Huế

Huế (Vietnamese: [hwě] (listen) is a city in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong Kingdom from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyễn Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater. The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.

Huế

Thành Phố Huế
Huế City
Official logo of Huế

Nickname(s): 
City of Romance, Festival City
Huế is located in Vietnam
Huế
Huế
Location of Huế
Coordinates: 16°28′00″N 107°34′45″E / 16.46667°N 107.57917°E
CountryVietnam
ProvinceThừa Thiên–Huế
Area
 • Total70.67 km2 (27.29 sq mi)
Elevation
15 m (49 ft)
Population
 (2018)
 • Total455,230
 • Density5,010.9/km2 (12,978/sq mi)
ClimateAm
Websitehuecity.gov.vn

History

The oldest ruins in Huế belong to the Kingdom of Lâm Ấp, date back to the 4th century AD. The ruins of its capital, the ancient city of Kandapurpura is now located in Long Thọ Hill, 3 kilometers to the west of the city. Another Champa ruin in the vicinity, the ancient city of Hóa Châu is dated back to the 9th century.

In 1306, the King of Champa Chế Mân offered Vietnam two Chăm prefectures, Ô and Lý, in exchange for marriage with a Vietnamese princess named Huyền Trân.[1] The Vietnamese King Trần Anh Tông accepted this offer.[1] He took and renamed Ô and Lý prefectures to Thuận prefecture and Hóa prefecture, respectively, with both of them often referred to as Thuận Hóa region.[1][2]

In 1592, the Mạc dynasty was forced to flee to Cao Bằng and the Lê emperors were enthroned as de jure Vietnamese rulers under the leadership of Nguyễn Kim, the leader of Lê Dynasty loyalists. Later, Kim was poisoned by a Mạc Dynasty general which paved the way for his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm, to take over the leadership. Kim's eldest son, Nguyễn Uông, was also assassinated in order to secure Trịnh Kiểm's authority.[3] Nguyễn Hoàng, another son of Nguyễn Kim, feared a fate like Nguyễn Uông's so he pretended to have mental illness. He asked his sister Ngoc Bao, who was a wife of Trịnh Kiểm, to entreat Kiểm to let Hoàng govern Thuận Hóa, the furthest south region of Vietnam at that time.[4]

Because Mạc dynasty loyalists were revolting in Thuận Hóa and Trịnh Kiểm was busy fighting the Mạc dynasty forces in northern Vietnam during this time, Ngoc Bao's request was approved and Nguyễn Hoàng went south.[4] After Hoàng pacified Thuận Hóa, he and his heir Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên serectly made this region loyal to the Nguyễn family; then they rose against the Trịnh Lords.[5][6] Vietnam erupted into a new civil war between two de facto ruling families: the clan of the Nguyễn lords and the clan of the Trịnh lords.

The Nguyễn lords chose Thừa Thiên, a northern territory of Thuận Hóa, as their family seat.[7] In 1687 during the reign of Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Trăn,[8] the construction of a citadel was started in Phú Xuân, a village in Thừa Thiên Province.[7][8] The citadel was a power symbol of Nguyễn family rather than a defensive building because the Trịnh lords' army could not breach Nguyễn lords' defense in the north regions of Phú Xuân.[7] In 1744, Phú Xuân officially became the capital of central and southern Vietnam after Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát proclaimed himseft Võ vương (Võ King or Martial King in Vietnamese).[7] Among westerners living in the capital at this period was the Portuguese Jesuit João de Loureiro from 1752 onwards.[9]

However, Tây Sơn rebellions broke out in 1771 and quickly occupied a large area from Quy Nhơn to Bình Thuận, thereby weakening the authority and power of the Nguyễn lords.[10] While the war between Tây Sơn rebellion and Nguyễn lord was being fought, the Trịnh lords sent south a massive army and easily captured Phú Xuân in 1775.[11] After the capture of Phú Xuân, the Trịnh lords' general Hoàng Ngũ Phúc made a tactical alliance with Tây Sơn and withdrew almost all troops to Tonkin and left some troops in Phú Xuân.[12] In 1786, Tây Sơn rebellion defeated the Trịnh garrison and occupied Phú Xuân.[13] Under the reign of emperor Quang Trung, Phú Xuân became Tây Sơn dynasty capital.[14] In 1802, Nguyễn Ánh, a successor of the Nguyễn lords, recaptured Phú Xuân and unified the country. Nguyễn Ánh rebuilt the citadel entirely and made it the Imperial City capital of all of Vietnam.[7]

The city's current name is likely a non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of the Chinese (Sino-Vietnamese: hoá), as in the historical name Thuận Hoá (順化).

Enthronement of Emperor Bảo Đại 010
Enthronement of Emperor Bảo Đại in the Imperial City in 1926

In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (later Emperor Gia Long) succeeded in establishing his control over the whole of Vietnam, thereby making Huế the national capital.[15]

Minh Mạng (r. 1820–40) was the second emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, reigning from 14 February 1820 (his 29th birthday) until his death, on 20 January 1841. He was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Cảnh, had died in 1801. Minh Mạng was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam, and for his rigid Confucian orthodoxy.

During the French colonial period, Huế was in the protectorate of Annam. It remained the seat of the Imperial Palace until 1945, when Emperor Bảo Đại abdicated and the DRV government was established with its capital at Hà Nội (Hanoi), in the north.[16]

While Bảo Đại was proclaimed "Head of the State of Vietnam" with the help of the returning French colonialists in 1949 (although not with recognition from the communists or the full acceptance of the Vietnamese people), his new capital was Sài Gòn (Saigon), in the south.[17]

During the Republic of Vietnam period, Huế, being very near the border between the North and South, was vulnerable in the Vietnam War. In the Tết Offensive of 1968, during the Battle of Huế, the city suffered considerable damage not only to its physical features, but its reputation as well, due to a combination of the American military bombing of historic buildings held by the North Vietnamese, and the massacre at Huế committed by the communist forces.

After the war's conclusion in 1975, many of the historic features of Huế were neglected because they were seen by the victorious communist regime and some other Vietnamese as "relics from the feudal regime"; the Vietnamese Communist Party doctrine officially described the Nguyễn Dynasty as "feudal" and "reactionary." There has since been a change of policy, however, and many historical areas of the city are currently being restored and the city is being developed as a centre for tourism and transportation for central Vietnam.

Aster Hue City
Satellite picture of the city and the Perfume River

Geography

The city is located in central Vietnam on the banks of the Perfume River, just a few miles inland from the East Sea. It is about 700 km (430 mi) south of Hanoi and about 1,100 km (680 mi) north of Hồ Chí Minh City.

Climate

Huế features a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification, falling short of a tropical rainforest climate because there is less than 60 millimetres (2.4 in) of rain in March and April. The dry season is from March to August, with high temperatures of 35 to 40 °C (95 to 104 °F). The rainy season is from August to January, with a flood season from October, onwards. The average rainy season temperature is 20 °C (68 °F), sometimes as low as 9 °C (48 °F). Spring lasts from January to late February.[18]

Government

Local People's Council (7351203646)
Local People's Committee building in Huế

Administrative divisions

Huế comprises 27 administrative divisions, including 27 phường (urban wards):

  • An Cựu
  • An Đông
  • An Hoà
  • An Tây
  • Hương Sơ
  • Kim Long
  • Phú Bình
  • Phú Cát
  • Phú Hậu
  • Phú Hiệp
  • Phú Hòa
  • Phú Hội
  • Phú Nhuận
  • Phú Thuận
  • Phước Vĩnh
  • Phường Đúc
  • Tây Lộc
  • Thuận Hòa
  • Thuận Lộc
  • Thuận Thành
  • Trường An
  • Vĩnh Ninh
  • Vỹ Dạ
  • Xuân Phú
  • Hương Long
  • Thủy Xuân
  • Thủy Biều

Culture

In the center of Vietnam, Huế was the capital city of Vietnam for approximately 150 years during feudal times (1802–1945),[20] and the royal lifestyle and customs have had a significant impact on the characteristics of the people of Huế. That impact can still be felt today.

Name-giving

Historically, the qualities valued by the royal family were reflected in its name-giving customs, which came to be adopted by society at large. As a rule, royal family members were named after a poem written by Minh Mạng, the second emperor of Nguyễn Dynasty. The poem, Đế hệ thi",[21] has been set as a standard frame to name every generation of the royal family, through which people can know the family order as well as the relationship between royal members. More importantly, the names reflect the essential personality traits that the royal regime would like their offspring to uphold. This name-giving tradition is proudly kept alive and nowadays people from Huế royal family branches (normally considered 'pure' Huế) still have their names taken from the words in the poem.

Clothing

Festival Huế 2008-3
Festival in Huế

The design of the modern-day áo dài, a Vietnamese national costume, evolved from an outfit worn at the court of the Nguyễn Lords at Huế in the 18th century. A court historian of the time described the rules of dress as follows:

Thường phục thì đàn ông, đàn bà dùng áo cổ đứng ngắn tay, cửa ống tay rộng hoặc hẹp tùy tiện. Áo thì hai bên nách trở xuống phải khâu kín liền, không được xẻ mở. Duy đàn ông không muốn mặc áo cổ tròn ống tay hẹp cho tiện khi làm việc thì được phép.

Outside court, men and women wear gowns with straight collars and short sleeves. The sleeves are large or small depending on the weather. There are seams on both sides running down from the sleeve, so the gown is not open anywhere. Men may wear a round collar and a short sleeve for more convenience.

This outfit evolved into the áo ngũ thân, a five-paneled aristocratic gown worn in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Inspired by Paris fashions, Nguyễn Cát Tường and other artists associated with Hanoi University redesigned the ngũ thân as a modern dress in the 1920s and 1930s.[22] While the áo dài and nón lá are generally seen as a symbol of Vietnam as a whole, the combination is seen by Vietnamese as being particularly evocative of Huế. Violet-coloured áo dài are especially common in Huế, the color having a special connection to the city's heritage as a former capital.[23][24]

Cuisine

Bun Bo Hue 1
Bún bò Huế, a typical noodle dish

The cuisine of Huế forms the heart of Central Vietnamese cuisine, but one of the most striking differences is the prominence of vegetarianism in the city. Several all-vegetarian restaurants are scattered in various corners of the city to serve the locals who have a strong tradition of eating a vegetarian meal twice a month, as part of their Buddhist beliefs. Another feature of Huế dishes that sets them apart from other regional cuisines in Vietnam is the relatively small serving size with refined presentation, a vestige of its royal cuisine. Huế cuisine is notable for often being very spicy.[25]

Hue cuisine has both luxurious and popular rustic dishes. With such a rich history, Hue's royal cuisine combines both taste and aesthetics. It consists of several distinctive dishes from small and delicate creations, originally made to please the appetites of Nguyen feudal lords, emperors, and their hundreds of concubines and wives.[26]

Religion

The imperial court practiced various religions such as Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. The most important altar was the Esplanade of Sacrifice to the Heaven and Earth, where the monarch would offer each year prayers to the Heaven and Earth.

In Huế, Buddhism enjoyed stronger support than elsewhere in Vietnam, with more monasteries than anywhere else in the country serving as home to the nation's most famous monks.

In 1963, Thích Quảng Đức drove from Hue to Saigon to protest anti-Buddhist policies of the South Vietnamese government, setting himself on fire on a Saigon street. Photos of the self-immolation became some of the enduring images of the Vietnam War.[27]

Thich Nhat Hanh, world-famous Zen master who originates from Huế and has lived for years in exile including France and the United States, has returned to his home town in October 2018 and been residing there since.[28]

Tourism

Complex of Huế Monuments
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Hue Vietnam Citadel-of-Huế-01
Meridian Gate of the Imperial City
CriteriaCultural: iv
Reference678
Inscription1993 (17th Session)
Area315.47 ha
Buffer zone71.93 ha

Huế is well known for its historic monuments, which have earned it a place in UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.[29] The seat of the Nguyễn emperors was the Imperial City, which occupies a large, walled area on the north side of the Perfume River. Inside the citadel was a forbidden city where only the emperors, concubines, and those close enough to them were granted access; the punishment for trespassing was death. Today, little of the forbidden city remains, though reconstruction efforts are in progress to maintain it as a historic tourist attraction.

Roughly along the Perfume River from Huế lie myriad other monuments, including the tombs of several emperors, including Minh Mạng, Khải Định, and Tự Đức. Also notable is the Thiên Mụ Pagoda, the largest pagoda in Huế and the official symbol of the city.[30]

A number of French-style buildings lie along the south bank of the Perfume River. Among them are Quốc Học High School, the oldest high school in Vietnam, and Hai Ba Trung High School.

The Huế Museum of Royal Fine Arts on 3 Le Truc Street also maintains a collection of various artifacts from the city.

In addition to the various touristic attractions in Hué itself, the city also offers day-trips to the Demilitarized Zone lying approximately 70 km (43 mi) north, showing various war settings like The Rockpile, Khe Sanh Combat Base or the Vinh Moc tunnels.

In the first 11 months of 2012, Huế received 2.4 million visitors, an increase of 24.6% from the same period of 2011. 803,000 of those 2.4 million visitors were foreign guests, an increase of 25.7%. Although tourism plays a key role in the city's socioeconomic development, it also has negative impacts on the environment and natural resource base.[31] For example, services associated with tourism, such as travel, the development of infrastructure and its operation, and the production and consumption of goods, are all energy-intensive.[32] Research by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network has identified traditional ‘garden houses’ as having the potential to increase tourist traffic and revenue. Apart from the environmental, economic and cultural benefits provided by garden houses, their promotion could pave the way for other low carbon development initiatives.[33]

Infrastructure

Health

The Huế Central Hospital, established in 1894, was the first Western hospital in Vietnam. The hospital, providing 2078 beds and occupying 120,000 square meters (30 acres), is one of three largest in the country along with Bạch Mai Hospital in Hanoi and Chợ Rẫy Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, and is managed by the Ministry of Health.[34]

Transportation

Huế Railway Station provides a rail connection to major Vietnamese cities, via the North-South Railway. Phu Bai International Airport is just south of the city centre.

Sister cities

Gallery

Kaierstadt Hue, Vietnam (27767039609)

Entrance of the Imperial City

Hue Emperor city Vietnam (38834320914)

Imperial City

Sightseeing in Hue, Vietnam (39543487721)

Sightseeing

Neun dynastische Urnen von Hue, Vietnam (38834362474)

Nine Dynastic Urns

Staircases at Hiem Lam Cac, Hue (27767064639)

Staircases at Hiem Lam Cac

Old town of Hue, Vietnam (39543480171)

Imperial City, Gate

Lotus lake in Hue, Vietnam (25672760978)

Lotus lake

Grab von Kaiser Khai Dinh, Hue (39513722502)

Tomb of Emperor Khải Định

Khai Dinh Mausoleum Hue (27767160179)

Khải Định Mausoleum

Mandarin soldiers Khai Dinh tomb Hue (38647378655)

Mandarin soldiers at Khải Định tomb

Hue Vietnam Perfume-River-01

Perfume River

At Hue Citadel8

Hall of Supreme Harmony in the Imperial City

Khai Dinh-tombejo-3

Tomb of Emperor Khải Định

Cầu Trường Tiền về đêm 2011

Trường Tiền Bridge

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Đại Nam thực lục

References

  1. ^ a b c Chapuis, p.85.
  2. ^ Phan Khoang, p.85.
  3. ^ Chapuis, p. 119.
  4. ^ a b Phan Khoang, pp.108–110.
  5. ^ Trần Trọng Kim, pp. 275–276.
  6. ^ Trần Trọng Kim, pp. 281–283.
  7. ^ a b c d e Ring & Salkin & La Boda, pp.362–364.
  8. ^ a b Trần Trọng Kim, p. 326
  9. ^ Nhung Tuyet Tran, Anthony Reid Việt Nam: Borderless Histories 2006 Page 223 "He did not, however, leave Asia, traveling instead around the region collecting botanical species, before eventually returning to Phú Xuân in 1752. He then remained at the Nguyễn political center for the next quarter century, finally leaving at ..."
  10. ^ George Edson Dutton The Tây Sơn Uprising: Society and Rebellion in Eighteenth-century Vietnam 2006 "Phú Xuân"
  11. ^ Trần Trọng Kim, pp. 337–338.
  12. ^ Trần Trọng Kim, pp. 339–340
  13. ^ Trần Trọng Kim, pp. 348–349.
  14. ^ Largo, p.105.
  15. ^ Woodside, Alexander (1988). Vietnam and the Chinese model: a comparative study of Vietnamese and Chinese government in the first half of the nineteenth century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5.
  16. ^ Boobbyer, Claire; Spooner, Andrew; O'Tailan, Jock (2008). Vietnam, Cambodia & Laos. Footprint Travel Guides. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-906098-09-4.
  17. ^ Stearns, Peter N.; Langer, William Leonard (2001). The Encyclopedia of world history: ancient, medieval, and modern, chronologically arranged. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 1036.
  18. ^ Ishizawa, Yoshiaki; Kōno, Yasushi; Rojpojchanarat, Vira; Daigaku, Jōchi; Kenkyūjo, Ajia Bunka (1988). Study on Sukhothai: research report. Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia University. p. 68.
  19. ^ "Vietnam Building Code Natural Physical & Climatic Data for Construction" (PDF) (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  20. ^ Nguyễn, Đắc Xuân (2009). 700 năm Thuận Hóa-Phú Xuân-Huế. Việt Nam: Nhà xuất bản Trẻ.
  21. ^ vi:Minh Mạng
  22. ^ Ellis, Claire (1996), "Ao Dai: The National Costume", Things Asian, archived from the original on 5 July 2008, retrieved 2 July 2008
  23. ^ Bửu, Ý (19 June 2004). "Xứ Huế Người Huế". Tuổi Trẻ. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
  24. ^ "Ao dai – Hue's piquancy". VietnamNet. 18 June 2004. Archived from the original on 4 February 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  25. ^ Ngoc, Huu; Borton, Lady (2006). Am Thuc Xu Hue: Hue Cuisine. Vietnam.
  26. ^ "Hue – A Panoramic View of the Ancient Capital – Asia Travel Blog". 30 November 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  27. ^ rpcpost. "Hue, Vietnam: Try The Food". gonomad.com – GoNOMAD Travel. Archived from the original on 3 July 2013.
  28. ^ https://plumvillage.org/news/thich-nhat-hanh-returns-to-vietnam/
  29. ^ Vietnam's eight World Heritage Sites. Tuoi Tre News. 22 July 2014.
  30. ^ Pham, Sherrise; Emmons, Ron; Eveland, Jennifer; Lin-Liu, Jen (2009). Frommer's south-east Asia. Frommer's. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-470-44721-5.
  31. ^ "Hue; Information & Statistics". Travel-Tourist-Information-Guide.com. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  32. ^ Advancing green growth in the tourism sector: The case of Hue, Vietnam Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Kyoko Kusakabe, Pujan Shrestha, S. Kumar and Khanh Linh Nguyen, the Asian Institute of Technology, Chiang Mai Municipality and the Hue Centre for International Cooperation, 2014
  33. ^ Advancing green growth in the tourism sector: The case of Hue, Vietnam Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Kyoko Kusakabe, Pujan Shrestha, S. Kumar and Khanh Linh Nguyen, the Climate and Development Knowledge Network, 2014
  34. ^ "OutLine of Hue Central Hospital". Japan International Cooperation Agency. Archived from the original on 17 June 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
  35. ^ "شهرهای بندر انزلی و هوء در ویتنام خواهر خوانده شدند". www.aftabir.com (in Persian). aftabir. 19 July 2004.
  36. ^ a b "Hue, Vietnam". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  37. ^ "Jumelages et coopérations" (in French). Retrieved 20 February 2017.

External links

Coordinates: 16°28′N 107°35′E / 16.467°N 107.583°E

Battle of Huế

The Battle of Huế – also called the Siege of Huế – was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War. Between 30 January and 3 March 1968, in the South Vietnamese city of Huế, 11 battalions of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), four U.S. Army battalions, and three U.S. Marine Corps battalions – totaling 18 battalions – defeated 10 battalions of the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong (VC).

By the beginning of the North Vietnamese Tet Offensive on January 30, 1968 – coinciding with the Vietnamese lunar New Year (Vietnamese: Tết Nguyên Đán) – large, conventional, U.S. forces had been committed to combat operations on Vietnamese soil for almost three years.

Highway 1, passing through the city of Huế, was an important supply line for ARVN, US, and Allied Forces from the coastal city of Da Nang to the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). It also provided access to the Perfume River (Vietnamese: Sông Hương or Hương Giang) at the point where the river ran through Huế, dividing the city into northern and southern parts. Huế was also a base for United States Navy supply boats.

Considering its logistical value and its proximity to the DMZ (only 50 kilometres (31 mi)), Huế should have been well-defended, fortified, and prepared for any communist attack. However, the city had few fortifications and was poorly defended.

While the ARVN 1st Division had cancelled all Tet leave and was attempting to recall its troops, the South Vietnamese and U.S. forces in the city were unprepared when the Viet Cong and the PAVN launched the Tet Offensive, attacking hundreds of military targets and population centers across the country, including Huế.The PAVN/Vietcong forces rapidly occupied most of the city. Over the next month, they were gradually driven out during intense house-to-house fighting led by the Marines and ARVN. In the end, although the Allies declared a military victory, the city of Huế was virtually destroyed, and more than 5,000 civilians were killed (2,800 of them executed by the PAVN and Viet Cong, according to the South Vietnamese government). The communist forces lost an estimated 2,400 to 8,000 killed, while Allied forces lost 668 dead and 3,707 wounded. The losses negatively affected the American public's perception of the war, and political support for the war began to wane.

Bánh bèo

A bánh bèo is a Vietnamese dish that comes from Hue, a city in Central Vietnam. The English translation for this dish is water fern cakes. Bánh bèo is made from a combination of rice flour and tapioca flour. It is popular street food in Vietnam. The ingredients include rice cake, dried shrimps, crispy pork skin, scallion oil, and dipping sauce. It is usually eaten as a snack but is now considered a dish in restaurants and can be eaten as lunch and dinner.

Bún bò Huế

Bún bò Huế (pronounced [ɓun˧˥ ɓɔ˧˩ hwe˧˥]) or bún bò is a popular Vietnamese soup containing rice vermicelli (bún) and beef (bò). Huế is a city in central Vietnam associated with the cooking style of the former royal court. The dish is greatly admired for its balance of spicy, sour, salty, and umami flavors. The predominant flavor is that of lemongrass. Compared to phở or bún riêu, the noodles are thicker and more cylindrical.

Hue–Da Nang Campaign

The Hue–Da Nang Campaign was a series of military actions conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) during the Vietnam War, also known in Vietnam as the American War. The campaign was centred on the cities of Huế (Thừa Thiên-Huế Province) and Da Nang (Quảng Nam Province), with secondary fronts in the provinces of Quảng Trị and Quảng Ngãi. The campaign began on March 5 and concluded on April 2, 1975.

During the spring season of 1975, the PAVN High Command in Hanoi made the decision to seize the major South Vietnamese cities of Huế and Da Nang, and also destroy the various South Vietnamese units in I Corps Tactical Zone, led by ARVN General Ngô Quang Trưởng. Originally, the campaign was planned to take place over two phases; during the seasons of spring-summer and autumn. However, as the North Vietnamese forces rolled over South Vietnamese defences on the outskirts of Huế and Da Nang, President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu ordered General Trưởng to abandon all territories under his control, and pull his forces back to the coastal areas of I Corps. The South Vietnamese withdrawal quickly turned into a rout, as the PAVN 2nd Army Corps picked off one South Vietnamese unit after another, until Huế and Da Nang were completely surrounded. By March 29, 1975, PAVN troops had full control of Huế and Da Nang, while South Vietnam lost all territories and most of the units belonging to I Corps.

The fall of Huế and Da Nang did not spell the end of the misery suffered by the ARVN. On March 31, ARVN General Phạm Văn Phú—commander of II Corps Tactical Zone—attempted to form a new defensive line from Qui Nhơn to cover the retreat of the ARVN 22nd Infantry Division, but they too were destroyed by the PAVN. By April 2, South Vietnam had lost control of the northern provinces, as well as two army corps.

Huế F.C.

Thừa Thiên-Huế Football Club (Vietnamese: Câu lạc bộ Bóng đá Thừa Thiên-Huế) is a Vietnamese football club from the city of Huế, currently play in the V.League 2.

Huế Phật Đản shootings

The Huế Phật Đản shootings were the deaths of nine unarmed Buddhist civilians on 8 May 1963 in the city of Huế, South Vietnam at the hands of the army and security forces of the Roman Catholic government of Ngô Đình Diệm. The army and police fired guns and launched grenades into a crowd of Buddhists who had been protesting against a government ban on flying the Buddhist flag on the day of Phật Đản, which commemorates the birth of Gautama Buddha. Diệm denied governmental responsibility for the incident and blamed the Việt Cộng, which added to discontent among the Buddhist majority.

The incident spurred a protest movement by Buddhists against the religious discrimination which they felt was perpetrated by the Diệm regime, known as the Buddhist crisis, and this led to widespread civil disobedience among the South Vietnamese. Generals from the Army of the Republic of Vietnam conducted a coup on 1 November 1963, after six months of tension and growing opposition to the regime; this led to the arrest and assassination of Ngô Đình Diệm on 2 November 1963.

Huế chemical attacks

The Huế chemical attacks occurred on 3 June 1963, when soldiers of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) poured liquid chemicals from tear gas grenades onto the heads of praying Buddhists in Huế, South Vietnam. The Buddhists were protesting against religious discrimination by the regime of the Roman Catholic President Ngô Đình Diệm. The attacks caused 67 people to be hospitalised for blistering of the skin and respiratory ailments.

The protests were part of the Buddhist crisis, during which the Buddhist majority in South Vietnam campaigned for religious equality after nine people were killed by government forces while defying a ban that prevented them from flying the Buddhist flag on Vesak. The incident prompted the United States to privately threaten to withdraw support for Diệm's government and when the Americans finally reduced aid a few months later, the army took it as a green light for a coup. An inquiry determined that the chemical used in the attack was a liquid component from old French tear gas grenades that had never functioned properly. The findings exonerated the ARVN soldiers from charges that they had used poison or mustard gas. The outcry over the attack had already forced Diệm to appoint a panel of three cabinet ministers to meet with Buddhist leaders for negotiations regarding religious equality. The talks led to the signing of the Joint Communique, but the policy changes it provided were not implemented and widespread protests continued, leading to the assassination of Diệm in a military coup.

Huế railway station

Huế railway station is a railway station in the city of Huế, Vietnam on the main North–South Railway. The street address is 2 Bui Thi Xuan Street, Huế, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, Vietnam.The station was built by the French colonial authorities during the French Indochina period. The station is influenced by French architecture and is today considered one of the most beautiful railway stations in Vietnam. Built by the French Public Works Department, it was considered a "rectangular horror" according to a source from 1913. During the Vietnam War in the Battle of Hue the station housed snipers but U.S. troops drove them out.

Hương Thủy

Hương Thủy is a County-level town (thị xã) of Thừa Thiên–Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2010 the town had a population of 93,680. The town covers an area of 458.1749 km².

This district has five urban wards, Phú Bài, Thủy Châu, Thủy Dương, Thủy Lương and Thủy Phương and seven communes, Thủy Vân, Thủy Phù, Phú Sơn, Dương Hòa, Thủy Bằng, Thủy Tân and Thủy Thanh.

The town borders Phú Lộc District to the east, Hương Trà District and A Lưới District to the west, Nam Đông District to the south, and the city of Huế and Phú Vang District to the north.

Hương Trà District

Hương Trà is a district-level town (thị xã) of Thua Thien-Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 114,985. The district covers an area of 521 km². The district capital lies at Tứ Hạ.The district is located on the northern outskirts of Huế, the major town in the district and the second largest town in central Vietnam after Da Nang.

The district consists of the 7 phường (ward): Tứ Hạ, Hương Văn, Hương Xuân, Hương Vân, Hương Chữ, Hương An, Hương Hồ and 9 xã (commune): Hương Toàn, Hương Vinh, Hương Phong, Hải Dương, Hương Thọ, Bình Thành, Bình Điền, Hương Bình, Hồng Tiến. Tứ Hạ is located on National Road 1A, the nation's main north-south artery, 16 km north of Huế.

The district lies between the Perfume River, which runs through the city centre, and the Bồ River to the north. The area has both mountainous terrain and plains.

Located in Nham Bieu hamlet, Huong Ho commune of the district is Huyen Khong Son Thuong Monastery where visitors can talk to experienced monks about the art of calligraphy, painting, photography and poetry.

I Corps (South Vietnam)

The I Corps Tactical Zone (Vietnamese: Vùng 1 Chiến thuật) was a corps of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), the army of the nation state of South Vietnam that existed from 1955 to 1975. It was one of four corps of the ARVN. This was the northernmost region of South Vietnam, bordering North Vietnam. These five provinces are Quảng Trị Province, (Khe Sanh, Đông Hà, Quảng Trị City), Thừa Thiên-Huế Province, (Phu Bai, Huế City), Quảng Nam Province, (Đà Nẵng, Hội An), Quảng Tín Province, (Tam Kỳ, Chu Lai) and Quảng Ngãi Province, (Quảng Ngãi). The region included the DMZ area where 3rd Marine Division intelligence estimated the combat strength of NVA and VC forces in January 1968 was 40,943 troops.I Corps became operational in November 1957.Among its formations and units were the 1st Division. The I CTZ, later Military Region 1, was partnered with the U.S. III Marine Expeditionary Force and the XXIV Corps.

Imperial City, Huế

The Imperial City (Vietnamese: Hoàng thành) is a walled enclosure within the citadel (Kinh thành) of the city of Huế, the former imperial capital of Vietnam.

List of Vietnamese dishes

This is a list of dishes found in Vietnamese cuisine.

Massacre at Huế

The Huế Massacre (Vietnamese: Thảm sát tại Huế Tết Mậu Thân, or Thảm sát Tết Mậu Thân ở Huế, lit. translation: "Tết Offensive Massacre in Huế") is the name given to the summary executions and mass killings perpetrated by the Việt Cộng (VC) and People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) during their capture, occupation and later withdrawal from the city of Huế during the Tết Offensive, considered one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.

The Battle of Huế began on January 31, 1968, and lasted a total of 26 days. During the months and years that followed, dozens of mass graves were discovered in and around Huế. Victims included women, men, children, and infants. The estimated death toll was between 2,800 and 6,000 civilians and prisoners of war, or 5–10% of the total population of Huế. The Republic of Vietnam released a list of 4,062 victims identified as having been either murdered or abducted. Victims were found bound, tortured, and sometimes buried alive. Many victims were also clubbed to death.A number of U.S. and South Vietnamese authorities as well a number of journalists who investigated the events took the discoveries, along with other evidence, as proof that a large-scale atrocity had been carried out in and around Huế during its four-week occupation. The killings were perceived as part of a large-scale purge of a whole social stratum, including anyone friendly to American forces in the region. The Massacre at Huế came under increasing press scrutiny later, when press reports alleged that South Vietnamese "revenge squads" had also been at work in the aftermath of the battle, searching out and executing citizens that had supported the communist occupation. In 2017, Ben Kiernan described the massacre as "possibly the largest atrocity of the war."

Ngô Đình Thục

Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục (Vietnamese pronunciation: [ŋo ɗîŋ̟ tʰùkp]) (6 October 1897 – 13 December 1984) was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Huế, Vietnam, and a member of the Ngô family who ruled South Vietnam in the years leading up to the Vietnam War. He was the founder of Dalat University.

While Thục was in Rome attending the second session of the Second Vatican Council, the 1963 South Vietnamese coup overthrew and assassinated his younger brother Ngo Dinh Diem, who was president of South Vietnam. Thục was unable to return to Vietnam and lived the rest of his life exiled in Italy, France, and the United States. During his exile, he was involved with Traditionalist Catholic movements and consecrated a number of bishops without the Vatican's approval for the Palmarian and Sedevacantist movements. As a result, he was excommunicated by the Holy See and later reconciled with the Vatican a number of times.

Nhã nhạc

Nhã nhạc (Vietnamese: [ɲǎːˀ ɲàːk], 雅樂, "elegant music") is a form of Vietnamese court music. Vietnamese court music is very diverse, but the term nhã nhạc refers specifically to the Vietnamese court music performed from the Trần dynasty of the 13th century to the Nguyễn dynasty at the end of the 20th century.

North Central Coast

Bắc Trung Bộ (literally North Central Region, and often translated as North Central Coast) is one of the regions of Vietnam. It consists of six provinces: Thanh Hóa, Nghệ An, Hà Tĩnh, Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị, Thừa Thiên–Huế. The last two provinces were the northernmost provinces of South Vietnam until 1975.

North Central Coast (Bắc Trung Bộ) - 6 provinces: Thanh Hóa, Nghệ An, Hà Tĩnh, Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị and Thừa Thiên–Huế. In the Nguyễn dynasty, this area (except Thừa Thiên) was known as Hữu Trực Kỳ (the area located in the left of Thừa Thiên).

Phong Điền District

Phong Điền is a rural district of Thừa Thiên–Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003, the district had a population of 105,017. The district covers an area of 954 km². The district capital lies at Phong Điền.It borders Quảng Trị Province and Hương Trà District. It has 15 communes, Điền Hương, Điền Môn, Phong Bình, Phong Chương, Điền Lộc, Phong Hoà, Điền Hoà, Phong Hải, Điền Hải, Phong Mỹ, Phong Thu, Phong Hiền, Phong An, Phong Xuân, Phong Sơn, and one township Phong Điền.

It has a varied geography with mountains, plains and coastline on the South China Sea.

The district was the homeland of Nguyễn Tri Phương, the general who commanded the Nguyễn Dynasty's army in the 1850s and 1860s when the French began their colonisation of Indochina, and Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, the anti-colonial poet.

The district was created by Emperor Minh Mạng in 1834 as part of the then province of Thuận Hóa.

On March 11, 1977, the district was merged with those of Hương Trà and Quảng Điền to become the district of Hương Điền in the province of Bình Trị Thiên (1976–89). On September 29, 1990, Hương Điền was redivided into the three original districts and put in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province.

Thừa Thiên-Huế Province

Thừa Thiên-Huế (listen) is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, approximately in the centre of the country. It borders Quảng Trị Province to the north and Đà Nẵng to the south, Laos to the west and the East Sea to the east. The province has 128 km of coastline, 22,000 ha of lagoons and over 200,000 ha of forest. There is an extensive complex of imperial tombs and temples in Huế.

Climate data for Huế
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.6
(92.5)
36.3
(97.3)
38.6
(101.5)
39.9
(103.8)
41.3
(106.3)
40.7
(105.3)
39.6
(103.3)
39.7
(103.5)
39.7
(103.5)
36.1
(97.0)
38.8
(101.8)
32.2
(90.0)
41.3
(106.3)
Average high °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
24.4
(75.9)
27.7
(81.9)
31.0
(87.8)
33.3
(91.9)
34.4
(93.9)
34.7
(94.5)
34.3
(93.7)
31.5
(88.7)
28.8
(83.8)
26.1
(79.0)
23.6
(74.5)
29.5
(85.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.0
(68.0)
20.7
(69.3)
23.1
(73.6)
26.1
(79.0)
28.2
(82.8)
29.3
(84.7)
29.5
(85.1)
29.0
(84.2)
27.2
(81.0)
25.3
(77.5)
23.1
(73.6)
20.7
(69.3)
25.2
(77.4)
Average low °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
18.2
(64.8)
20.3
(68.5)
22.8
(73.0)
24.4
(75.9)
25.3
(77.5)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
24.1
(75.4)
22.7
(72.9)
20.8
(69.4)
18.4
(65.1)
22.1
(71.8)
Record low °C (°F) 8.8
(47.8)
11.0
(51.8)
10.7
(51.3)
14.1
(57.4)
17.7
(63.9)
20.9
(69.6)
19.8
(67.6)
21.0
(69.8)
19.1
(66.4)
15.9
(60.6)
12.9
(55.2)
9.5
(49.1)
8.8
(47.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 126
(5.0)
65
(2.6)
43
(1.7)
58
(2.3)
102
(4.0)
113
(4.4)
92
(3.6)
117
(4.6)
394
(15.5)
757
(29.8)
621
(24.4)
311
(12.2)
2,798
(110.2)
Average precipitation days 14.4 11.9 10.3 10.7 13.0 10.3 8.2 11.0 16.6 20.8 21.5 19.7 168.2
Average relative humidity (%) 89.0 89.4 86.9 83.8 78.9 74.6 72.9 74.9 83.2 87.4 88.8 89.2 83.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114 110 147 177 234 231 247 218 173 136 100 85 1,970
Source: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology[19]

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