Huai'an

Huai'an (Chinese: 淮安; pinyin: Huái'ān), formerly called Huaiyin (simplified Chinese: 淮阴; traditional Chinese: 淮陰; pinyin: Huáiyīn) until 2001, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province of Eastern China. Huai'an is situated almost directly south of Lianyungang, southeast of Suqian, northwest of Yancheng, almost directly north of Yangzhou and Nanjing, and northwest of Chuzhou (Anhui). Huai'an is a relatively small city in Chinese terms, but it produced two of the most important people in Chinese history: Wu Cheng'en (1500–1582), Ming Dynasty novelist, author of the Journey to the West; and Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), prominent Communist Party of China leader, Premier of the People's Republic of China from 1949 till death.

As of the 2010 census, the municipality had 4,799,889 inhabitants, of whom 2,494,013 lived in four urban districts.

Huai'an

淮安市

Hwaian
Gate tower in Huai'an
Gate tower in Huai'an
Location of Huai'an City (yellow) in Jiangsu
Location of Huai'an City (yellow) in Jiangsu
Huai'an is located in China
Huai'an
Huai'an
Location in China
Coordinates: 33°30′N 119°8′E / 33.500°N 119.133°ECoordinates: 33°30′N 119°8′E / 33.500°N 119.133°E
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceJiangsu
Government
 • MayorHui Jianlin (惠建林)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city10,072 km2 (3,889 sq mi)
 • Urban
3,130 km2 (1,210 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,130 km2 (1,210 sq mi)
Population
 (2010 census)
 • Prefecture-level city4,799,889
 • Urban
2,494,013
 • Urban density800/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,494,013
 • Metro density800/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
223000, 223200, 223300
(Urban center)
211600, 211700, 223100, 223400
(Other areas) (Other areas)
Area code(s)517
ISO 3166 codeCN-JS-08
GDP¥245.54 billion (2014)
GDP per capita¥50,736 (2014)
Major NationalitiesHan
County-level divisions8
Township-level divisions127
License Plate Prefix苏H
Websitewww.huaian.gov.cn
Nieuhof-Ambassade-vers-la-Chine-1665 0796
Huai'an ("Hoaigan"). Nieuhof: L'ambassade de la Compagnie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine, 1665
Nieuhof-Ambassade-vers-la-Chine-1665 0797
Qingjiangpu ("Siampu"). Nieuhof: L'ambassade de la Compagnie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine, 1665

Geography

Most parts of the Huai'an city area lie in the Jianghuai Plain, whose landscape tends to be flat. There are a few hills inside Xuyi County, and the highest altitude in Huai'an is 200m. Huai'an is notable for its large number of lakes, rivers, and canals. The most famous waterways include the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Huai River. Hongze Lake, the fourth largest freshwater lake in China, is to the southwest of Huai'an city. Towards the south, there are also several smaller lakes.

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Huai'an administers 7 county-level divisions, including 4 districts and 3 counties.

These are further divided into 127 township-level divisions, including 84 towns, 33 townships and 10 subdistricts.

Map
Subdivision Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km2) Density (/km2)
City Proper
Qingjiangpu District 清江浦区 Qīngjiāngpǔ Qū 860,185 443.05 1,941.51
Suburban
Huai'an District 淮安区 Huáiān Qū 984,601 1,452.30 677.96
Huaiyin District 淮阴区 Huáiyīn Qū 788,634 1,307.24 603.28
Hongze District 洪泽区 Hóngzé Qū 326,365 1,273.41 256.29
Rural
Lianshui County 涟水县 Liánshuǐ Xiàn 859,991 1,678.50 512.36
Xuyi County 盱眙县 Xūyí xiàn 658,830 2,497.31 263.82
Jinhu County 金湖县 Jīnhú Xiàn 321,283 1,377.73 233.20
Total 4,799,889 10,029.54 478.58
defunct districts - Qinghe District & Qingpu District

History

Ancient China

The area of Huai'an spans an ancient canal of the Huai River, and the name of Huai'an expresses the residents' hope for a lastingly peaceful Huai River.

Pre-History

Chinese mythology recounts that Yu the Great, the Chinese leader with a legendary ability for flood control techniques, was constantly taming the Huai River here in the Huai'an area.

Traces of the activities of ancient Chinese living about 5000 to 6000 years ago have been found in the area. The most famous of these is the Qingliangang Hill Civilization (zh:青莲岗文化).

Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasty

The borough area had been properly developed, and led China in convenience of transportation and irrigation. The Gangou Drain (the section of the Grand Canal of China between Huaiyin and Yangzhou) connected the Yangtze River and the Huai River delta region. The Qian Road and Shan Road that traversed the region reached Southern and Northern China. Thus, Huaiyin was a critical area for several strong states in the Spring and Autumn period. The region was occupied by the Wu, Yue and Chu states, one after another.

Qin and Han Dynasty

After the Qin Dynasty consolidated all states in China, the County System was promoted throughout China. Huaiyin County (Matou Town of Huaiyin District today), Xuyi County (Northern town of Xuyi County today), and Dongyang (Maba of Xuyi County today) were built in the region.

In a movement of rebelling farmers during the later years of the Qin Dynasty, the people of Huai'an supported the rebel forces, including the famous militia leader Han Xin, who was highly honored for his bravery and meritorious deeds.

In the epoch of the West Han Dynasty, Huaipu County (Western Lianshui County today), Sheyang County (Southeast of Huai'an District today) and Fulin County (under the water of Hongze Lake today) were built.

During the Qin and Han Dynasties, great improvements, especially in irrigation, were made to agriculture and manufacturing. In the later years of the East Han Dynasty, the Governor of Guanglin, Cheng Deng, built the Gaojiayang Levees (Hongze Lake Levees today). These 30 miles of levees kept out flood waters and protected farmlands. He also built the Pofu Pool for farm irrigation. Iron-made apparatus and bull-farming were widespread. Although a few wars and battles took place, agriculture, transportation and logistics made fair progress. The highway built by the first Qin Emperor went through the region, and the West Way of Gaogou Drain, built by Cheng Deng, improved traffic between the Yangtze and the Huai River area.

Handicrafts and business also developed during this period, while culture and the arts were at high levels, as well. Home-teaching and private schools flourished during the Han Dynasty, and many famous artists appeared: for example, the Han-text composers Mei Chen and Mei Gao, and Chen Lin, one of the Seven Scholars of Jian'an.

Ming and Qing Dynasty

The Ming Dynasty Ancestor Tomb (Ming Zu Ling) [明祖陵] is located in Xu Yi County (Xu Yi Xian) [盱眙县], the former Sizhou, of the Huai An Municipality (Huai An Shi) [淮安市]. This location was chosen for the tomb because the founder of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuan Zhang (1328-1398), aka Hong Wu (1368-1398), was conceived in Xuyi town of Huai'an, and his grandfather died there, while his family was moving from Sizhou to Fengyang in Anhui. Three of the Hong Wu emperor's ancestors were buried here, his grandfather, his great grandfather, and his great great grandfather. Today the tomb site features a sacred way (shen dao) with one of the most impressive collections of Ming Dynasty stone statues in all of China.

In the reign of the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing dynasty the classical Qing Yan Garden was first built.

淮安府大堂
The site of the prefecture headquarter in imperial times
文通塔
Wentong Pagoda

Since the People's Republic of China

Whole area of Huaiyin was occupied by Chinese communist army in December 1948 and became part of the territory of the People's Republic of China.

District of Huaiyin

District of Huaiyin was established on April 21, 1949, operating 10 counties, which were: Huaiyin, Huaibao (built of west parts of Huai'an and Baoyin section of the Grand Canal of China and county office located at town of Chahe), Siyang, Shuyang, Guanyun, Suqian, Suining, Xin'an (built of parts of Shuyang and Suqian and county office located at town of Xin'an), Pisui (built of southern Longhai Road of Pixian and northern Suining and county office located at town of Tushan) and Lianshui. The district office was at Huaiyin County.

Huaibao County was dissolved on May 12, 1950 to Huaiyin, Huai'an and Baoyin County (belonging to District of Yangzhou). And District of Huaiyin had 9 counties then.

The city area of Huaiyin County was separated as Qingjiang City on December 18, 1950 and District of Huaiyin then had 1 city and 9 counties.

With the establishment of Jiangsu Province in January 1953, District of Huaiyin was transferred to the province. Xin'an County was renamed to Xinyi County and county office of Pisui was moved to town of Yunhe. District of Huaiyin then had Qingjiang City and 9 counties, Huanyin, Lianshui, Guanyun, Siyang, Shuyang, Xinyi, Suqian, Pisui and Suining. The district office was sited at Qingjiang City. Later in the year, Suining, Pisui and Xinyi was given to District of Xuzhou and then District of Huaiyin had one city and six counties.

Qingjiang City was promoted to prefectural level of Jiangsu Province though was still operated by District of Huaiyin. Soon the district was joined by Huai'an County from District of Yancheng and in December by Sihong County from District of Suxian and Xuyi County from District of Chuxian in Anhui Province. The amount of all counties belonging to District of Huaiyin was 9.

In 1956 Hongze County was created from parts of Sihong, Huaiyin and Xuyi County with the county office sited at town of Gaoliangjian. The amount of counties then was 10.

In 1957 Xin'an Administrative Office was built from joint parts of Guanyun and Lianshui County and soon later renamed to Guannan County. The counties number reached 11.

Huaiyin County was merged in 1958 to Qingjiang City which was renamed to Huaiyin City and operated by District of Huaiyin, which had one city and 10 counties then.

However, in 1964, Huaiyin City was renamed back to Qingjiang City and Huaiyin County was restored but the county office was sited in Qingjiang City.

Xuyi County was transferred to District of Luhe in 1966 and District of Huaiyin then had one city and 10 counties.

Huaiyin Region

District of Huaiyin was renamed to Huaiyin Region in 1970 with the region office sited at Qingjiang City, operating Qingjiang City and 10 counties, which were Guanyun, Guannan, Shuyang, Suqian, Siyang, Lianshui, Huaiyin, Huai'an, Hongze and Sihong.

Xuyi County was returned by Luhe Region in 1971 as well as new transferred Jinhu County. Then one city and 12 counties belonged to Huaiyin Region.

In 1975 the office of Huaiyin County was relocated at the town of Wangyin.

Huaiyin City

Qingjiang City was renamed to Huaiyin City again in 1983 and operated directly by Jiangsu Province with the end of Huaiyin Region. Meanwhile, 11 counties, which were Guannan, Shuyang, Suqian, Siyang, Lianshui, Huaiyin, Sihong, Huai'an, Hongze, Xuyi and Jinhu, was transferred to new Huaiyin City while Guanyun County to Lianyungang City. The municipal area of Huaiyin City was split into two districts, Qinghe and Qingpu. Then 11 counties and 2 districts were belonging to Huaiyin City.

Suqian and Huai'an County was promoted to county-level cities in December 1987 by the order approved by Department of State, then renamed to Suqian and Huai'an City respectively. At the moment, Huaiyin City was operating 2 cities, 9 counties and 2 districts.

Suqian City was promoted to prefectural level of Jiangsu Province in 1996 and Shuyang, Siyang and Sihong County was transferred to Suqian City while Guannan County to Lianyungang City. After the adjustment, Huaiyin City had 5 counties, which were Huaiyin, Lianshui, Jinhu, Hongze and Xuyi, and 2 districts, Qinghe and Qingpu and was operating Huai'an City.

Huai'an City

By the order approved by Department of State on December 21, 2000, Huaiyin City was renamed to Huai'an City with the city office sited at Qinghe District while Huai'an District was established from the original Huai'an City with the district office in the town of Huaichen. Huaiyin District was established from the original Huaiyin County with the district office in the town of Wangyin. The county borders were also slightly modified.

Huai'an City now comprises four districts: Qinghe, Qingpu, Huai'an and Huaiyin; and 3 counties: Xuyi, Lianshui, and Jinhu.

Transportation

Huai'an is served by the Xinyi-Changxing Railway, which has a station in Huaiyin District.

Being at the intersection of the Grand Canal and Huai River Huai'an is an important inland port.

The city is also served by nearby Huai'an Lianshui Airport. Currently the airport is served by China Eastern Airlines, which offers flights to Beijing-Capital, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shanghai-Hongqiao, Shanghai-Pudong, Wenzhou, Wuhan, Xiamen, and Xi'an. Several other airlines offer domestic flights to cities such as Nanning and Zhengzhou. The airport is located 22 km (14 mi) from central Huai'an in Lianshui county.

Public transportation includes a tram system that connects the city center with the southeastern side of the city.

Notable people

External links

Battle of Huaiyin–Huai'an

The Battle of Huaiyin-Huai'an, also called by the Campaign to Defend Huaiyin-Huai'an (两淮保卫战) by the Communist Party of China, was a month-long battle between the Nationalists and the Communists during the Chinese Civil War for the control of Huaiyin and Huai'an, the two richest cities in China. Nationalist forces won the battle.

Bu Lianshi

Lady Bu (died 238), personal name Bu Lianshi, was a concubine of Sun Quan, the founding emperor of the state of Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period of China. Since she have posthumously honoured as an empress by Sun Quan. She is also known as Empress Bu.

Chen Gui

Chen Gui (fl. 190s), courtesy name Hanyu, was a government official who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

Chen Lin (Han dynasty)

Chen Lin (pronunciation ) (died 217), courtesy name Kongzhang, was an official, scholar and poet who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He was one of the "Seven Scholars of Jian'an".

G2513 Huai'an–Xuzhou Expressway

The Huai'an–Xuzhou Expressway (Chinese: 淮安—徐州高速公路), commonly referred to as the Huaixu Expressway (Chinese: 淮徐高速公路) is an expressway that connects the cities of Huai'an, Jiangsu, China, and Xuzhou, Jiangsu. The expressway is a spur of G25 Changchun–Shenzhen Expressway and is entirely in Jiangsu Province.It passes through the following cities, all of which are in Jiangsu Province:

Huai'an

Suqian

Xuzhou

Hongze District

Hongze (simplified Chinese: 洪泽; traditional Chinese: 洪澤; pinyin: Hóngzé) is one of four districts (a former county) of the prefecture-level city of Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China. Occupying the southeastern shores of Lake Hongze, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Suqian to the northwest and Yangzhou (briefly) to the east.

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the New Fourth Army established Huaibao and Hongze countries around Lake Hongze, in 1940 and 1941 respectively. Both countries were dissolved in 1950. The new Hongze country, within a wider area around the lake, was founded to implement the guiding principle of "reshuffling administrative divisions by the lake" in 1956.

Hongze Lake

Hongze Lake (simplified Chinese: 洪泽湖; traditional Chinese: 洪澤湖; pinyin: Hóngzé Hú) is in Jiangsu Province, China and is encompassed by the prefecture-level cities Suqian (Sihong County and Siyang County) and Huai'an (Xuyi County and Hongze County).

Lake Hongze is the fourth largest freshwater lake in China. Lake Hongze has quadrupled in size since the 12th century.A particularly large change happened in 1680, when the Yellow River changed its course and merged with the Huai River. Heavy sediment from the Yellow River blocked the Huai River; the diverted water created Hongze Lake as we know it today. The city of Sizhou was completely submerged, as was the nearby Ming Ancestors Mausoleum. The latter was rediscovered only in the 1960s.

Huai'an County

Huai'an County (simplified Chinese: 怀安县; traditional Chinese: 懷安縣; pinyin: Huái'ān Xiàn) is a county in the northwest of Hebei, China. It is under the administration of Zhangjiakou City.

Huai'an District

Huai'an District (simplified Chinese: 淮安区; traditional Chinese: 淮安區; pinyin: Huái'ān Qū) is one of four districts of the prefecture-level city of Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China. The southeast district was formerly named Shanyang County (山阳县; 山陽縣; Shānyáng Xiàn), Huai'an County (淮安县; 淮安縣; Huái'ān Xiàn) and Chuzhou District (楚州区; 楚州區; Chǔzhōu Qū).

The district is the home town of historical figures Zhou Enlai, Wu Cheng'en,Han Xin,Guan Tianpei etc.

Huai'an Lianshui Airport

Huai'an Lianshui Airport (IATA: HIA, ICAO: ZSSH) is an airport serving the city of Huai'an in Jiangsu, China. It is located in the town of Chenshi in Lianshui County, 22 kilometers northeast of the city center. Construction of the airport started in October 2008 with a total investment of 800 million yuan, and commercial flights began in September 2010.In 2011, its first full year of operation, Huai'an Airport handled 230,000 passengers to become the 99th busiest airport in China.It also called Huai'an Lianshui International Airport(SC:淮安涟水国际机场), because it serves flights from Hong Kong, Taiwan Taipei–Taoyuan, Thailand Bangkok–Don Mueang, Vietnam Hanoi and Da Nang, and Japan Osaka–Kansai.

Huaiyin District, Huai'an

Huaiyin District (simplified Chinese: 淮阴区; traditional Chinese: 淮陰區; pinyin: Huáiyīn Qū) is one of four districts of the prefecture-level city of Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China.

Huaiyin–Huai'an Campaign

The Huaiyin-Huai'an Campaign (两淮战役) was a campaign consisted of several battles fought between the nationalists and the communists during the Chinese Civil War in the immediate post-World War II era, and resulted in communists taking the city of Huaiyin and the city of Huai'an. Sometimes this campaign is separated into two by the communists as Huaiyin Campaign (淮阴战役) and Huai'an Campaign (淮安战役) respectively.

Hui'an County

Hui'an (Chinese: 惠安; pinyin: Huì'ān; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hūi-oaⁿ) is a county under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou, Fujian, People's Republic of China. It is situated in the middle of the Fujian coast, between Quanzhou and Meizhou Bay. The county has a population of 921,794, as of late 2003, with a non-agricultural population of 289,396 people. The dialect is Hui'an dialect, related to Hokkien.

Jinhu County

Jinhu County (simplified Chinese: 金湖县; traditional Chinese: 金湖縣; pinyin: Jīnhú Xiàn; literally: 'golden lake') is under the administration of Huai'an, Jiangsu province, China. It occupies the northwestern shores of and extends into Gaoyou Lake, bordering the prefecture-level cities of Yangzhou to the south and east, and Chuzhou (Anhui) to the southwest.

Lianshui County

Lianshui County (simplified Chinese: 涟水县; traditional Chinese: 漣水縣; pinyin: Liánshuǐ Xiàn) is under the administration of Huai'an, Jiangsu province, China. The northernmost county-level division of Huai'an, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Lianyungang to the north, Yancheng to the east, and Suqian to the west.

List of administrative divisions of Jiangsu

Jiangsu, a province of the People's Republic of China, is made up of three levels of administrative division: prefectural, count, and township.

Qingjiangpu District

Qingjiangpu District (Chinese: 清江浦区; pinyin: Qīngjiāngpǔ Qū) is one of four districts of the prefecture-level city of Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China. It was approved to establish on June 8, 2016. The district has an area of 420 km2 (160 sq mi) with a population of 735,900 (as of 2016). The district of Qingjiangpu has 12 subdistricts and 7 towns or townships under its jurisdiction, its seat is Chengnan Subdistrict (Chinese: 城南街道).

Trams in Huai'an

Huai'an Tram is a tram line operating in the city of Huai'an, running between Huai’an Gymnasium and South Gate stops. It is an at-grade and catenary-free tram system. It began operations on 28 December 2015.The tram route is 20.3 kilometres (12.6 mi) long and consists of 23 stops, which connects the city center with the southeastern part of city. 26 CRRC Zhuzhou trams serve the route; each car consists of four sections and is able to accommodate 360 passengers.

Xuyi County

Xuyi County (simplified Chinese: 盱眙县; traditional Chinese: 盱眙縣; pinyin: Xūyí Xiàn) is under the administration of Huai'an, Jiangsu province, China. The southernmost of Huai'an's county-level divisions, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Suqian to the north and Chuzhou (Anhui) to the south and west. Xuyi is noted for production of crayfish.

Jiangsu topics
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Culture
Visitor attractions
Sub-provincial city
Prefecture-level cities

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