Hualālai

Hualālai (pronounced [huwəˈlaːlɐi] in Hawaiian) is an active volcano on the island of Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian Islands.[4] It is the westernmost, third-youngest and the third-most active of the five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaiʻi, following Kīlauea and the much larger Mauna Loa. Its peak stands 8,271 feet (2,521 m) above sea level. Hualālai is estimated to have risen above sea level about 300,000 years ago. Despite maintaining a very low level of activity since its last eruption in 1801, and being unusually inactive for the last 2,000 years, Hualālai is still considered active, and is expected to erupt again some time within the next century. The relative unpreparedness of the residents in the area caused by the lull in activity would worsen the consequences of such an event.

The area near the volcano has been inhabited for centuries by Hawaiian natives, dating back to before recorded history. The coast west of Hualālai in particular had several royal complexes. The volcano is also important ecologically, is home to many rare species and several nature reserves near the summit, and is a popular hiking attraction. Today the coast near Hualālai is dotted by vacation resorts, some built on historic flows, and a National Historical Park.

Hualālai
Hualālai 1996
View of Hualālai over 1800 lava flow
Highest point
Elevation8,271 ft (2,521 m) [1]
Prominence3,071 ft (936 m) [2]
Coordinates19°41′32″N 155°52′02″W / 19.69222°N 155.86722°WCoordinates: 19°41′32″N 155°52′02″W / 19.69222°N 155.86722°W
Naming
Language of nameHawaiian language
PronunciationHawaiian pronunciation: [huəˈlaːlei]
Geography
Hualālai is located in Hawaii
Hualālai
Hualālai
LocationHawaiʻi, U.S.
Parent rangeHawaiian Islands
Topo mapUSGS Hualālai
Geology
Age of rockOldest-dated rock: 128,000 BP
Estimated: over 300,000 years[1]
Mountain typeShield volcano
Volcanic arc/beltHawaiian-Emperor seamount chain
Last eruption1800 to 1801[1]
Climbing
Easiest routeMultiple trails exist.[3]

Geology

Structural features

Puhia pelee
An expedition down a lava conduit in Hualālai volcano

Hualālai stands at 8,271 ft (2,521 m) with a prominence of 3,071 ft (936 m).[2] It is the westernmost of the five major volcanoes which form the island of Hawaiʻi.[1] Being in the post-shield stage of development, Hualālai is overall much rougher in shape and structure than the more youthful Mauna Loa and Kīlauea.[5] Hualālai's structure is denoted by three rift zones: a well-developed one approximately 50° to the northwest, a moderately developed one to the southeast, and a poorly developed one trending northwards about 3 mi (5 km) east of the summit.[6][7] There are over 100 cinder and spatter cones arranged along these rift zones. Hualālai has no summit caldera, although there is a collapse crater about 0.3 mi (0.48 km) across atop a small lava shield. Much of the southern slope (above the modern town of Kailua-Kona) consists of lava flows covered by a layer of volcanic ash from 10 to 100 cm (4 to 39 in) thick.[7][8] In comparison with the other volcanoes of the island of Hawaiʻi, it is the third-tallest, third-youngest, third-most active, and second-smallest, making up just 7% of the island.[5]

A major subfeature of Hualālai is Puʻu Waʻawaʻa, Hawaiian for "many-furrowed hill", a volcanic cone standing 372 m (1,220 ft) tall and measuring over 1.6 km (1 mi) in diameter. It extends for 9 km (6 mi), and has a prominence of 275 m (902 ft), north of the summit at 19°46′15″N 155°49′56″W / 19.77083°N 155.83222°W. The cone is constructed of trachyte, a type of volcanic lava that exists at no other volcano on Hawaiʻi. Trachyte flows move more slowly than the typically "runny" Hawaiian lavas, a characteristic caused by its high (over 62%) silica composition (typical basalt is only 50% silica). Geologists hypothesize that Puʻu Waʻawaʻa originally formed during a pumice eruption a little over 100,000 years ago, and has continued to build itself since then, with at least three distinct trachyte flows recognized. The eruptions, although partially covered by flows from Hualālai and Mauna Loa, have built a distinctive structure known as the Puʻu Anahulu ridge.[9]

The westward-facing flank of Hualālai forms a large underwater slump known as the North Kona slump. An area of about 1,000 km2 (390 sq mi), the slump consists of an intricate formation of beaches and scarps 2,000 to 4,500 m (6,600 to 14,800 ft) below the waterline. This area was explored more closely in a 2001 joint Japan-United States project to explore the volcano's flanks, utilizing the remotely operated vehicle ROV Kaikō. Data collected showed that the lava flows there originated in shallow water 500 to 1,000 m (1,600 to 3,300 ft) deep, and that unlike similar slumps at other volcanoes, the slump at Hualālai formed gradually.[10]

Hualālai is a known source for xenoliths, rock from the Earth's mantle that have been brought up in lava flows. Many prehistoric deposits, as well as those from the 1801 event, contain xenoliths of large size and abundant quantity.[6]

History

KilaueaKohalaMauna LoaMauna Kea
Hualālai is the westernmost of the five volcanoes making up Hawaiʻi island

Lava attributed to a shield-stage Hualālai has been found just offshore of the volcano's northwest rift zone. Tholeiitic basalt, indicative of the submarine subphase of the volcano's construction, has been found in wells driven into the volcano at a depth of 75 ft (23 m). These lavas persisted until an estimated 130,000 years ago.[11] Hualālai entered the post-shield stage, the stage it is presently in, about 100,000 years ago. Pumice and trachyte eruptions at Puʻu Waʻawaʻa may be a sign of this change.[9]

Geological mapping of the volcano has indicated that as much as 80% of the volcano's surface has been topped by lava flows during the last 5,000 years,[1] entirely composed of shield alkalic basalt.[6] More than half of this is under 3,000 years old, and about 12% is less than 1,000 years of age.[8] Between the years 1700 and 2016, eruptions originated from six vents; four of these lava flows poured into the sea to the west coast.[8]

Eruptive history

Hualālai is the third most active volcano making up the island of Hawaiʻi, behind Kīlauea and Mauna Loa. Although the two larger volcanos have each erupted over 150 times in the last 1,000 years, Hualālai has done so but 3 times. The recurrence of activity at the volcano seems to be every 200 to 300 years.[12]

A recent calm period, with almost no earthquake or magmatic activity at Hualālai, has seen the growth of homes, businesses, and resorts on the mountain's flanks. The most recent major activity at the volcano was in 1929, when an intense earthquake swarm rocked Hualālai, most likely caused by magmatic action near the volcano's peak. Although it has been relatively placid in the recent past, Hualālai is still potentially active, and is expected to erupt again within the next 100 years.[1]

Lava stratigraphy

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has divided the exposed lava flows and tephra erupted by Hualālai volcano during the last 112,000 years into 419 rock units of eight chronostratigraphic age groups. These are summarized in the table below:

Lava stratigraphy of Hualalai volcano[13]
Age Group Age (years before present) Rock type Surface area (percent) Number of rock units Location of exposures Comments
8 less than 220 alkali basalt 6 3 northwest flank Vent cinder deposits with black pahoehoe basalt lava flows formed during AD 1800–1801 eruption. Five vents along NW rift zone. Abundant xenoliths of ultramafic plutonic rocks.
7 200–700 alkali basalt 3 4 southern flank Vent lava spatter and lava flows, cinders and tuff at Waha Pele. Spatter cone erupted pahoehoe and ʻaʻā basalt lava flows. Cone collapsed causing violent phreatic eruptions of tuff. Lava flow eruption resumed building larger cone, with eruption of long ʻaʻā lava flows.
6 750-1,500 alkali basalt 8 14 mostly central summit area and southeast flank Dark grey to black vent lava spatter (including a 650-meter-long spatter rampart), cinders, ʻaʻā and pahoehoe basalt lava flows, including Hualalai's longest lava flow (22 km). Collapse of vents produced pit craters. Hawaiian, Strombolian, and sub-Plinian activity.
5 1,500–3,000 alkali basalt 38 49 mostly northern flank Spatter deposits, ʻaʻā and pahoehoe basalt lava flows. Very active 2,400–1,900 years before present.
4 3,000–5,000 alkali basalt 25 98 mostly northern flank and summit Spatter deposits, ʻaʻā and pahoehoe basalt lava flows.
3 5,000–10,000 alkali basalt with minor amounts of picritic basalt, hawaiite and ankaramite 15 185 mostly southern flank and summit Spatter deposits, extensively weathered ʻaʻā and pahoehoe lava flows.
2 10,000–25,000 alkali basalt with minor amounts of picritic basalt, hawaiite and ankaramite 5 63 northeastern and southwestern flanks Lava spatter, cinders, extensively weathered ʻaʻā and pahoehoe lava flows and palagonite tuff. Spatter and cinders contain abundant xenoliths of mafic and ultramafic plutonic rocks.
1 more than 100,000 trachyte less than 1 3 northeastern flank Trachyte cone of Puʻu Waʻawaʻa (current prominence approximately 430 meters). Block and ʻaʻā trachyte lava flow of Puʻu Anahulu and trachyte pyroclastic deposits. 5.5 km3 in volume, the largest-volume single eruption on Hawaiʻi (Big island). K-Ar age is 106,000 ± 6,000 years before present.

1800–1801 eruption

Hualalai pit crater Na One
Na One pit crater of Hualālai volcano

Hualālai last erupted in 1800–1801. This eruption produced very fluid alkalic basalt lava flows that entered the ocean off the western tip of Hawaiʻi island. Although five vents were active at the time, only two produced flows that eventually reached the ocean. The total output volume of the flow is estimated at over 300,000,000 m3 (0.072 cu mi). One volcanic vent, situated high on the slope, produced a large ʻaʻā flow, dubbed the Kaʻūpūlehu flow, that reached the ocean as two distinct lobes.[6] On its way down, it overran a village and a valuable 3 mi (5 km) fishing pond. There is a local legend that after the failure of several offerings of animals and other items to the gods, the flow was finally stopped when Kamehameha I threw a lock of his own hair into the fire.[12] The Ka'ūpūlehu flow is also known for the particularly large quantity of mafic and ultramafic xenoliths that came up with it.[8]

The other major outflow from the event reached the sea south of Kiholo Bay, destroying the village of Kaʻūpūlehu.[14] This 1801 flow, known as the Huʻehuʻe flow, formed Keahole Point where Kona International Airport is now located, 11 km (6.8 mi) north of Kailua-Kona.[1][15] The eruption at Hualālai was concurrent with an eruption at the nearby Mauna Loa. It is theorized that, in the near past, Hualālai has had synchronous eruptions with both Mauna Loa and Kilauea.[6]

Recent activity

Hualālai Threat Mapping
Hualālai is indicated as threat level 4 by the USGS in this mapping. The two gray areas are the two major outflows from the 1800–1801 event.

Hualālai last erupted in 1801. A severe earthquake swarm shook the volcano in 1929, lasting about a month. This caused $100,000 worth of damage to the Kona district ($1.2 million as of 2010), and two earthquakes with magnitudes of 5.5 and 6.5 were felt as far away as Honolulu. This was probably caused by magma movement near the surface, but there was no surface activity or eruption.[6][12]

The 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake, with epicenter just to the north in Kiholo Bay near Māhukona, caused much damage in the area.[16]

Future monitoring

Hualālai is expected to erupt again in the near future, as a 200- to 300-year estimated pause in activity is coming to an end.[12] This presents a distinct hazard to the communities around it as well; for example, in the event of an eruption similar to the 1801 event, Kailua-Kona, which is 15 mi (24 km) from the volcano's summit, could be covered completely in a matter of hours.[6] According to the USGS lava-flow hazard zones, on a scale of 1 to 9, all of Hualālai is listed as threat level 4. For comparison, almost all of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa is listed as threat levels 1 through 3.[17] The flanks of the volcano do not pose a lower threat to the population than the area near the rift zones because the distance is short and the slopes are steep; lava poses as much of a threat as it does near its source.[14]

Since 1991, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has maintained a seismic recording station 3 km (1.9 mi) east of Hualālai's summit to monitor the volcano. During this time, not a single earthquake swarm or harmonic tremor, indicative of activity at the volcano, has occurred. Although Hualālai does experience several magnitude-4 earthquakes per year, these are attributed to a deep source off the coast of the north-western rift zone and are not related to the movement of magma.[6] The USGS is currently in the process of upgrading its aging monitoring and telemetry equipment, using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds. The agency plans to add another seismometer and three more sensors to help monitor activity. In addition, the HVO uses GPS to measure slight changes in tilt and slope of Hualālai, indicative of magmatic movement. A survey has been conducted every two years since 1986, but as of 2010 no changes have been recorded.[12]

Human history

Hualālai has been a home to native people since ancient times. Centuries ago, the Ahu A Umi Heiau was built on the dry plateau east of the mountain.[18] The Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historic Park lies on the shore west of Hualālai, over the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement. Although it is called kekaha ʻaʻole wai (lands without water), the rugged volcanic terrain attracted much sea life, making it an appealing place to settle. There are two main attractions within the park: the Kaloko fishpond, an area of loko kuapa (rockwall fishponds) constructed of interlocking rocks across a natural embayment on the coast, and Honokōhau, a former extensive settlement on the south side of the park.[19]

Kamakahonu, Holualoa Bay, and Keauhou Bay were favored retreats of Hawaiian royalty long before the westernization of Hawaii. It was here that Kamehameha I rested after his eight-year campaign to unite the Hawaiian isles. His death in 1819 triggered social chaos. Mokuaikaua Church, built for missionaries in 1837 of lava rock and crushed coral, still stands today. Huliheʻe Palace, where many of Hawaii's last kings spent their time, has been maintained as a museum since 1927.[20]

Today, the coast west of Hualālai is a popular location for vacation resorts, since the rain shadow of the mountain causes many sunny days. The first, Kona Village resort, was built in 1961. Since then the Four Seasons Resort[21] and the Kūkiʻo golf course and vacation home complex have also been built on the 1800 flow.[22] Both the Kona Village Resort and the Four Seasons Resort were damaged by the tsunami generated by the 2011 Sendai earthquake.[23] The Hawaii Belt Road traverses the western slopes with an upper route called the Mamalahoa Highway and lower route named for Queen Kaʻahumanu.[24]

Much of the Kona coffee crop grows on Hualālai's western slope near the town of Holualoa.[25] The family of early coffee merchant Henry Nicholas Greenwell owned a large ranch on the western side of the volcano.[26] The road from Kailua-Kona up the slopes of Hualālai is named for Frank "Palani" Greenwell.[27] Hawaii Route 200 known as the Saddle Road, crosses the plateau north of Hualālai, where the Pohakuloa Training Area provides a remote training ground for the United States Army and United States Marine Corps.[28]

Ecology and environment

Hualalai from Honokohau
Hualālai seen from Honokōhau

Although some of Hualālai is bare volcanic rock, most of it is covered by some form of vegetation. Bushes, ferns, and grass are common, and even a few ōhiʻa lehua trees (Metrosideros polymorpha) grow along the summit. Many of the collapse craters in particular have vegetation, and a few even have respectably-sized "vertical forests" inside, including several eucalyptus tree groves.[29] The volcano is populated by many birds and animals;[30] the coast in particular attracts many fish and sea-dependent animals, such as the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) and the black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus).[19] Hualālai averages 18.27 in (46 cm) of rainfall per year.[31] The summit gets more rain than the coast[32] and is typically obscured in heavy cloud cover and vog.[5]

Several ecological reserves lie on the flanks of Hualālai. The Puʻu Waʻa Waʻa forest sanctuary was established in 1992 (along with the Laupahoehoe sister reserve on Mauna Kea) as a testbed for long term ecological research about Hawaiian moist forest and dry forest biomes, and lies within a mile of the volcano's summit on its northwestern flank. Elevation differs from sea level near the coastal edge to 6,300 ft (1,920 m) near the summit. Median annual rainfall is about 46.7 in (1,186 mm). Plentiful lava flows from the 19th century provide unique niches for vegetative and soil growth in the region. The southern section of the reserve, closest to the summit, has been split into a bird sanctuary.[32]

The Honuaula forest reserve on the southwestern flank of the volcano at 19°30′25″N 155°54′41″W / 19.50694°N 155.91139°W, preserves an extensive koa (Acacia koa) forest stand, with smaller Naio (Myoporum sandwicense) and Māmane (Sophora chrysophylla) trees and an undergrowth of ʻĀkala (Rubus hawaiensis) and various ferns. The reserve measures 655 acres (265 ha) and protects an ecosystem that has since been largely deforested in the surrounding area.[33][34] The Wai Aha spring reserve on the lower slopes of the mountain is somewhat swampy and is home to the flowering evergreen ōhiʻa (Metrosideros polymorpha), the woody climber ʻIeʻie (Freycinetia arborea), and a dense undergrowth of ʻAmaʻu (Sadleria cyatheoides).[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Hualālai, Hawaiʻi's Third Active Volcano". USGS. 18 June 2001.
  2. ^ a b "Hualalai, Hawaii". Summits of the World. peakbagger.com. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  3. ^ "Hiking Trails: About the Pu'u Wa'awa'a Trail System". Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  4. ^ HVO, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. "Hualālai Volcano, Hawaiʻi". usgs.gov. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  5. ^ a b c "Hualalai Volcano: Kailua-Kona's intriguing neighbor". USGS. July 8, 2004. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Rubin, Ken. "Hualalai Volcano". Hawaiian Center for Volcanology. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
  7. ^ a b MacDonald, G.A.; Abbott, Agatin Townsend (1970). Volcanoes in the Sea. Univ. of Hawaiʻi Press. p. 441.
  8. ^ a b c d "Volcano Information: Hualalai". USGS. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  9. ^ a b "When Hualalai Turned Viscous". Volcano Watch. USGS. August 12, 2004. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  10. ^ P.W. Lipmana and M.L. Coombs (2006). "North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 151 (1–3): 189–216. Bibcode:2006JVGR..151..189L. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.07.029.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  11. ^ David R. Sherrod; John M. Sinton; Sarah E. Watkins; Kelly M. Brunt (2007). "Geological Map of the State of Hawaii" (PDF). USGS. pp. 48–50. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
  12. ^ a b c d e closed accessLucas, Carolyn. "Hualalai – Kona's sleeping giant". Kailua-Kona, HI, USA: West Hawaii Today. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  13. ^ Moore. R. B. and Clague, D.A. (1991) Geologic Map of Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii; USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series, Map I-2213, 1:50,000
  14. ^ a b Watson, John (July 18, 1997). "Lava Flow Hazard Zone Maps:Hualalai". USGS. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  15. ^ McCoy, Floyd; Grant Heiken (2000). Volcanic hazards and disasters in human antiquity. The Geological Society of America.
  16. ^ "M6.7 – Island of Hawaii, Hawaii". USGS. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  17. ^ Watson, John (December 18, 1997). "Lava Flow Hazard Zone Maps". USGS. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  18. ^ Thomas S. Dye (March 25, 2005). "Historic Sites Review of a Proposed Mauna Loa Trail System" (PDF). Nature Conservancy web site. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  19. ^ a b "Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". National Park Service. April 25, 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  20. ^ a b Fullard-Leo, Betty (December 1997). "Kailua-Kona: A Royal Retreat". Coffee Times. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  21. ^ "Four Seasons Resort Hualalai at Historic Ka'upulehu", Travel + Leisure, retrieved June 23, 2010
  22. ^ "Kū kiʻo". 2009. Archived from the original on June 28, 2010. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  23. ^ Engle, Jane (March 28, 2011). "2 Big Island resorts still closed because of tsunami damage". Los Angeles Times.
  24. ^ Oscar Voss; C.C. Slater (January 2007). "Hawaii Highways". Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  25. ^ "Kona Coffee – What Makes It So Unique?". Kona Coffee Council. 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  26. ^ Gerald Kinro (June 2003). A cup of aloha: the Kona coffee epic. University of Hawaii Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8248-2678-9. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  27. ^ Lloyd J. Soehren (2004). "lookup of Palani". on Hawaiian place names. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  28. ^ "Marine Corps Base Hawaii G-3 Training Areas - Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA)". MCBH Kaneohe Bay, HI, USA: Marine Corps Base Hawaii. February 22, 2002. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  29. ^ "SummitPost – Hualalai – Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering". SummitPost.org. April 8, 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  30. ^ Catalano, Hadley (September 19, 2006). "Huehue Hualalai Trail". Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  31. ^ "Hualalai 72, Hawaii (512151): Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
  32. ^ a b Kauffman, Boone. "Hawaii Experimental Tropical Forest". Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  33. ^ a b The Hawaiian forester and agriculturist: quarterly magazine of forestry, entomology, plant inspection and animal industry. Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry. 1921. p. 203. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  34. ^ "Big Island Forest Reserves". Hawai‛i Forest Reserve System web site. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2010.

External links

1955 Hawaiian submarine eruption

The 1955 Hawaiian submarine eruption was a submarine eruption that occurred 90 km (56 mi) northeast of Necker Island on August 20, 1955. Steaming water, water discoloration and an eruption column took place during the eruption. A possible pumice raft was also witnessed. The eruption originated about 4 km (2.5 mi) below sea level from an unnamed submarine volcano. The eruption produced a column of smoke several meters high. It is probably the westernmost historical eruption within the Hawaiian Islands. Another but less certain submarine eruption may have occurred 60 km (37 mi) northwest of Oahu on May 22, 1956.

Ahu A Umi Heiau

Ahu A ʻUmi Heiau means "shrine at the temple of ʻUmi" in the Hawaiian Language.

It is also spelled "ahu-a-Umi", or known as Ahua A ʻUmi Heiau, which would mean "mound of ʻUmi".

It was built for ʻUmi-a-Liloa, often called ʻUmi, who ruled the island of Hawaiʻi early in the 16th century. He moved the seat of government here from the Waipiʻo Valley.

The seat of power generally remained in the Kona District until the plantation days hundreds of years later.

Ahu A ʻUmi Heiau was also the place where the great chief Keawenuiaʻumi (the son of

ʻUmi) hid to escape death from a strong aliʻi, Kalepuni, who attempted to

take over Keawe's rule.

The site was an enclosure surrounded by a number of stone cairns, up to four meters high and seven meters in diameter.

It is unusual to be built so far inland, on the high and dry plateau between Mauna Loa and Hualālai.

In the 19th century the site was built into a corral, but parts remain intact.

The Judd Trail was begun in 1849 to create a

direct route between Kailua and Hilo near the site, but trail completion was abandoned

after the Mauna Loa eruption of 1859 crossed the route.

Otherwise the area, and elevation of over 5,000 feet (1,500 m), is not easily accessed today.

A number of trails with traditional names mentioning King ʻUmi's probably existed in that time. Some of these have been proposed to be restored into a Mauna Loa trail system.The site is on the state register of historic places as site number 10-29-3810.

It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 13, 1974, as site number 74000343.

It is located in the upper elevations of the ahupuaʻa (traditional land division) called Keauhou 2.

Modern research proposes that the complex includes an astronomical direction register.

Bidens micrantha

Bidens micrantha is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name grassland beggarticks. It is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, where it and other Bidens species are known as kōʻokoʻolau. It occurs in many types of habitat on Lānaʻi, Maui, and Hawaiʻi, including rocky cliffs, dry forests, mesic forests, wet forests, and high shrublands.

SubspeciesB. m. ssp. micrantha (Maui)

B. m. ssp. ctenophylla (Sherff) Ganders & Nagata (leeward Hualālai on Hawaiʻi)

B. m. ssp. kalealaha Ganders & Nagata (Lānaʻi and West Maui)While B. m. ssp. micrantha is considered secure, B. m. ssp. ctenophylla is uncommon and vulnerable and

B. m. ssp. kalealaha is rare and federally listed as an endangered species.

This is a shrub forming clumps of herbage up to several feet tall. It bears plentiful flower heads with yellow ray florets. It is grown as an ornamental plant and groundcover in Hawaii.This species was used to make leis and was brewed into tea.

Colubrina oppositifolia

Colubrina oppositifolia, known as kauila in Hawaiian, is a species of flowering tree in the buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae, that is endemic to Hawaii. It can be found in dry, coastal mesic, and mixed mesic forests at elevations of 240–920 m (790–3,020 ft) on the islands of Oʻahu (Waiʻanae Range) and Hawaiʻi (slopes of Kohala, Hualālai, and Mauna Loa). There is also one individual remaining on Maui. Associated plants include alaheʻe (Psydrax odorata) and ʻohe kukuluāeʻo (Reynoldsia sandwicensis).

Golf clubs and courses in Hawaii

There are 75 golf courses in Hawaii.

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is a volcano observatory located at Uwekahuna Bluff on the rim of Kīlauea Caldera on the Island of Hawaiʻi. The observatory monitored four active Hawaiian volcanoes: Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, and Haleakalā. Because Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are significantly more active than Hualālai and Haleakalā, much of the observatory's research is concentrated on the former two mountains.

The observatory has a worldwide reputation as a leader in the study of active volcanism. Due to the relatively non-explosive nature of Hawaiian volcanic eruptions for many years, scientists could study ongoing eruptions in proximity without being in extreme danger. Located at the main site was the public Thomas A. Jaggar Museum.

In May 2018 the facility was closed and the property evacuated due to collapse explosions at Halemaʻumaʻu Crater and earthquakes related to the 2018 lower Puna eruption that also led to the closure of the Kīlauea unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. While portions of the park were reopened in September, it is unclear when the Observatory and Museum will be able to reopen as well.

Hawaiian tropical high shrublands

The Hawaiian tropical high shrublands are a tropical savanna ecoregion in the Hawaiian Islands. They cover an area of 1,900 km2 (730 sq mi) on the upper slopes of the volcanoes Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, and Haleakalā. They include open shrublands, grasslands, and deserts. Shrubland species include ʻāheahea (Chenopodium oahuense), ʻōhelo ʻai (Vaccinium reticulatum), naʻenaʻe (Dubautia menziesii), and ʻiliahi (Santalum haleakalae). Alpine grasslands are dominated by tussock grasses, such as Deschampsia nubigena, Eragrostis atropioides, Panicum tenuifolium, and pili uka (Trisetum glomeratum). Deserts occur on the coldest and driest peaks, where only extremely hardy plants such as ʻāhinahina (Argyroxiphium sandwicense) and Dubautia species are able to grow. The nēnē (Branta sandvicensis) is one of the few birds found in alpine shrublands, while ʻuaʻu (Pterodroma sandwichensis) nest in this ecoregion.

Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis

Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis (Hualalai hau kuahiwi) is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is endemic to the Big Island of Hawaii. The last known plant died in 1992, making it most likely extinct in the wild; any remaining plants are threatened by habitat loss. It inhabits dry and mixed mesic forests on the slopes of Hualālai at elevations of 915–1,020 m (3,002–3,346 ft). Associated plants include ʻōhiʻa lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), lama (Diospyros sandwicensis), māmane (Sophora chrysophylla), naio (Myoporum sandwicense), ʻālaʻa (Pouteria sandwicensis), pāpala (Charpentiera spp.), ʻaiea (Nothocestrum spp.), poʻolā (Claoxylon sandwicense), and Kikuyu Grass (Pennisetum clandestinum). H. hualalaiensis is a small tree, reaching a height of 5–7 m (16–23 ft) and trunk diameter of 30 cm (12 in).

Holualoa Bay

Hōlualoa Bay is a historic area between Kailua-Kona and Keauhou Bay in the Kona District of the Big Island of Hawaiʻi. The community now called Hōlualoa is uphill (mauka in the Hawaiian Language) from this bay.

The name means "long slide" in the Hawaiian Language, from the long trail that went from a forest on the slopes of Hualālai (where the village is now), to a site where the logs were made into canoes (on the grounds of Sadie Seymour Botanical Gardens) into this bay where a large royal building complex was built over several centuries.

Hyposmocoma ferricolor

Hyposmocoma ferricolor is a species of moth of the family Cosmopterigidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the island of Hawaii. The type locality is Hualālai, where it was collected at an elevation of 5,000 feet (1,500 m).

Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawaii

‘Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawai‘i is an astronomy and culture education center located in Hilo, Hawaii. It features exhibits and shows dealing with Hawaiian culture and history, astronomy (particularly at the Mauna Kea Observatories), and the overlap between the two.

‘Imiloa includes a 120-seat planetarium, which features a fulldome video projection system. Planetarium presentations include ‘Imiloa's exclusive signature show, "Maunakea: Between Earth and Sky." The bilingual exhibits (in Hawaiian and English) offer two views of Origins and Voyages, presenting the tools, visions and discoveries of the astronomers and the Polynesian voyagers (see Polynesian navigation), the first group of whom are thought to

have voyaged to Hawaii from the Marquesas Islands. Visitors to ‘Imiloa will leave with a new understanding of the early Polynesians, who used the stars to find these isolated islands in the middle of the vast Pacific Ocean. Hawaiians refer to these long-distance canoe explorers as "our first astronomers." Another planetarium show, "Dawn of the Space Age 3D," recounts the early days of space exploration, the so-called space race between the USSR and the United States. This is the only 3D planetarium show in the world.

Additional small theaters show a Kumulipo (Hawaiian origins) story, and an astronomy "birth of the universe" 3D presentation, underwritten by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Subaru Telescope).

‘Imiloa opened to the public in February, 2006. It is part of the University of Hawaii at Hilo, and is located near the base facilities for several of the Maunakea observatories in University Park for Science and Technology on the UH-H campus, overlooking Hilo Bay. Its unique architectural design includes three large titanium-clad cones, representing the volcanoes Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa and Hualālai. The extensive gardens feature native, endemic and "canoe plants" brought by the Polynesians. Exhibit halls, planetarium, gift shop, and Sky Garden café are open to the public Tuesday through Sunday. An evening "Maunakea Skies" star talk is held in the planetarium on the last Saturday of each month.

In the Hawaiian language, ‘Imiloa means "exploring new knowledge." It is located at 600 ‘Imiloa Place in Hilo, just north of Hawaii Route 2000 (Pūʻāinakō Street).

Kailua, Hawaii County, Hawaii

Kailua is an unincorporated city (Census Designated Place) in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaii, United States, in the North Kona District of the Island of Hawaiʻi. The population was 11,975 at the 2010 census, up from 9,870 at the 2000 census. It is the center of commerce and of the tourist industry on West Hawaiʻi. Its post office is designated Kailua-Kona to differentiate it from Kailua located on the windward side of Oʻahu island, and it is sometimes referred to as Kona in everyday speech. The city is served by Kona International Airport, located just to the north in the adjacent Kalaoa CDP. Kailua-Kona was the closest major settlement to the epicenter of the 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake.

Kaupulehu, Hawaii

Kaʻūpūlehu is the site of a historic settlement on the west coast of Hawaiʻi island, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands.

Devastated by a lava flow, the area is now the home of luxury hotels such as the Four Seasons Resort Hualalai.

Keahole Point

Keāhole Point is the westernmost point of the island of Hawaii. The Kona International Airport was moved here from directly north of the town of Kailua-Kona in 1970, when the previous smaller airstrip was converted into the Old Kona Airport State Recreation Area. The name comes from Ke ʻāhole since the ʻāhole fish (Kuhlia sandvicensis) was found nearby.Between the airport and the coast lies the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii. Most of the land was formed in 1801 by the Huʻehuʻe lava flow from Hualālai. This flow extended the shoreline out an estimated 1 mile, adding some 4 km² of land to the island. The southern part of this point is sometimes referred to as Kalihi Point.The Ahupuaʻa (ancient name of the community in this area) was Kalaoa, still used by the census.

The site includes a house platform, a walled enclosure, a debris pile with volcanic glass and marine shells, and a larger wall.

Probably the home of a common family, an excavation in 1975 estimated occupation from about 1500 to 1800.

On January 14, 1989 the Kalaoa Permanent House Site was put on the state register of historic places as site number 10-27-10,205. On November 21, 1992 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places as site number 92001552. It was described as site 81 in a 1930 survey by Reinecke, and site 8 in a 1975 survey by Rosendahl & Kirch, and site HA-D15-12 on a state survey. Just south of this area is the area known as Oʻoma.

List of mountain peaks of Hawaii

This article comprises three sortable tables of the 13 major mountain peaks of the Hawaiian Islands and the U.S. State of Hawaiʻi. Each of these 13 major summits has at least 500 meters (1640 feet) of topographic prominence.

The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways:

The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level. The first table below ranks the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi by topographic elevation.

The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings. The second table below ranks the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi by topographic prominence.

The topographic isolation (or radius of dominance) of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation. The third table below ranks the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi by topographic isolation.

Pohakuloa Training Area

Pōhakuloa Training Area (PTA) is located on the island of Hawaiʻi in the high plateau between Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the Hualālai volcanic mountains. It includes a small military airstrip known as Bradshaw Army Airfield.

Sadie Seymour Botanical Gardens

The Sadie Seymour Botanical Gardens (1.5 acres) are nonprofit botanical gardens located on the grounds of the Kona Educational Foundation Center at 76-6280 Kuakini Highway, Kailua-Kona, Hawaiʻi island, Hawaiʻi. Coordinates are 19°36′49.5″N 155°58′6″W. They are open daily; admission is free, but donations accepted.

Sadie Seymour (1907–1975) founded the outdoor circle to beautify the Kona community. The gardens were designed by landscape architect Scott Seymour on a wedge-shaped plot, and named in honor of his mother. They feature the cultivated plants of Hawaiʻi, arranged in 11 tiers by geographic origin. The first tier contains native Hawaiian plants. Other tiers include Australia, New Zealand, and Indonesia (featuring plants such as cuphea, eucalyptus, and ixora); Indo-Asia (lemon grass, and cinnamon, turmeric, and clove trees); Africa (Bismarckia nobilis); and Central America (calabash).

The grounds also contain an archaeological site called a Heiau, Kealakowaʻa Heiau ("temple on the way for dragging canoes" in the Hawaiian Language). This ritual site, built in the time of King ʻUmi a Liloa, was used for construction and blessing of canoes. It can be viewed from the Kona Educational Foundation Center. The site contains a ceremonial platform, an astrological temple, the foundation of a priest's house, and the foundation of a meeting house. The sacred site is positioned along an ancient trail (Holua Loa means "long slide") that led from the upland Koa forests on Hualālai down to the royal complex at Holualoa Bay. After a tree was selected in the forest, the log was roughly hewn into the shape of a canoe and dragged down to this area for blessing ceremonies. From here it went down the slide to the water for completion and launching.

Silene hawaiiensis

Silene hawaiiensis is a rare species of flowering plant in the pink family known by the common names Hawai'i catchfly, Hawaiian catchfly and Sherff's catchfly. It is endemic to Hawaii, where it is known only from the island of Hawaii. It is threatened by the degradation of its habitat and it is a federally listed threatened species of the United States.This subshrub grows 15 to 40 centimeters tall and bears narrow leaves and greenish white flowers. The roots are spindle-shaped and sometimes grow exposed aboveground, which may help the plant survive.This plant grows on the lava and ash substrates of the volcanoes of the island of Hawaii. It grows at Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, and Hualālai. It is a member of the sparse flora in the southwest rift zone of Kilauea, which includes such plants as Coprosma ernodeoides (pilo), Dubautia ciliolata (naenae), Leptecophylla tameiameiae (pukiawe), Metrosideros polymorpha (ʻōhiʻa lehua), Nephrolepis exaltata (nianiau, ikupukupu), Sadleria sp. (amau), and Vaccinium reticulatum (ōhelo ʻai). A recent estimate is a total of 22 populations containing 8360 individuals.Threats to the plant include fire in some areas. Fire also fosters the takeover of invasive plant species such as Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass), which displaces native plants; the flammable fountain grass then increases the likelihood of more fire. Construction and other activities at Mauna Kea and the Pohakuloa Training Area may threaten some plants. Introduced Mouflon sheep are a threat to this and other native plants. Insect damage and climate change may be threats as well.

Zanthoxylum dipetalum

Zanthoxylum dipetalum is a rare species of tree in the citrus family and in the same genus as Szechuan pepper. It is known by the Hawaiian names Kāwa'u and Heaʻe and is endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago, where it grows in forests on 3 or 4 of the islands.There are two varieties.

Z. d. var. dipetalum is present on Kauaʻi, in the mountains of Oʻahu, on Hawaiʻi in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, and possibly on Molokaʻi.

Z. d. var. tomentosum is known from fewer than 30 individuals on Hualālai volcano on Hawaiʻi. This variety is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.The roots of Z. dipetalum have been found to contain several chemical compounds, including canthin-6-one, chelerythrine, nitidine, tembetarine, avicennol, xanthoxyletin, lupeol, hesperidin, sitosterol, and magnoflorine.

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