Huế University

Huế University (Vietnamese: Đại học Huế) is a university located in Huế, the former imperial capital of Vietnam; it is one of the important regional universities of Vietnam. In Vietnam, universities are classified into three classes: national university (Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam National University, Hanoi), regional university (Thái Nguyên University, The University of Da Nang and Hue University) and university. Hue University is top 5 Vietnamese universities and top 350 universities in Asia according QS Ranking 2016.

Huế University
Huế University


Hue University, formerly known as The University of Hue, was initially established in March 1957. After the reunification of the country in 1975, independent universities were established in Hue on the basis of the existing faculties of The University of Hue. According to the Government Decree No. 30/ND-CP dated 4 April 1994, Hue University has been re-established by reorganizing all Hue-based universities. Hue University is responsible for training students at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, conducting research and applying science and technology in a multitude of disciplines to serve the construction and development of the country in general and Central Vietnam and Western Highlands in particular.

Organization structure

  • University Council
  • Science and Education Council
  • Council for Information Technology applications
  • Council for Quality Assurance
  • Academic member colleges and schools
    • College of Sciences
    • College of Education
    • College of Agriculture and Forestry
    • College of Medicine and Pharmacy
    • College of Arts
    • College of Economics
    • College of Foreign Languages
    • College of Law
    • School of Tourism and Hospitality
    • School of Physical Education
    • Hue University Quang Tri Branch
  • Administrative departments
    • Office for university administration
    • Academic Affairs
    • Science, Technology and Environment
    • International Cooperation
    • Planning and Finance
    • Personnel and Organisation
    • Student Relations
    • Facility Management
    • Testing
    • Legalism
    • Inspection
  • Centers
    • Center for Educational QA
    • Institute for Bio Technology
    • Institute for Natural Resources and Environment
    • Center for International Education
    • Center for Incubation and Tech Transfer
    • Distance Education Center
    • Learning Resource Centre
    • ICT Center
    • Student Service Center
    • National Defence Education Center

See also

External links



Coordinates: 16°27′30″N 107°34′47″E / 16.4583°N 107.5796°E

Auckland University of Technology

Auckland University of Technology (AUT) (Māori: Te Wānanga Aronui o Tāmaki Makau Rau) is a university in New Zealand, formed on 1 January 2000 when a former technical college (originally established in 1895) was granted university status. It has five faculties across three campuses in Auckland: City, North, and South campuses, and an additional three specialist locations: AUT Millennium, Warkworth Radio Astronomical Observatory and AUT Centre for Refugee Education.AUT enrolled more than 29,000 students in 2018, including 4,194 international students from 94 countries and 2,417 postgraduate students. AUT’s student population is diverse with a range of ethnic backgrounds including New Zealand European, Asian, Maori and Pasifika. Students also represent a wide age range with 22% being aged 25–39 years and 10% being 40 or older.AUT employed 2,474 full-time equivalent (FTE) staff in 2016, including both professional and academic.Data suggests that 86% of AUT's graduates are employed full-time within nine months of graduating. In the 2019 World University Rankings, AUT was ranked as 301-350.

Battle of Huế

The Battle of Huế – also called the Siege of Huế – was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War. Between 30 January and 3 March 1968, in the South Vietnamese city of Huế, 11 battalions of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), four U.S. Army battalions, and three U.S. Marine Corps battalions – totaling 18 battalions – defeated 10 battalions of the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong (VC).

By the beginning of the North Vietnamese Tet Offensive on January 30, 1968 – coinciding with the Vietnamese lunar New Year (Vietnamese: Tết Nguyên Đán) – large, conventional, U.S. forces had been committed to combat operations on Vietnamese soil for almost three years.

Highway 1, passing through the city of Huế, was an important supply line for ARVN, US, and Allied Forces from the coastal city of Da Nang to the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). It also provided access to the Perfume River (Vietnamese: Sông Hương or Hương Giang) at the point where the river ran through Huế, dividing the city into northern and southern parts. Huế was also a base for United States Navy supply boats.

Considering its logistical value and its proximity to the DMZ (only 50 kilometres (31 mi)), Huế should have been well-defended, fortified, and prepared for any communist attack. However, the city had few fortifications and was poorly defended.

While the ARVN 1st Division had cancelled all Tet leave and was attempting to recall its troops, the South Vietnamese and U.S. forces in the city were unprepared when the Viet Cong and the PAVN launched the Tet Offensive, attacking hundreds of military targets and population centers across the country, including Huế.The PAVN/Vietcong forces rapidly occupied most of the city. Over the next month, they were gradually driven out during intense house-to-house fighting led by the Marines and ARVN. In the end, although the Allies declared a military victory, the city of Huế was virtually destroyed, and more than 5,000 civilians were killed (2,800 of them executed by the PAVN and Viet Cong, according to the South Vietnamese government). The communist forces lost an estimated 2,400 to 8,000 killed, while Allied forces lost 668 dead and 3,707 wounded. The losses negatively affected the American public's perception of the war, and political support for the war began to wane.

Education in Vietnam

Education in Vietnam is a state-run system of public and private education run by the Ministry of Education and Training. It is divided into five levels: preschool, primary school, secondary school, high school, and higher education. Formal education consists of twelve years of basic education. Basic education consists of five years of primary education, four years of intermediate education, and three years of secondary education. The majority of basic education students are enrolled on a half-day basis. The main education goal in Vietnam is "improving people’s general knowledge, training quality human resources, and nurturing and fostering talent."Vietnam is known for its rigorous curriculum that is deemed as competitive for students. Secondary education is one of the most significant social issues in the country: designated schools known as "High schools for the gifted" (Trường trung học phổ thông chuyên) are regarded as prestigious and often demand high entrance examination results. Higher education is also a fundamental cornerstone in Vietnamese society. Entrance to university is determined through the National High School Graduation Examination, whose results will be considered for evaluation. The higher the score is, the more prestigious the institution will be. Failure to attend university often leads to social stigma, as those who could not pass the Graduation Examination would be looked down upon by members of society.

With one of the highest GDP growth rates in Asia, Vietnam is attempting to improve its education system; in 2012, estimated national budget for education was 6.3%. In the last decade, Vietnamese public reception of the country's education system has been mixed. Citizens have been critical of the rigorous curriculum, which has led to serious social issues including depression, anxiety, and even increasing suicide rates. There have been comments from the public that schools should opt for a more flexible studying program, with less emphasis on paper tests and more focus on life skills development. In response to public opinion, the Ministry of Education and Training has come up with resolutions to reform the education system, which were met with both positive and negative feedback, leaving education reform still a controversial topic to date.

Ernie Cheatham

Ernest Clifford Cheatham Jr. (July 27, 1929 – June 14, 2014) was a United States Marine Corps officer, a veteran of the Korean War and the Vietnam War, a recipient of the Navy Cross, and American football defensive tackle who played for the Baltimore Colts and the Pittsburgh Steelers.

Huế College of Foreign Languages

The Hue College of Foreign Languages (Trường Đại học Ngoại ngữ Huế) is a college established in 2004 in Huế, Vietnam. It is part of Huế University.

Larry Heinemann

Larry Heinemann (born 1944) is an American novelist born and raised in Chicago. His published work—three novels and a memoir—is primarily concerned with the Vietnam War.

List of forestry universities and colleges

This is a list of tertiary educational institutions around the world offering bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees in forestry or related fields. Where noted, the country's accreditation board standard has been used and cited. They are grouped by continent.(For educational institutions with forestry technician or professional certificate programs see: List of forestry technical schools.)

Ngo Dinh Diem

Ngô Đình Diệm (; Vietnamese: [ŋō ɗìn jîəmˀ] (listen); 3 January 1901 – 2 November 1963) was a Vietnamese politician. He was the final prime minister of the State of Vietnam (1954–55), and then served as President of South Vietnam from 1955 until he was deposed and killed during the 1963 military coup.

Diệm was born into a prominent Catholic family, the son of a high-ranking civil servant, Ngô Đình Khả. He was educated at French-speaking schools and considered following his brother Ngô Đình Thục into the priesthood, but eventually chose to pursue a civil-service career. He progressed rapidly in the court of Emperor Bảo Đại, becoming governor of Bình Thuận Province in 1929 and interior minister in 1933. However, he resigned the latter position after three months and publicly denounced the emperor as a tool of the French. Diệm came to support Vietnamese nationalism, promoting an anti-communist and anti-colonialist "third way" opposed to both Bảo Đại and communist leader Hồ Chí Minh. He established the Can Lao Party to support his political doctrine of Person Dignity Theory.

After several years in exile, Diệm returned home in July 1954 and was appointed prime minister by Bảo Đại, the head of the Western-backed State of Vietnam. The Geneva Accords were signed soon after he took office, formally partitioning Vietnam along the 17th parallel. Diệm soon consolidated power in South Vietnam, aided by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu. After a rigged referendum in 1955, he proclaimed the creation of the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as president. His government was supported by other anti-communist countries, most notably the United States. Diệm pursued a series of nation-building schemes, emphasising industrial and rural development. From 1957, he was faced with a communist insurgency backed by North Vietnam, eventually formally organized under the banner of the Việt Cộng. He was subject to a number of assassination and coup attempts, and in 1962 established the Strategic Hamlet Program as the cornerstone of his counterinsurgency effort.

Diệm's favoritism towards Catholics and persecution of South Vietnam's Buddhist majority led to the "Buddhist crisis" of 1963. The violence damaged relations with the United States and other previously sympathetic countries, and his regime lost favour with the leadership of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. On 1 November 1963, the country's leading generals launched a coup d'état with assistance from the CIA. He and his younger brother Nhu initially escaped, but were recaptured the following day and murdered on the orders of Dương Văn Minh, who succeeded him as president. Diệm has been a controversial historical figure in historiography on the Vietnam War. Some historians have portrayed him as a tool of the United States, while others considered him an avatar of Vietnamese tradition. Some recent studies have portrayed Diệm from a more Vietnamese-centred perspective as a competent leader focused on nation building and the modernisation of South Vietnam.

Nguyễn Ngọc Loan

Major General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan (Vietnamese: [ŋʷǐənˀ ŋâwkp lʷāːn]; 11 December 1930 – 14 July 1998) was a South Vietnamese general and chief of the South Vietnamese National Police.

Loan gained international attention when he summarily executed handcuffed prisoner Nguyễn Văn Lém, on February 1, 1968 in Saigon, Vietnam during the Tet Offensive. Nguyễn Văn Lém was a Việt Cộng member. The event was witnessed and recorded by Võ Sửu, a cameraman for NBC, and Eddie Adams, an Associated Press photographer. The photo and film became two famous images in contemporary American journalism.

Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Chánh

Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Chánh (born Huế, Vietnam on 12 February 1942), is a self-proclaimed member of Vietnam's Nguyễn dynasty and pretender to the defunct throne of Vietnam. His great great grandfather was the 76th son of Emperor Ming Mang as a result of one night stand. Thus Chanh is a commoner just like millions of other Vietnamese.

Ngô Đình Cẩn

Ngô Đình Cẩn (Vietnamese: [ŋo˧ ɗɨ̞̠n˦˩ kəŋ˦˩]; 1911 – 9 May 1964) was a younger brother and confidant of South Vietnam's first president, Ngô Đình Diệm, and an important member of the Diệm government. Diệm put Cẩn in charge of central Vietnam, stretching from Phan Thiết in the south to the border at the 17th parallel, with Cẩn ruling the region as a virtual dictator. Based in the former imperial capital of Huế, Cẩn operated private armies and secret police that controlled the central region and earned himself a reputation as the most oppressive of the Ngô brothers.

In his youth, Cẩn was a follower of the nationalist Phan Bội Châu. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, he worked to organise support for Diệm as various Vietnamese groups and international powers sought to stamp their authority over Vietnam. Cẩn, who succeeded in eliminating alternative nationalist opposition in central Vietnam, became the warlord of the region when his brother became president of the southern half of the partitioned nation in 1955. He became notorious for his involvement in smuggling and corruption, as well as his autocratic rule. Cẩn was regarded as an effective leader against the Viet Cong communist insurgency, which was much weaker in central Vietnam than in other parts of South Vietnam. His Popular Force militia was regarded by US officials in central Vietnam as a successful counter to the communists.Cẩn's influence began to wane after his elder brother Ngô Đình Thục was appointed the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Huế. Thục overshadowed Cẩn and aggressively promoted Catholicism, which led to the banning of the Buddhist flag in 1963 during Vesak, the celebration of the birthday of Gautama Buddha. Cẩn's forces opened fire on a crowd who were protesting the ban, killing nine and precipitating the Buddhist crisis. Ongoing demonstrations intensified throughout the summer as the regime responded with increased brutality, sparking the toppling of the Diem regime in a November 1963 coup. Cẩn had been offered asylum by the US Department of State, but ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. had CIA agent Lucien Conein arrest the fallen Ngô in Saigon. Cẩn was turned over to the military junta, which tried and executed him in 1964.

Ngô Đình Nhu

Ngô Đình Nhu (listen; 7 October 1910 – 2 November 1963) was a Vietnamese archivist and politician. He was the younger brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnam's first president, Ngô Đình Diệm. Although he held no formal executive position, he wielded immense unofficial power, exercising personal command of both the ARVN Special Forces (a paramilitary unit which served as the Ngô family's de facto private army) and the Cần Lao political apparatus (also known as the Personalist Labor Party) which served as the regime's de facto secret police.In his early age, Nhu was a quiet and bookish individual who showed little inclination towards the political path taken by his elder brothers. While training as an archivist in France, Nhu adopted the Roman Catholic ideology of personalism, although critics claimed that he misused that philosophy. Upon returning to Vietnam, he helped his brother in his quest for political power, and Nhu proved an astute and ruthless tactician and strategist, helping Diệm to gain more leverage and outwit rivals. During this time, he formed and handpicked the members of the secret Cần Lao Party, which swore its personal allegiance to the Ngô family, provided their power base and eventually became their secret police force. Nhu remained as its head until his own assassination.In 1955, Nhu's supporters helped intimidate the public and rig the 1955 State of Vietnam referendum that ensconced his elder brother, Diệm, in power. Nhu used the Cần Lao, which he organised into cells, to infiltrate every part of society to root out opposition to the Ngô family. In 1959, he organized a failed assassination attempt via mail bomb on Prince Sihanouk, the prime minister of neighbouring Cambodia, with whom relations had become strained. Nhu publicly extolled his own intellectual abilities. He was known for making such public statements as promising to demolish the Xá Lợi Pagoda and vowing to kill his estranged father-in-law, Trần Văn Chương, who was the regime's ambassador to the United States, after the elder man condemned the Ngô family's behavior and disowned his daughter, Nhu's wife, Madame Nhu.In 1963, the Ngô family's grip on power became unstuck during the Buddhist crisis, during which the nation's Buddhist majority rose up against the pro-Catholic regime. Nhu tried to break the Buddhists' opposition by using the Special Forces in raids on prominent Buddhist temples that left hundreds dead, and framing the regular army for it. However, Nhu's plan was uncovered, which intensified plots by military officers, encouraged by the Americans, who turned against the Ngô family after the pagoda attacks. Nhu was aware of the plots, but remained confident he could outmaneuver them, and began to plot a counter-coup, as well as the assassinations of US Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. and other American and opposition figures. Nhu was fooled by the loyalist General Tôn Thất Đính, who had turned against the Ngô family. On 1 November 1963, the coup proceeded, and the Ngô brothers (Nhu and Diệm) were detained and assassinated the next day.


A quark () is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei. Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, which include baryons (such as protons and neutrons) and mesons. For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of hadrons.

Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, mass, color charge, and spin. They are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces (electromagnetism, gravitation, strong interaction, and weak interaction), as well as the only known particles whose electric charges are not integer multiples of the elementary charge.

There are six types, known as flavors, of quarks: up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top. Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Because of this, up and down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe, whereas strange, charm, bottom, and top quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and in particle accelerators). For every quark flavor there is a corresponding type of antiparticle, known as an antiquark, that differs from the quark only in that some of its properties (such as the electric charge) have equal magnitude but opposite sign.

The quark model was independently proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964. Quarks were introduced as parts of an ordering scheme for hadrons, and there was little evidence for their physical existence until deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968. Accelerator experiments have provided evidence for all six flavors. The top quark, first observed at Fermilab in 1995, was the last to be discovered.

Shizuoka University

Shizuoka University (静岡大学, Shizuoka Daigaku, abbreviated to Shizudai (静大)) is a national university in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

Shizuoka University is well known in the field of engineering, in creative innovation, and in the invention of next generation technology, with the prestigious international exchange of laboratories in these fields. One of the notable persons is the father of Japanese television, Kenjiro Takayanagi. Soichiro Honda, the founding president of the global corporation Honda Motor Co. Ltd., studied in Hamamatsu College of Technology (now Shizuoka University School of Engineering). Heihachiro Horiuchi, founder of Hamamatsu Photonics, is an alumnus of the Hamamatsu Kōtō Kōgyō Gakkō (today’s Electronics Institute of Shizuoka University) and a disciple of Prof. Kenjiro Takayanagi. Shizuoka University also enters into partnership agreement with various corporations, such as Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd. Various performances and inventions of students and graduates are cited in TV mass media.Graduates and fellows of Shizuoka University become successful leaders in different areas. Nakasone Yasuhiro, who was a Prime Minister of Japan and a world leader, studied in the prestigious Shizuoka High School (now part of Shizuoka University). Gayu Uesugi, Chairman of Mitsubishi Motors North America, has a master's degree in Engineering from Shizuoka University. Moreover, Osamu Suzuki, the Chairman of Suzuki Motor Corporation, was conferred with an honorary doctorate. Dr. Yuan-Tseh Lee, Nobel Prize awardee in Chemistry, was awarded with Doctor (Honoris Causa) degree.The Environmental Leaders Program (ELSU) was launched to foster "Environmental Leader Meisters" for advancing the protection of the ecosystem and coexistence of human society. ELSU focuses on resolving issues to rejuvenate the environment in Asian and African regions. Moreover, Asia Bridge Program is established to educate future global leaders in science, business and society.Shizuoka University has very high (VH) research intensity and belongs to the top universities in Japan, Asia and the world according to various university ranking schemes, such as Quacquarelli Symonds (QS), Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) and University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP). In Thomson Reuters Science Watch Report (2005-2009), Shizuoka University is a high-impact institution in materials science. Furthermore, the Research and Education Center of Nanovision Science is part of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) 21st Century Center of Excellence (COE) Program. The Faculty of Informatics is recognized as a distinctive university educational program by the Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

The university consists of six faculties: Humanities and Social Sciences, Education, Informatics, Science, Engineering, and Agriculture. It consists of two main campuses, in the cities of Shizuoka and Hamamatsu (Engineering and Informatics faculties). National universities in Japan tend to be held in higher regard in higher education than private or public universities. National universities are highly selective in student admissions. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of the Japanese Government assures quality of higher education in national universities.

Thừa Thiên-Huế Province

Thừa Thiên-Huế (listen) is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, approximately in the centre of the country. It borders Quảng Trị Province to the north and Đà Nẵng to the south, Laos to the west and the East Sea to the east. The province has 128 km of coastline, 22,000 ha of lagoons and over 200,000 ha of forest. There is an extensive complex of imperial tombs and temples in Huế.

University of Da Nang

The University of Đà Nẵng (Vietnamese: Đại học Đà Nẵng) is a regional multi-disciplinary university in Central Vietnam.

Xá Lợi Pagoda raids

The Xá Lợi Pagoda raids were a series of synchronized attacks on various Buddhist pagodas in the major cities of South Vietnam shortly after midnight on 21 August 1963. The raids were executed by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces under Colonel Lê Quang Tung, and combat police, both of which took their orders directly from Ngô Đình Nhu, younger brother of the Roman Catholic President Ngô Đình Diệm. Xá Lợi Pagoda, the largest pagoda in the South Vietnamese capital, Saigon, was the most prominent of the raided temples. Over 1,400 Buddhists were arrested, and estimates of the death toll and missing ranged up to the hundreds. In response to the Huế Vesak shootings and a ban on the Buddhist flag in early May, South Vietnam's Buddhist majority rose in widespread civil disobedience and protest against the religious bias and discrimination of the Catholic-dominated Diệm government. Buddhist temples in major cities, most prominently the Xá Lợi pagoda, became focal points for protesters and assembly points for Buddhist monks from rural areas.

In August, several Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) generals proposed the imposition of martial law, ostensibly to break up the demonstrations, but in reality to prepare for a military coup. However, Nhu, already looking to arrest Buddhist leaders and crush the protest movement, used the opportunity to preempt the generals and embarrass them. He disguised Tung's Special Forces in army uniforms and used them to attack the Buddhists, thereby causing the general public and South Vietnam's U.S. allies to blame the army, diminishing the generals' reputations and ability to act as future national leaders.

Soon after midnight on 21 August, Nhu's men attacked the pagodas using automatic firearms, grenades, battering rams and explosives, causing widespread damage. Some religious objects were destroyed, including a statue of Gautama Buddha in the Từ Đàm Pagoda in Huế, which was partially leveled by explosives. Temples were looted and vandalized, with the remains of venerated monks confiscated. In Huế, violent street battles erupted between government forces and rioting pro-Buddhist, anti-government civilians.

Initially, the Ngô family claimed that the army had carried out the raids, something their U.S. allies initially believed. However, this was later debunked, and the incident prompted the United States to turn against the regime and begin exploring alternative leadership options, eventually leading to Diệm's overthrow in a coup. In South Vietnam itself, the raids stoked widespread anger. Several high-ranking public servants resigned, and university and high school students boycotted classes and staged riotous demonstrations, resulting in further mass incarcerations. As most of the students were from middle-class public service and military families, the arrests caused further upset among the Ngô family's power base.

Đỗ Cao Trí

Lieutenant General Đỗ Cao Trí (20 November 1929 – 23 February 1971) was a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) known for his fighting prowess and flamboyant style. Trí started out in the French Army before transferring to the Vietnamese National Army and the ARVN. Under President Ngô Đình Diệm, Trí was the commander of I Corps where he was noted for harsh crackdowns on Buddhist civil rights demonstrations against the Diệm government. Trí later participated in the November 1963 coup which resulted in the assassination of Diệm on 2 November 1963.

Years later, Trí was exiled by Nguyễn Cao Kỳ, the most powerful member of the junta, but when Nguyễn Văn Thiệu came to power, he was called back to command III Corps. He led III Corps during the 1970 Cambodian Campaign, earning the laudatory sobriquet as "the Patton of the Parrot's Beak". In 1971, Trí was ordered north to take command of I Corps in Operation Lam Son 719, an incursion into Laos, which had gone astray. He was killed, aged 41, in a helicopter accident before being able to take control.

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