American actor. He is best known for his role as Junior in the TV series The Red Road, And shapeshifter Embry Call in The Twilight series.List of mountain peaks of Arizona
This article comprises three sortable tables of major mountain peaks of the U.S. State of Arizona.
The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways:
The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level. The first table below ranks the 20 highest major summits of Arizona by elevation.
The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings. The second table below ranks the 20 most prominent summits of Arizona.
The topographic isolation (or radius of dominance) of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation. The third table below ranks the 20 most isolated major summits of Arizona.Peach Springs, Arizona
Peach Springs (Walapai: Hàkđugwi:v) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Mohave County, Arizona, United States. The population was 1,090 at the 2010 census. Peach Springs serves as the administrative headquarters of the Hualapai (meaning People of the Tall Pine) people, and is located on the Hualapai Reservation.Peacock Mountains
The Peacock Mountains are a small, 26-mi (42 km) long mountain range in northwest Arizona, USA. The range is a narrow sub-range, and an extension north, at the northeast of the Hualapai Mountains massif, which lies to the southwest. The range is defined by the Hualapai Valley to the northwest, and north and south-flowing washes on its east border, associated with faults and cliffs; the Cottonwood Cliffs (Cottonwood Mountains) are due east, and are connected to the Aquarius Cliffs southward at the west perimeter of the Aquarius Mountains; the cliffs are a result of the Aquarius Fault, which is an extension southward from the Grand Wash Cliffs and Grand Wash Fault which crosses the Colorado River at Lake Mead, and the west perimeter of the Grand Canyon/Colorado Plateau.United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co.
United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co., 314 U.S. 339 (1941), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the power of Congress to extinguish aboriginal title is plenary and nonjusticiable but that Congress was presumed not to do so absent a clear intention. It is the leading precedent on the extinguishment of aboriginal title in the United States.
The suit was brought by the federal government, on behalf of the Hualapai against the Santa Fe Pacific Railroad. The Court held that the Hualapai's aboriginal title was not extinguished by (1) its lack of federal recognition or acknowledgment by treaty, statute, for formal government action; (2) the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (3) an 1854 federal statute creating the office of Surveyor General of New Mexico; (4) and 1865 statute creating the Colorado River Indian Reservation; (5) the 1866 federal land grant to the railroad; (6) an 1870 federal statute creating the office of Surveyor General of Arizona; or (7) the 1874 forcible removal of the Hualapai to the Colorado River Indian Reservation.
However, the Court held that the 1881 creation of a reservation by executive order at the request of the Hualapai extinguished the tribe's aboriginal title outside of that reservation. The case distinguished aboriginal title in California from aboriginal title in the rest of the Mexican Cession and is frequently cited for its in-depth discussion of the test for the extinguishment of aboriginal title.Walapai, Arizona
Walapai is a populated place on Arizona State Route 66 (former U.S. Route 66) in Mohave County, Arizona, United States. Walapai is located along a railroad line 14 miles (23 km) northeast of Kingman. Walapai has a post office with ZIP code 86412.
|Contemporary peoples native to Arizona|
|Prehistoric cultures in Arizona|
See also: List of Indian reservations in Arizona
|Bodies of water|
Municipalities and communities of Mohave County, Arizona, United States
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties
Municipalities and communities of Coconino County, Arizona, United States
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties