Hu language

Hu (Chinese: 户语), also Angku or Kon Keu, is a Palaungic language of Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, China. Its speakers are an unclassified ethnic minority; the Chinese government counts the Angku as members of the Bulang nationality, but the Angku language is not intelligible with Bulang.[4]

Kon Keu
Native toChina
Native speakers
1,000 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
huo – Hu
kkn – Kon Keu (duplicate code)
Glottologhuuu1240  Hu[2]
konk1268  Kon Keu[3]


According to Li (2006:340), there are fewer than 1,000 speakers living on the slopes of the "Kongge" Mountain ("控格山") in Na Huipa village 纳回帕村, Mengyang township 勐养镇, Jinghong 景洪市 (a county-level city).[5]

Hu speakers call themselves the xuʔ˥, and the local Dai peoples call them the "black people" (黑人), as well as xɔn˥ kɤt˧˥, meaning 'surviving souls' (Yan & Zhou 2012:152).[6] They are also known locally as the Kunge people 昆格人 or Kongge people 控格人 (Li 2006).


  1. ^ Li Jinfang (2006)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kon Keu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Hu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  5. ^ "景洪市勐养镇昆格村委会纳回帕". Retrieved 2016-01-30.
  6. ^ Yan Qixiang [颜其香] & Zhou Zhizhi [周植志] (2012). Mon-Khmer languages of China and the Austroasiatic family [中国孟高棉语族语言与南亚语系]. Beijing: Social Sciences Academy Press [社会科学文献出版社].

Further reading

  • Jiang, Guangyou 蒋光友 & Shi, Jian 时建. 2016. A reference grammar of Kunge [Hu] / Kungeyu cankao yufa 昆格语参考语法. Beijing: China Social Science Press 中国社会科学出版社. ISBN 9787516184448
  • Li Jinfang [李锦芳]. 2006. Studies on endangered languages in the Southwest China [西南地区濒危语言调查研究]. Beijing: Minzu University [中央民族大学出版社].
  • Svantesson, Jan-Olof. 1991. "Hu - a Language with Unorthodox Tonogenesis." In Austroasiatic Languages, Essays in honour of H. L. Shorto, edited by Jeremy H.C.S. Davidson. 67-80. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

External links

!Kung languages

!Kung (!Xun), also known as Ju, is a dialect continuum (language complex) spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and Angola by the ǃKung people, constituting two or three languages. Together with the ǂʼAmkoe language, !Kung forms the Kxʼa language family. !Kung constituted one of the branches of the putative Khoisan language family, and was called Northern Khoisan in that scenario, but the unity of Khoisan has never been demonstrated and is now regarded as spurious. Nonetheless, the anthropological term "Khoisan" has been retained as an umbrella term for click languages in general.!Kung is famous for having a large number of clicks, such as the ǃ in its name, and has some of the most complex inventories of both consonants and vowels in the world. It also has tone. For a description, see Juǀʼhoan. To pronounce !Xuun (pronounced [!͡χũː˦˥] in Western !Kung/!Xuun) one makes a click sound before the x sound (which is like a Scottish or German ch), followed by a long nasal u vowel with a high rising tone.

List of endangered languages in China

An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":


Definitely endangered

Severely endangered

Critically endangered


The Shanghainese language, also known as the Shanghai dialect, Hu language or Hu dialect, is a variety of Wu Chinese spoken in the central districts of the City of Shanghai and its surrounding areas. It is classified as part of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Shanghainese, like other Wu variants, is mutually unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin.Shanghainese belongs to the Taihu Wu subgroup, and contains vocabulary and expressions from the entire Taihu Wu area of southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang. With nearly 14 million speakers, Shanghainese is also the largest single form of Wu Chinese. It serves as the lingua franca of the entire Yangtze River Delta region.

Shanghainese is rich in vowels [i y ɪ ʏ ei ø ɛ ə ɐ a ɑ ɔ ɤɯ o ʊ u] (twelve of which are phonemic) and in consonants. Like other Taihu Wu dialects, Shanghainese has voiced initials [b d ɡ ɦ z v dʑ ʑ]: neither Cantonese nor Mandarin has voiced initial stops or affricates. The Shanghainese tonal system is also significantly different from other Chinese varieties, sharing more similarities with the Japanese pitch accent, with two level tonal contrasts (high and low), whereas Cantonese and Mandarin are typical of contour tonal languages.

Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture

Xishuangbanna, Sibsongbanna, or Sipsong Panna, shortened to Banna (full name: Tham: ᩈᩥ᩠ᨷᩈ᩠ᩋᨦᨻᩢ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ; New Tai Lü script: ᦈᦹᧈᦈᦹᧈᦵᦋᦲᧁᧈᦘᦱᦉᦱᦺᦑ᧑᧒ᦗᧃᦓᦱ; Chinese: 西双版纳傣族自治州; Thai: สิบสองปันนา; Lao: ສິບສອງພັນນາ; Shan: သိပ်းသွင်ပၼ်းၼႃး; Burmese: စစ်ဆောင်ပန္နား) is a Tai Lü autonomous prefecture in the extreme south of Yunnan, China. The prefectural seat is Jinghong, the largest settlement in the area and one that straddles the Mekong, called the "Lancang River" in Chinese.This region of China is noted for its distinct culture, one unlike that of the Han Chinese. The people, architecture, language, and culture more closely resemble those of the Shan, Dai and Tai peoples, which includes the Thai and Lao.

ǂʼAmkoe language

ǂʼAmkoe, formerly called by the dialectal name ǂHoan (Eastern ǂHȍã, ǂHûân, ǂHua, ǂHû, or in native orthography ǂHȍȁn), is a severely endangered Kxʼa language of Botswana. West ǂʼAmkoe, Taa (or perhaps the Tsaasi dialect of Taa), and Gǀui form the core of the Kalahari Basin sprachbund, and share a number of characteristic features, including some of the largest consonant inventories in the world. ǂʼAmkoe was shown to be related to the Juu languages by Honken and Heine (2010), and as a result was classified along with the !Kung language in the Kxʼa language group.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.