Hoxhaism

Hoxhaism is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the Maoist movement, appearing after the ideological dispute between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978.[1] The ideology is named after Enver Hoxha, a notable Albanian communist leader.

Hoxha Translated Works
Translated works by Albanian leader Enver Hoxha

Overview

Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë
Emblem of the Party of Labour of Albania highlighting Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin, on which Hoxhaism and its anti-revisionism is based

Hoxhaism demarcates itself by a strict defense of the legacy of Joseph Stalin, the organisation of the Soviet Union under Stalinism,[2] and fierce criticism of virtually all other communist groupings as "revisionist"—it defines currents such as Eurocommunism as anti-communist movements.

Critical of the United States, the Soviet Union, China and Yugoslavia, Enver Hoxha labeled the latter three "social imperialist" and condemned the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, before withdrawing Albania from the Warsaw Pact in response. Hoxhaism asserts the right of nations to pursue socialism by different paths, dictated by the conditions in that country,[3] although Hoxha personally held that Titoism was in practice "anti-Marxist" overall.[4]

The Albanians succeeded in ideologically winning over a large share of Maoists, mainly in Latin America (such as the Popular Liberation Army and the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Ecuador as well as the Revolutionary Communist Party of Brazil), but they also had a significant international following in general.

Following the fall of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in 1991, the Hoxhaist parties grouped themselves around an international conference founded in 1994 and the publication Unity and Struggle.

List of Hoxhaist parties

Active

Historical

See also

References

  1. ^ Communism for Know-It-Alls. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC. 2008. p. 23.
  2. ^ Pridham, Geoffrey (2000). The Dynamics of Democratization: A Comparative Approach. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 70.
  3. ^ "A Brief Guide to Hoxhaism". The Red Star Vanguard. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  4. ^ Hoxha, Enver. "Enver Hoxha: Eurocommunism is Anticommunism". Retrieved 23 May 2014.

External links

1940s
1950s
1960s
1970s
1980s
1990s
Frozen conflicts
Foreign policy
Ideologies
Organizations
Propaganda
Races
See also
Theory and practice
Aspects
Variants
Internationals
People
Related topics
Anthem

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.